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1.
Environmental Pollution ; : 119308, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1796874

ABSTRACT

Numerous epidemiological studies have shown a close relationship between outdoor air pollution and increased risks for cancer, infection, and cardiopulmonary diseases. However, very few studies have investigated the potential health effects of coexposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) and bioaerosols through the transmission of infectious agents, particularly under the current circumstances of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. In this study, we aimed to identify urinary metabolite biomarkers that might serve as clinically predictive or diagnostic standards for relevant diseases in a real-time manner. We performed an unbiased gas/liquid chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC/LC-MS) approach to detect urinary metabolites in 92 samples from young healthy individuals collected at three different time points after exposure to clean air, polluted ambient, or purified air, as well as two additional time points after air repollution or repurification. Subsequently, we compared the metabolomic profiles between the two time points using an integrated analysis, along with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes-enriched pathway and time-series analysis. We identified 33 and 155 differential metabolites (DMs) associated with PM and bioaerosol exposure using GC/LC–MS and follow-up analyses, respectively. Our findings suggest that 16-dehydroprogesterone and 4-hydroxyphenylethanol in urine samples may serve as potential biomarkers to predict or diagnose PM- or bioaerosol-related diseases, respectively. The results indicated apparent differences between PM- and bioaerosol-associated DMs at five different time points and revealed dynamic alterations in the urinary metabolic profiles of young healthy humans with cyclic exposure to clean and polluted air environments. Our findings will help in investigating the detrimental health effects of short-term coexposure to airborne PM and bioaerosols in a real-time manner and improve clinically predictive or diagnostic strategies for preventing air pollution-related diseases.

2.
Virologica Sinica ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1692813

ABSTRACT

Multiple new variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have constantly emerged, as the delta and omicron variants, which have developed resistance to currently gained neutralizing antibodies. This highlights a critical need to discover new therapeutic agents to overcome the variants mutations. Despite the availability of vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the use of broadly neutralizing antibodies has been considered as an alternative way for the prevention or treatment of SARS-CoV-2 variants infection. Here, we show that the nasal delivery of two previously characterized broadly neutralizing antibodies (F61 and H121) protected K18-hACE2 mice against lethal challenge with SARS-CoV-2 variants. The broadly protective efficacy of the F61 or F61/F121 cocktail antibodies was evaluated by lethal challenge with the wild strain (WIV04) and multiple variants, including beta (B.1.351), delta (B.1.617.2), and omicron (B.1.1.529) at 200 or 1000 TCID50, and the minimum antibody administration doses (5–1.25 mg/kg body weight) were also evaluated with delta and omicron challenge. Fully prophylactic protections were found in all challenged groups with both F61 and F61/H121 combination at the administration dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, and corresponding mice lung viral RNA showed negative, with almost all alveolar septa and cavities remaining normal. Furthermore, low-dose antibody treatment induced significant prophylactic protection against lethal challenge with delta and omicron variants, whereas the F61/H121 combination showed excellent results against omicron infection. Our findings indicated the potential use of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies as prophylactic and therapeutic agent for protection of current emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants infection.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315184

ABSTRACT

Background: Numerous epidemiological studies showed close relationships of outdoor air pollution with increased risk of cancer, infection, and cardiopulmonary diseases. However, a very limited number of studies investigate the potential biomarkers of the co-exposures of particle matters (PM) and bioaerosols, especially under current circumstances of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In the present study, we aimed to identify metabolic candidate biomarkers that are associated with co-exposure to PM and bioaerosols.Methods: We performed an unbiased gas/liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/LC-MS) approach to detect urinary metabolites of 92 samples from young healthy individuals collected at three different time points with exposure to clean, polluted ambient, and purified air , followed by a cycling test after air re-pollution and re-purification with two additional time points. Subsequently, we compared metabolomic profiles in between two-time points via an integrated analysis, plus KEGG enriched pathway and time series analysis.Findings: We identified 33 and 155 differential metabolites (DMs) associated with PM and bioaerosol exposure, respectively. The results from KEGG data and time series analysis indicated significantly enriched pathways and dynamic alterations of metabolomic profiles, respectively. 16-Dehydroprogesterone and 4-Hydroxyphenylethanol in urine might be used as biomarkers for diagnosis of PM- or bioaerosol-relevant diseases.Interpretation: The present studies revealed dynamic alterations in urinary metabolites of young healthy humans with the cycling of the clean and polluted air environment. Our findings help to investigate detrimental health effects of airborne PM and bioaerosols in a real-time manner and improve clinically diagnostic tools for PM- and bioaerosol-related diseases.Funding Information: This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [NSFC Grant no. 81673958, 82074262, and 81828010];CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences [CIFMS 2016-I2M-3-013];The Drug Innovation Major Project of China [2018ZX09711001-007-002].Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no conflicts of interest in this work.Ethics Approval Statement: Our study was approved by the Ethical Committee of Guang'anmen Hospital. All recruited subjects provided written informed consent.

