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1.
Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research ; : 10963480221092704, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1820082

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, many restaurants faced a shift from a dine-in based service model to a takeout-based model. As a result of the qualitative differences between dine-in and take-out experiences, there was a corresponding change in customers? electronic word of mouth (EWOM) behavior. While pre-pandemic EWOM behavior relied on dine-in specific factors such as décor, lighting, and employee interactions, take-out dining relies less on these types of atmospheric elements to drive post-consumption evaluations. Accordingly, the purpose of this research was to explore the drivers of take-out dining EWOM by examining the effects of altruism, self-enhancement, and restaurant affiliation. Using the psychological framework of Underdog Theory, the results showed that both self-enhancement and altruistic motives result in positive EWOM, but that this relationship was moderated in important ways based on whether the restaurant was independently owned or part of a chain.

2.
China CDC Weekly ; 4:1-4, 2022.
Article in English | China CDC Weekly | ID: covidwho-1812176

ABSTRACT

< -type="Summary"> <sec> What is already known about this topic? An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) of Omicron BA.2 emerged in Jilin City since March 3, 2022, which involved in 27,036 cases by April 12. The vaccination program with inactivated COVID-19 vaccines has been implemented since the beginning of 2021.</sec><sec> What is added by this report? The incidences of moderate, severe, and critical cases in the whole population of the group of 0+1 dose were 1.82-, 9.49-, and 3.85-fold higher than those in the group of 2 doses, and 5.03-, 44.47-, and ∞-fold higher than those received 3 doses vaccination. For the population ≥60 years, the incidences of moderate, severe, and critical cases in the group of 0+1 dose were 29.92, 9.62, and 4.27 per 100,000, showing 4.13-, 43.72-, and 4.85-fold higher than 2 doses, as well as 13.28-, 22.37-, and ∞-fold higher than 3 doses.</sec><sec> What are the implications for public health practice? The incidences of each type of COVID-19 in the population who were fully vaccinated or booster vaccinated in Jilin City was significantly lower than those who were unvaccinated and/or partially vaccinated. Booster vaccination with homologous inactivated vaccines induces stronger protectiveness for COVID-19 caused by VOC Omicron.</sec>

3.
Cell ; 185(8): 1389-1401.e18, 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788017

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and therapeutic antibodies have been limited by the continuous emergence of viral variants and by the restricted diffusion of antibodies from circulation into the sites of respiratory virus infection. Here, we report the identification of two highly conserved regions on the Omicron variant receptor-binding domain recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, we generated a bispecific single-domain antibody that was able to simultaneously and synergistically bind these two regions on a single Omicron variant receptor-binding domain as revealed by cryo-EM structures. We demonstrated that this bispecific antibody can be effectively delivered to lung via inhalation administration and exhibits exquisite neutralization breadth and therapeutic efficacy in mouse models of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Importantly, this study also deciphered an uncommon and highly conserved cryptic epitope within the spike trimeric interface that may have implications for the design of broadly protective SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and therapeutics.

4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1366: 101-121, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782743

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped RNA viruses that widely exist in the environment. Several CoVs possess a strong ability to infect humans, termed as human coronavirus (HCoVs). Among seven known HCoVs, SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV belong to highly pathogenic HCoVs, which can cause severe clinical symptoms and even death. Especially, the current COVID-19 pandemic severely threatens human survival and health, which emphasizes the importance of developing effective CoV vaccines and anti-CoV agents to protect humans from HCoV infections. Coronavirus entry inhibitors can block various processes in viral entry, such as receptor binding, proteolytic activation of spike protein, or virus-cell membrane fusion. Coronavirus entry inhibitors, alone or in combination with other drugs, play important roles in the treatment of coronavirus diseases. Thus, we summarize and discuss the development of coronavirus entry inhibitors in this chapter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization
5.
EBioMedicine ; 79: 103986, 2022 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778094