4.
J Perinat Med ; 2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649095

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can affect umbilical vein blood flow (UVBF) and fetal cardiac function. METHODS: Prospective case-control study of consecutive pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2 infection during the second half of pregnancy matched with unaffected women. Measurements of UVBF normalized for fetal abdominal circumference (UVBF/AC), atrial area (AA) and ventricular sphericity indices (SI) were compared between the two study groups. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests were sued to analyze the data. RESULTS: Fifty-four consecutive pregnancies complicated and 108 not complicated by SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. The median gestational age at infection was 30.2 (interquartile range [IQR] 26.2 34.1). General baseline and pregnancy characteristics were similar between pregnant women with compared to those without SARS-CoV-2 infection. There was no difference in UVBF/AC (study groups z value -0.11 vs. 0.14 control p 0.751) values between pregnancies complicated compared to those not complicated by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Likewise, there was no difference in the left and right AA (left 1.30 vs. 1.28 p=0.221 and right 1.33 vs. 1.31 p=0.324) and SI (left 1.75 vs. 1.77 p=0.208 and right 1.51 vs. 1.54 p=0.121) between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection does not affect UVBF and fetal cardiac function in uncomplicated pregnancies.

5.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 730567, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505033

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: Xuanfei Baidu decoction (XFBD), a traditional Chinese medicine formulation, was designed and successfully applied for COVID-19 disease treatment in China, while the mechanism is still not clear. Methods: To evaluate the protective effect of XFBD on immunosuppression in cyclophosphamide (CY)-treated mice, XFBD was orally administrated, the body weight was measured, and the immune organ index was calculated. HE staining was performed to analyze the pathological structures of the liver, spleen, and thymus. The levels of cytokines and immunoglobulin in the serum and spleen were evaluated by ELISA and RT-PCR. Splenic lymphocytes were isolated, and LPS-stimulated cell proliferation and the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were evaluated. Results: XFBD significantly suppressed body weight loss and increased the indices of spleen and thymus. The pathological alteration was much improved after XFBD administration. The reductions of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IgG, and IgM levels in serum and IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6 expressions in the spleen were all significantly alleviated by XFBD. Splenic lymphocyte proliferation in response to LPS was further enhanced after treatment with XFBD. The reduction of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in CY-treated mice was also highly increased in XFBD groups. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that XFBD played a crucial role in protection against immunosuppression in CY-treated mice and could be a potential candidate for immune modification and therapy.

6.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487711

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been successfully applied worldwide in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, the pharmacological mechanisms underlying this success remain unclear. Hence, the aim of this review is to combine pharmacological assays based on the theory of TCM in order to elucidate the potential signaling pathways, targets, active compounds, and formulas of herbs that are involved in the TCM treatment of COVID-19, which exhibits combatting viral infections, immune regulation, and amelioration of lung injury and fibrosis. Extensive reports on target screening are elucidated using virtual prediction via docking analysis or network pharmacology based on existing data. The results of these reports indicate that an intricate regulatory mechanism is involved in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Therefore, more pharmacological research on the natural herbs used in TCM should be conducted in order to determine the association between TCM and COVID-19 and account for the observed therapeutic effects of TCM against COVID-19.