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant evades immunity from past infection or vaccination and is associated with a greater risk of reinfection among recovered COVID-19 patients. We assessed the serum neutralizing antibody (NAb) activity against Omicron variant (Omicron NAb) among recovered COVID-19 patients with or without vaccination. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study with 135 recovered COVID-19 patients, we determined the serum NAb titers against ancestral virus or variants using a live virus NAb assay. We used the receiver operating characteristic analysis to determine the optimal cutoff for a commercially-available surrogate NAb assay. FINDINGS: Among recovered COVID-19 patients, the serum live virus geometric mean Omicron NAb titer was statistically significantly higher among BNT162b2 recipients compared to non-vaccinated individuals (85.4 vs 5.6,P < 0.0001). The Omicron seropositive rates in live virus NAb test (NAb titer ≥10) were statistically significantly higher among BNT162b2 (90.6% [29/32];P < 0.0001) or CoronaVac (36.7% [11/30]; P = 0.0115) recipients when compared with non-vaccinated individuals (12.3% [9/73]). Subgroup analysis of CoronaVac recipients showed that the Omicron seropositive rates were higher among individuals with two doses than those with one dose (85.7% vs 21.7%; P = 0.0045). For the surrogate NAb assay, a cutoff of 109.1 AU/ml, which is 7.3-fold higher than the manufacturer's recommended cutoff, could achieve a sensitivity and specificity of 89.5% and 89.8%, respectively, in detecting Omicron NAb. INTERPRETATION: Among individuals with prior COVID-19, one dose of BNT162b2 or two doses of CoronaVac could induce detectable serum Omicron NAb. Our result would be particularly important for guiding vaccine policies in countries with COVID-19 vaccine shortage. FUNDING: Health and Medical Research Fund, Richard and Carol Yu, Michael Tong (see acknowledgments for full list).

6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332139

ABSTRACT

Monitoring population protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 variants is critical for risk assessment. In this serosurveillance study, older adults show much lower seropositive rates of neutralizing antibody (NAb) against ancestral virus than the younger population. The increase in NAb seopositive rate generally follows the population vaccination uptake rate, but older adults have a much lower NAb seropositive rate than vaccination uptake rate. For all age groups, the seropositive rates of NAb against Omicron variant are much lower than those against the ancestral virus. During the fifth wave of COVID-19 in Hong Kong which is dominated by Omicron sublineage BA.2, the case-fatality rate is exceptionally high in the ≥80 year-old age group (9.2%). Our study suggests that the severe BA.2 outbreak in Hong Kong can be attributed by the lack of protective immunity in the population, especially among the vulnerable older adults, and highlights the importance of continual surveillance of protective immunity against emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2.

7.
Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja ; : 1-24, 2022.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1764285
8.
Viruses ; 14(4):655, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1753696

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by infection of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants has posed serious threats to global public health, thus calling for the development of potent and broad-spectrum antivirals. We previously designed and developed a peptide-based pan-coronavirus (CoV) fusion inhibitor, EK1, which is effective against all human CoVs (HCoV) tested by targeting the HCoV S protein HR1 domain. However, its relatively short half-life may limit its clinical use. Therefore, we designed, constructed, and expressed a recombinant protein, FL-EK1, which consists of a modified fibronectin type III domain (FN3) with albumin-binding capacity, a flexible linker, and EK1. As with EK1, we found that FL-EK1 could also effectively inhibit infection of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants, as well as HCoV-OC43. Furthermore, it protected mice from infection by the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant and HCoV-OC43. Importantly, the half-life of FL-EK1 (30 h) is about 15.7-fold longer than that of EK1 (1.8 h). These results suggest that FL-EK1 is a promising candidate for the development of a pan-CoV fusion inhibitor-based long-acting antiviral drug for preventing and treating infection by current and future SARS-CoV-2 variants, as well as other HCoVs.

9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753497

ABSTRACT

Long COVID is a condition distinguished by long-term sequelae that occur or persist after the convalescence period of COVID-19. During the COVID-19 pandemic, more and more people who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 experienced long COVID, which attracted the attention of researchers. This study aims to assess the pattern of long COVID research literature, analyze the research topics, and provide insights on long COVID. In this study, we extracted 784 publications from Scopus in the field of long COVID. According to bibliometric analysis, it is found that: developed countries in Europe and America were in leading positions in terms of paper productivity and citations. The International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health and the Journal of Clinical Medicine were leading journals in the perspective of publications count, and Nature Medicine had the highest number of citations. Author Greenhalgh T has the highest number of papers and citations. The main research topics were: pathophysiology, symptoms, treatment, and epidemiology. The causes of long COVID may be related to organ injury, inflammation, maladaptation of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) pathway, and mental factors. The symptoms are varied, including physical and psychological symptoms. Treatment options vary from person to person. Most patients developed at least one long-term symptom. Finally, we presented some possible research opportunities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bibliometrics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742726