9.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 57, 2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328842

ABSTRACT

As the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to threaten public health worldwide, the development of effective interventions is urgently needed. Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) have great potential for the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, ten nAbs were isolated from two phage-display immune libraries constructed from the pooled PBMCs of eight COVID-19 convalescent patients. Eight of them, consisting of heavy chains encoded by the immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene-variable region (IGHV)3-66 or IGHV3-53 genes, recognized the same epitope on the receptor-binding domain (RBD), while the remaining two bound to different epitopes. Among the ten antibodies, 2B11 exhibited the highest affinity and neutralization potency against the original wild-type (WT) SARS-CoV-2 virus (KD = 4.76 nM for the S1 protein, IC50 = 6 ng/mL for pseudoviruses, and IC50 = 1 ng/mL for authentic viruses), and potent neutralizing ability against B.1.1.7 pseudoviruses. Furthermore, 1E10, targeting a distinct epitope on RBD, exhibited different neutralization efficiency against WT SARS-CoV-2 and its variants B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1. The crystal structure of the 2B11-RBD complexes revealed that the epitope of 2B11 highly overlaps with the ACE2-binding site. The in vivo experiment of 2B11 using AdV5-hACE2-transduced mice showed encouraging therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. Taken together, our results suggest that the highly potent SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibody, 2B11, could be used against the WT SARS-CoV-2 and B.1.1.7 variant, or in combination with a different epitope-targeted neutralizing antibody, such as 1E10, against SARS-CoV-2 variants.

10.
EClinicalMedicine ; 38: 101010, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated vaccine against COVID-19 in Chinese adults aged ≥18 years. METHODS: This is an ongoing randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2 clinical trial among healthy adults aged ≥18 years in Henan Province, China. Participants (n = 336 in 18-59 age group and n = 336 in ≥60 age group) were enrolled between April 12 and May 17 2020, and were equally randomized to receive vaccine or placebo (aluminum hydroxide adjuvant) in a three-dose schedule of 2·5, 5, or 10 µg on days 0, 28, and 56. Another 448 adults aged 18-59 years were equally allocated to four groups (a one-dose schedule of 10 µg, and two-dose schedules of 5 µg on days 0 and 14/21/28) and received vaccine or placebo (ratio 3:1 within each group). The primary outcomes were 7-day post-injection adverse reactions and neutralizing antibody titres on days 28 and 90 after the whole-course vaccination. Trial registration: www.chictr.org.cn #ChiCTR2000031809. FINDINGS: The 7-day adverse reactions occurred in 4·8% to 32·1% of the participants in various groups, and most adverse reactions were mild, transient, and self-limiting. Twenty participants reported 68 serious adverse events which were judged to be unrelated to the vaccine. The 90-day post-injection geometric mean titres of neutralizing antibody ranged between 87 (95% CI: 61-125) and 129 (99-169) for three-dose schedule among younger and older adults; 20 (14-27), 53 (38-75), and 44 (32-61) in 5 µg days 0 and 14/21/28 groups, respectively, and 7 (6-9) in one-dose 10 µg group. There were no detectable antibody responses in all placebo groups. INTERPRETATION: The inactivated vaccine against COVID-19 was well tolerated and immunogenic in both younger and older adults. The two-dose schedule of 5 µg on days 0 and 21/28 and three-dose schedules on days 0, 28, and 56 could be further evaluated for long-term safety and efficacy in the phase 3 trials.

11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4144, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298839

ABSTRACT

To investigate the duration of humoral immune response in convalescent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, we conduct a 12-month longitudinal study through collecting a total of 1,782 plasma samples from 869 convalescent plasma donors in Wuhan, China and test specific antibody responses. The results show that positive rate of IgG antibody against receptor-binding domain of spike protein (RBD-IgG) to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors exceeded 70% for 12 months post diagnosis. The level of RBD-IgG decreases with time, with the titer stabilizing at 64.3% of the initial level by the 9th month. Moreover, male plasma donors produce more RBD-IgG than female, and age of the patients positively correlates with the RBD-IgG titer. A strong positive correlation between RBD-IgG and neutralizing antibody titers is also identified. These results facilitate our understanding of SARS-CoV-2-induced immune memory to promote vaccine and therapy development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Receptors, Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Animals , Blood Donors , COVID-19/therapy , Cell Line , China , Chlorocebus aethiops , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunization, Passive , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Sex Factors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells
12.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224275

ABSTRACT

Several COVID-19 vaccines have been on the market since early 2021 and may vary in their effectiveness and safety. This study characterizes hesitancy about accepting COVID-19 vaccines among parents in Shanghai, China, and identifies how sensitive they are to changes in vaccine safety and effectiveness profiles. Schools in each township of Minhang District, Shanghai, were sampled, and parents in the WeChat group of each school were asked to participate in this cross-sectional Internet-based survey. Parents responded to questions about hesitancy and were given information about five different COVID-19 vaccine candidates, the effectiveness of which varied between 50 and 95% and which had a risk of fever as a side effect between 5 and 20%. Overall, 3673 parents responded to the survey. Almost 90% would accept a vaccine for themselves (89.7%), for their child (87.5%) or for an elderly parent (88.5%) with the most ideal attributes (95% effectiveness with 5% risk of fever). But with the least ideal attributes (50% effectiveness and a 20% risk of fever) these numbers dropped to 33.5%, 31.3%, and 31.8%, respectively. Vaccine hesitancy, age at first child's birth, and relative income were all significantly related to sensitivity to vaccine safety and effectiveness. Parents showed a substantial shift in attitudes towards a vaccine based on its safety and effectiveness profile. These findings indicate that COVID-19 vaccine acceptance may be heavily influenced by how effective the vaccine actually is and could be impeded or enhanced based on vaccines already on the market.

13.
Virol Sin ; 36(5): 879-889, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174014

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused more than 96 million infections and over 2 million deaths worldwide so far. However, there is no approved vaccine available for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the disease causative agent. Vaccine is the most effective approach to eradicate a pathogen. The tests of safety and efficacy in animals are pivotal for developing a vaccine and before the vaccine is applied to human populations. Here we evaluated the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an inactivated vaccine based on the whole viral particles in human ACE2 transgenic mouse and in non-human primates. Our data showed that the inactivated vaccine successfully induced SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice and non-human primates, and subsequently provided partial (in low dose) or full (in high dose) protection of challenge in the tested animals. In addition, passive serum transferred from vaccine-immunized mice could also provide full protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice. These results warranted positive outcomes in future clinical trials in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Primates , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology
14.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5358

ABSTRACT

The new corona virus (Corona Virus Disease 2019, COVID-19) can enter host cells through angiotensin-converting-enzyme II (ACE2) cell receptors, and previous studies have shown that ACE2 mRNA is normally expressed in digested system cells. The expression of ACE2 protein in normal digestive system, the expression of ACE2 mRNA and its protein in digestive system tumors have not been reported. This article aims to explore the expression of ACE2 in digestive tract and its tumors in order to provide a reference for the prevention and treatment of patients with digestive system tumors. Our results indicate that expression of ACE2 is relatively higher in human digestive system. This result provides some evidence for the transmission of digestivesystem, which may be the infection route of COVID-19. The expression of ACE2 in patients with gastrointestinaltumors is higher than their normal tissues. In order to prevent this possible infection route of the digestive system, the protection of patients with gastrointestinal cancer should be paid great attention.

15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2653-2662, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977352

ABSTRACT

In the face of COVID-19 pandemic caused by the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2, an inactivated, Vero cell-based, whole virion vaccine candidate has been developed and entered into phase III clinical trials within six months. Biochemical and immunogenic characterization of structural proteins and their post-translational modifications in virions, the end-products of the vaccine candidate, would be essential for the quality control and process development of vaccine products and for studying the immunogenicity and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. By using a panel of rabbit antisera against virions and five structural proteins together with a convalescent serum, the spike (S) glycoprotein was shown to be N-linked glycosylated, PNGase F-sensitive, endoglycosidase H-resistant and cleaved by Furin-like proteases into S1 and S2 subunits. The full-length S and S1/S2 subunits could form homodimers/trimers. The membrane (M) protein was partially N-linked glycosylated; the accessory protein 3a existed in three different forms, indicative of cleavage and dimerization. Furthermore, analysis of the antigenicity of these proteins and their post-translationally modified forms demonstrated that S protein induced the strongest antibody response in both convalescent and immunized animal sera. Interestingly, immunization with the inactivated vaccine did not elicit antibody response against the S2 subunit, whereas strong antibody response against both S1 and S2 subunits was detected in the convalescent serum. Moreover, vaccination stimulated stronger antibody response against S multimers than did the natural infection. This study revealed that the native S glycoprotein stimulated neutralizing antibodies, while bacterially-expressed S fragments did not. The study on S modifications would facilitate design of S-based anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Structural Proteins , Virion , Animals , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cattle , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/chemistry , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Structural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Structural Proteins/immunology , Viral Structural Proteins/isolation & purification , Virion/chemistry , Virion/immunology , Virion/isolation & purification
16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2606-2618, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944152