ABSTRACT

The prolonged duration of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has resulted in the continuous emergence of variants of concern (VOC, e.g., Omicron) and variants of interest (VOI, e.g., Lambda). These variants have challenged the protective efficacy of current COVID-19 vaccines, thus calling for the development of novel therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 and its VOCs. Here, we constructed a novel fusion inhibitor-based recombinant protein, denoted as 5-Helix, consisting of three heptad repeat 1 (HR1) and two heptad repeat 2 (HR2) fragments. The 5-Helix interacted with the HR2 domain of the viral S2 subunit, the most conserved region in spike (S) protein, to block homologous six-helix bundle (6-HB) formation between viral HR1 and HR2 domains and, hence, viral S-mediated cell-cell fusion. The 5-Helix potently inhibited infection by pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 and its VOCs, including Delta and Omicron variants. The 5-Helix also inhibited infection by authentic SARS-CoV-2 wild-type (nCoV-SH01) strain and its Delta variant. Collectively, our findings suggest that 5-Helix can be further developed as either a therapeutic or prophylactic to treat and prevent infection by SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Envelope Proteins , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
11.
mSphere ; : e0091521, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741581

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection is a global health issue, and vaccination is the main strategy to control this pandemic. In this study, 189 participants received BNT162b2 or CoronaVac vaccine, and 133 of them recorded adverse events (AEs) daily for 4 weeks after vaccination. Their neutralizing antibody against SARS-CoV-2 was determined with live virus microneutralization (vMN) assay. The vMN geometric mean titer (GMT) on day 56 was 129.9 (95% confidence interval [CI],108.6 to 155.2) in the BNT162b2 group and 13.1 (95% CI, 11.2 to 15.3) in the CoronaVac group. Day 56 vMN GMT was 147.9 (95% CI, 118.9 to 184.1) in females and 129.9 (95% CI, 108.6 to 155.2) in males receiving BNT162b2, while it was 14.0 (95% CI, 11.6 to 17.0) in females and 11.4 (95% CI, 8.7 to 15.0) in males receiving CoronaVac. Injection site pain (88.8%) and redness (77.5%) were the most commonly BNT162b2-related AEs, and injection site pain (37.7%) and tiredness (26.4%) were more frequent in the CoronaVac group. Women showed a higher frequency of headache (45.7% versus 29.4%) and joint pain (26.1 versus 14.7%) than men in BTN162b2 group. Headache (26.5% versus 0%) and tiredness (38.2% versus 5.3%) were more common in women than in men vaccinated with CoronaVac. No correlation between any AE and antibody response was observed in BNT162b2 or CoronaVac platforms. After taking the gender factor into account, in the BNT162b2 group, a low correlation between day 21 vMN titer and redness (rho = 0.34) or itching (rho = 0.32) was presented in females, and a low correlation between day 56 vMN titer and fever (rho = 0.35) was presented in males. Taken together, AEs could have a low correlation with BNT162b2 vaccine response. IMPORTANCE Effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are vital tools for containing the COVID-19 pandemic by increasing population immunity. While currently available vaccines can elicit antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 with high efficacy, the associated side effects may cause vaccine hesitancy. Our work is important in that we have thoroughly analyzed the correlation between immunogenicity and reactogenicity of two COVID-19 vaccines (BNT162b2 and CoronaVac) in the study. Our results showed that women had higher levels of neutralizing antibodies than men after receiving BNT162b2 or CoronaVac. Furthermore, a low correlation was observed between day 21 vMN titer and local reactions (redness and itching) in females, as well as between day 56 vMN titer and fever in males receiving BNT162b2. Thus, common side effects are not always a negative impact of vaccination but may serve as an indicator of immunogenicity of vaccines. Our study may help in increasing the public's acceptance and confidence over COVID-19 vaccination and ultimately achieving the goal of containing COVID-19 pandemic.

12.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732247

ABSTRACT

Our previous studies have shown that cholesterol-conjugated, peptide-based pan-coronavirus (CoV) fusion inhibitors can potently inhibit human CoV infection. However, only palmitic acid (C16)-based lipopeptide drugs have been tested clinically, suggesting that the development of C16-based lipopeptide drugs is feasible. Here, we designed and synthesized a C16-modified pan-CoV fusion inhibitor, EK1-C16, and found that it potently inhibited infection by SARS-CoV-2 and its variants of concern (VOCs), including Omicron, and other human CoVs and bat SARS-related CoVs (SARSr-CoVs). These results suggest that EK1-C16 could be further developed for clinical use to prevent and treat infection by the currently circulating MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 and its VOCs, as well as any future emerging or re-emerging coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Lipopeptides/pharmacology , Palmitic Acid/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715781

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become more serious because of the continuous emergence of variants of concern (VOC), thus calling for the development of broad-spectrum vaccines with greater efficacy. Adjuvants play important roles in enhancing the immunogenicity of protein-based subunit vaccines. In this study, we compared the effect of three adjuvants, including aluminum, nanoparticle manganese and MF59, on the immunogenicity of three protein-based COVID-19 vaccine candidates, including RBD-Fc, RBD and S-trimer. We found that the nanoparticle manganese adjuvant elicited the highest titers of SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a, as well as neutralizing antibodies against infection by pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 and its Delta variant. What is more, the nanoparticle manganese adjuvant effectively reduced the viral load of the authentic SARS-CoV-2 and Delta variant in the cell culture supernatants. These results suggest that nanoparticle manganese, known to facilitate cGAS-STING activation, is an optimal adjuvant for protein-based COVID-19 subunit vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Subunit
15.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715777

ABSTRACT

In recent years, infectious diseases caused by viral infections have seriously endangered human health, especially COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, which continues to spread worldwide. The development of broad-spectrum antiviral inhibitors is urgently needed. Here, we report a series of small-molecule compounds that proved effective against human coronaviruses (HCoV), such as SARS-CoV-2 and its variants of concern (VOCs), including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529), SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, HCoV-OC43, and other viruses with class I viral fusion proteins, such as influenza virus, Ebola virus (EBOV), Nipah virus (NiV), and Lassa fever virus (LASV). They are also effective against class II enveloped viruses represented by ZIKV and class III enveloped viruses represented by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Further studies have shown that these compounds may exert antiviral effects through a variety of mechanisms, including inhibiting the formation of the six-helix bundle, which is a typical feature of enveloped virus fusion with cell membranes, and/or targeting viral membrane to inactivate cell-free virions. These compounds are expected to become drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2 and other enveloped viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rhodanine , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several SARS-CoV-2 lineages with mutations at the spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) have reduced susceptibility to antibody neutralization, and have been classified as Variants of Concern (VOCs) or Variants of Interest (VOIs). Here, we systematically compared the neutralization susceptibility and RBD binding of different VOCs/VOIs, including B.1.617.1 (kappa variant) and P.3 (theta variant) which were first detected in India and the Philippines, respectively. METHODS: The neutralization susceptibility of the VOCs/VOIs (B.1.351, B.1.617.1 and P.3) and a non-VOC/VOI without RBD mutations (B.1.36.27) to convalescent sera from COVID-19 patients or BNT162b2 vaccinees was determined using a live virus microneutralization (MN) assay. Serum IgG binding to wild type and mutant RBDs were determined using an enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS: The geometric mean neutralization titers (GMT) of B.1.351, P.3, and B.1.617.1 were significantly lower than that of B.1.36.27 for COVID-19 patients infected with non-VOCs/VOIs (3.4-5.7-fold lower) or individuals who have received 2 doses of BNT162b2 vaccine (4.4-7.3-fold lower). The GMT of B.1.351 or P.3 were lower than that of B.1.671.1. For the 4 patients infected with B.1.351 or B.1.617.1, the MN titer was highest for their respective lineage. RBD with E484K or E484Q mutation, either alone or in combination with other mutations, showed greatest reduction in serum IgG binding. CONCLUSION: P.3 and B.1.617.1 escape serum neutralization induced by natural infection or vaccine. Infection with one variant do not confer cross protection for heterologous lineages. Immunogenicity testing for second generation COVID-19 vaccines should include multiple variant and "non-variant" strains.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315723