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is causing huge impact on health, life, and global economy, which is characterized by rapid spreading of SARS-CoV-2, high number of confirmed cases and a fatality/case rate worldwide reported by WHO. The most effective intervention measure will be to develop safe and effective vaccines to protect the population from the disease and limit the spread of the virus. An inactivated, whole virus vaccine candidate of SARS-CoV-2 has been developed by Wuhan Institute of Biological Products and Wuhan Institute of Virology. The low toxicity, immunogenicity, and immune persistence were investigated in preclinical studies using seven different species of animals. The results showed that the vaccine candidate was well tolerated and stimulated high levels of specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies. Low or no toxicity in three species of animals was also demonstrated in preclinical study of the vaccine candidate. Biochemical analysis of structural proteins and purity analysis were performed. The inactivated, whole virion vaccine was characterized with safe double-inactivation, no use of DNases and high purity. Dosages, boosting times, adjuvants, and immunization schedules were shown to be important for stimulating a strong humoral immune response in animals tested. Preliminary observation in ongoing phase I and II clinical trials of the vaccine candidate in Wuzhi County, Henan Province, showed that the vaccine is well tolerant. The results were characterized by very low proportion and low degree of side effects, high levels of neutralizing antibodies, and seroconversion. These results consistent with the results obtained from preclinical data on the safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Immunity, Humoral , Male , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology
17.
JAMA ; 324(10): 951-960, 2020 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-911581

ABSTRACT

Importance: A vaccine against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is urgently needed. Objective: To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an investigational inactivated whole-virus COVID-19 vaccine in China. Interventions: In the phase 1 trial, 96 participants were assigned to 1 of the 3 dose groups (2.5, 5, and 10 µg/dose) and an aluminum hydroxide (alum) adjuvant-only group (n = 24 in each group), and received 3 intramuscular injections at days 0, 28, and 56. In the phase 2 trial, 224 adults were randomized to 5 µg/dose in 2 schedule groups (injections on days 0 and 14 [n = 84] vs alum only [n = 28], and days 0 and 21 [n = 84] vs alum only [n = 28]). Design, Setting, and Participants: Interim analysis of ongoing randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 and 2 clinical trials to assess an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. The trials were conducted in Henan Province, China, among 96 (phase 1) and 224 (phase 2) healthy adults aged between 18 and 59 years. Study enrollment began on April 12, 2020. The interim analysis was conducted on June 16, 2020, and updated on July 27, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary safety outcome was the combined adverse reactions 7 days after each injection, and the primary immunogenicity outcome was neutralizing antibody response 14 days after the whole-course vaccination, which was measured by a 50% plaque reduction neutralization test against live severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Results: Among 320 patients who were randomized (mean age, 42.8 years; 200 women [62.5%]), all completed the trial up to 28 days after the whole-course vaccination. The 7-day adverse reactions occurred in 3 (12.5%), 5 (20.8%), 4 (16.7%), and 6 (25.0%) patients in the alum only, low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose groups, respectively, in the phase 1 trial; and in 5 (6.0%) and 4 (14.3%) patients who received injections on days 0 and 14 for vaccine and alum only, and 16 (19.0%) and 5 (17.9%) patients who received injections on days 0 and 21 for vaccine and alum only, respectively, in the phase 2 trial. The most common adverse reaction was injection site pain, followed by fever, which were mild and self-limiting; no serious adverse reactions were noted. The geometric mean titers of neutralizing antibodies in the low-, medium-, and high-dose groups at day 14 after 3 injections were 316 (95% CI, 218-457), 206 (95% CI, 123-343), and 297 (95% CI, 208-424), respectively, in the phase 1 trial, and were 121 (95% CI, 95-154) and 247 (95% CI, 176-345) at day 14 after 2 injections in participants receiving vaccine on days 0 and 14 and on days 0 and 21, respectively, in the phase 2 trial. There were no detectable antibody responses in all alum-only groups. Conclusions and Relevance: In this interim report of the phase 1 and phase 2 trials of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine, patients had a low rate of adverse reactions and demonstrated immunogenicity; the study is ongoing. Efficacy and longer-term adverse event assessment will require phase 3 trials. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry Identifier: ChiCTR2000031809.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aluminum Hydroxide/administration & dosage , Aluminum Hydroxide/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Propiolactone , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , Young Adult
18.
CAplus; 2020.
Preprint | CAplus | ID: ppcovidwho-2015