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has posed serious threats to global health and economy, thus calling for the development of safe and effective vaccines. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for its binding to ACE2 receptor. It contains multiple dominant neutralizing epitopes and serves as an important antigen for the development of COVID-19 vaccines. Here, we showed that immunization of mice with a candidate subunit vaccine consisting of SARS-CoV-2 RBD and Fc fragment of human IgG, as an immunopotentiator, elicited high titer of RBD-specific antibodies with robust neutralizing activity against both pseudotyped and live SARS-CoV-2 infections. The mouse antisera could also effectively neutralize infection by pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 with several natural mutations in RBD and the IgG extracted from the mouse antisera could also show neutralization against pseudotyped SARS-CoV and SARS-related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV). Vaccination of human ACE2 transgenic mice with RBD-Fc could effectively protect mice from the SARS-CoV-2 challenge. These results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 RBD-Fc has good potential to be further developed as an effective and broad-spectrum vaccine to prevent infection of the current SARS-CoV-2 and its mutants, as well as future emerging SARSr-CoVs and re-emerging SARS-CoV.

19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315226

ABSTRACT

Background: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has adverse effects on patients’ respiratory system. Therefore the pulmonary rehabilitation is particularly necessary for COVID-19 patients. A recent qualitative study indicated that patients perceived the impact of fatigue on their daily lives to be a key factor in decreasing their quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge and needs of physical fitness and breathing training, and to explore the impact of physical fitness and breathing training on COVID-19 patients. Methods: From Feb 16, 2020 to Apr 6, 2020, a self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate the knowledge and needs of physical fitness and breathing training in COVID-19 inpatients. And then the participants received an intervention about physical fitness and breathing training which lasted 2 weeks. The 9-item Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scale (FACIT-F) was used to measure COVID-19 related fatigue before and after the intervention. Findings: According to a 5-point Likert scale, the 133 COVID-19 patients had only an "not really" and "uncertain" knowledge of physical fitness and breathing training (2.47±1.17). 86.98% of the patients expected to receive guidance of physical fitness and breathing training through video teaching. Differences were observed in fatigue, General fatigue component (15.0(8.0) vs. 19.0(10.0), P<0.01);Functional ability component (4.0 (3.0) vs. 7 .0(4.0), P<0.01);Psychological component (6.0(5.0) vs. 7.0 (5.0), P<0.01), after the intervention, Moderate degree (36.09% vs. 28.57% ) alleviated to mild degree (51.12% vs. 66.91%). SpO2-% 86 ((75, 89) vs. 92(89, 98), P<0.001), and Oxygen flow-L/min (2(0,4) vs. 8(3,9), P<0.001). In our study, 130 healthcare professionals took part in this program. None of the participants reported covid-19 related symptoms. When the participants returned home, they all tested negative for SARSCoV- 2 specific nucleic acids and IgM or IgG antibodies (95% confidence interval 0.0 to 0.7%). Interpretation COVID-19 patients had insufficient knowledge of physical fitness and breathing training for pulmonary rehabilitation. Patients should be guided to receive training, which can be benefit for patients.

20.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306153

ABSTRACT

Background: As China is facing a potential second wave of the epidemic, we reviewed and evaluated the intervention measures implemented in a major metropolitan city, Shenzhen, during the early phase of Wuhan lockdown. Methods: Based on published epidemiological data on COVID-19 and population mobility data from Baidu Qianxi, we constructed a compartmental model to evaluate the impact of work and traffic resumption on the epidemic in Shenzhen in various scenarios. Results: Imported cases account for the majority (58.6%) of the early reported cases in Shenzhen. We demonstrated that with strict inflow population control and a high level of mask usage following work resumption, various resumption schemes resulted in only an insignificant difference in the number of cumulative infections. Shenzhen may experience this second wave of infections approximately two weeks after the traffic resumption if the incidence risk in Hubei is high at the moment of resumption. Conclusion: Control of imported cases and extensive use of facial masks were the key for the prevention of the COVID-19 epidemic in Shenzhen during its reopening and work resumption.

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