ABSTRACT

A review. The article listed some epidemiol. key concepts involved in the outbreak of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) as well as some examples of epidemiol. terminol. understanding deviation in reports, news conferences and interviews from the authorities and social media in the period from 21st Jan. 2020 to 14th Feb.We corrected the errors in the examples and illustrated the concept of terminologies. The basic epidemiol. concepts and the importance of public health should be introduced to the public by the health authorities.

19.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-545

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading across the globe. Previous studies suggest clinical characteristics of COVID-19, however, few large

20.
Acad. J. Second Mil. Med. Univ. ; 5(41): 493-497, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-738549

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the rule of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome differentiation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Methods The symptoms of 756 cases with COVID-19 in Guanggu Branch of Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital of Hubei Province were collected by cross sectional survey. The incidence rates of the symptoms were recorded by frequency method at different courses of the disease: prodromal stage (onset), middle stage (7-30 days), and later stage (>30 days). The common symptoms (incidence rate>5.0%) were analyzed by systematic clustering. With expert experience, the rule of TCM syndrome differentiation of COVID-19 patients was summarized. Results Fever (52.25%, 395 cases), cough (43.25%, 327 cases), asthenia (27.25%, 206 cases), chest distress (26.72%, 202 cases), asthma (17.59%, 133 cases) and expectoration (5.03%, 38 cases) were the most common symptoms in the prodromal stage (756 cases) of the disease, which were clustered into one category except expectoration, indicating the pathogenesis of both lung and body surface suppressed by dampness. In the middle stage (383 cases), the 19 common symptoms including greasy fur (64.49%, 247 cases), yellow fur (43.86%, 168 cases), thick fur (40.21%, 154 cases), cough (34.73%, 133 cases), red tongue (32.38%, 124 cases), poor stool (25.85%, 99 cases), asthma (25.33%, 97 cases), asthenia (25.07%, 96 cases), poor appetite (23.76%, 91 cases), bitterness of mouth (14.36%, 55 cases), dry fur (12.01%, 46 cases), purple tongue (12.01%, 46 cases), perspiration (11.49%, 44 cases), constipation (10.18%, 39 cases), white phlegm (8.62%, 33 cases), insomnia (7.31%, 28 cases), nausea (7.05%, 27 cases), diarrhea (6.79%, 26 cases) and yellow phlegm (6.27%, 24 cases), were clustered into three groups, indicating the pathogenesis of damp-heat accumulation, obstruction of lung and spleen by dampness, and dryness due to dampness-heat. In the later stage (373 cases), the 13 common symptoms including greasy fur (50.94%, 190 cases), asthenia (39.41%, 147 cases), cough (37.80%, 141 cases), red tongue (33.78%, 126 cases), asthma (32.17%, 120 cases), perspiration (23.86%, 89 cases), dry mouth (22.79%, 85 cases), poor appetite (20.11%, 75 cases), poor stool (19.30%, 72 cases), bitterness of mouth (15.01%, 56 cases), white phlegm (10.72%, 40 cases), palpitation (8.31%, 31 cases) and little fur (8.04%, 30 cases), were clustered into two groups, indicating the pathogenesis of deficiency of Qi and Yin with residual dampness, and deficiency of lung Qi and spleen Qi with residual dampness. Conclusion The TCM syndromes of COVID-19 patients in different stages have its own typical characteristics, with a regular change from exterior to interior, from dampness to dampness-heat and from excess to deficiency..

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