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1.
14th International Conference on Cross-Cultural Design, CCD 2022 Held as Part of the 24th HCI International Conference, HCII 2022 ; 13311 LNCS:70-80, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1941425

ABSTRACT

Our lives are still not back to normal because of the novel coronavirus epidemic, and people around the world are looking for ways to compensate for the limited experience. The global buzz around Metaverse can also be seen as a concern to upgrade the experience, and the trend toward virtual world interaction is unstoppable, in the future, the boundary between virtual world and real world will be a direction of further exploration in the field of interaction design. If the meta-universe can be developed into a future society, it should not be viewed as a mere technical question. Whether this future is worthy of human pursuit requires us to think more. So based on the future doomed to borderline ambiguous social forms, the establishment of a new order first needs to clarify the virtual world and the real world and the relationship between the difference. This paper critically interprets the concept of meta-cosmic society, and discusses the thinking of the boundary definition in the future context, it is hoped that this discussion will provide a valuable perspective for interaction design to be integrated into the new experience pattern in the future. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

2.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(6): 953-959, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903511

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the situation of influenza vaccination among primary healthcare workers, find out the problems, and explore the strategies and measures to promote influenza vaccination among grass-roots medical staff. Methods: From April to May 2021, key insider interviews and literature research were carried out based on the perspectives of influenza vaccine suppliers (influenza vaccine manufacturers), consumers (primary medical institutions and primary healthcare workers), and managers (governments at all levels, health administrative departments and disease prevention and control departments). The SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis technique was used to comprehensively evaluate the current situation of influenza vaccination among grass-roots healthcare workers, and a SWOT analysis matrix was established. Results: Influenza vaccination of grass-roots healthcare workers have advantages and opportunities, including primary medical and health institutions' vital influenza vaccination accessibility, influenza vaccine safety is higher, COVID-19 outbreak improves the public awareness of respiratory infectious diseases and vaccine production enthusiasm, coronavirus vaccination has strengthened the capacity of the vaccine distribution system. There are also disadvantages and threats such as the high price of influenza vaccine, insufficient supply, low awareness of influenza vaccine vaccination among grass-roots healthcare workers, lack of demand assessment mechanism on influenza vaccine, poor vaccine deployment, structural imbalance in vaccine supply in different areas, and severe vaccine waste. SWOT analysis matrix of the influenza vaccination status of grass-roots healthcare workers was established, forming dominant opportunity (SO) strategy, dominant threat (ST) strategy, inferior opportunity (WO) strategy, and inferior threat (WT) strategy. Conclusion: Measures should be taken by the supplier, the demand-side, and the management side to improve the influenza vaccine coverage rate of primary healthcare workers, but the emphasis should be on the coordination and management of the management side.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunization Programs , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Primary Health Care , Vaccination
3.
Chinese Journal of New Drugs ; 31(10):972-977, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1894105

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the implementation and management measures of drug clinical trials during the period of COVID-19 epidemic, protect the safety and rights of subjects, ensure the smooth implementation of clinical trials, and provide reference and suggestions for the management work of clinical trial institutions. Methods: According to the requirements of COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control policies and the national guiding principles for drug clinical trial management, combining the experience of our hospital, we optimized the working process and proposed management measures in four aspects including project and personnel management, subject follow-up management, drug distribution management, and communication between all parties involved in clinical trials. Results and conclusions: During the period of COVID-19 epidemic, our hospital has taken a series of measures which ensured the smooth implementation of more than 200 drug clinical trials and protected the safety and rights of subjects and researchers.

4.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(6): 606-614, 2021 Dec 14.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893446

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of reported imported malaria cases in Zhengzhou City from 2016 to 2020, so as to provide insights into the management of imported malaria in the city. METHODS: All data pertaining to cases with definitive diagnosis of malaria in Zhengzhou City from 2016 to 2020 were captured from the National Notifiable Disease Report System and the Information Management System for Parasitic Disease Control in China, including individual demographic data, and malaria onset, initial diagnosis and definitive diagnosis data. All data were descriptively analyzed. The duration from malaria onset to initial diagnosis, from initial diagnosis to definitive diagnosis and from onset to definitive diagnosis was compared among cases. In addition, the diagnoses of imported malaria cases in which definitive diagnosis was made were compared with the reexaminations by Zhengzhou Municipal Malaria Diagnosis Reference Laboratory. RESULTS: A total of 302 cases with definitive diagnosis of malaria were reported in Zhengzhou City from 2016 to 2020, and all were imported cases, with Plasmodium falciparum malaria as the predominant type (230 cases, 76.2%). There were 293 malaria cases imported from Africa (293 cases, 97.0%), which mainly included Nigeria (48 cases, 15.9%), Angola (40 cases, 13.2%), and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (29 cases, 9.6%). There was no obvious seasonality found in the date of malaria onset and time of reporting malaria. The ratio of male to female malaria cases was 49.3:1, and there were 103 cases (34.1%) with the current residency address in Zhengzhou City, 193 cases (63.9%) with the current residency address in other cities of Henan Province and 6 cases (2.0%) in other provinces of China. There were 271 cases (89.7%) seeking initial diagnosis in medical institutions, and the diagnostic accuracy of malaria was 56.6% (171/302) at initial diagnosis institutions. A total of 122 cases (40.4%) sought medical care on the day of malaria onset, and 252 cases (86.4%) within 3 days; however, only 22 cases (7.3%) were definitively diagnosed on the day of onset, and 162 cases (53.6%) diagnosed within 3 days. There were no significant differences between malaria cases seeking initial diagnosis at medical institutions and disease control and prevention institutions in terms of the duration from malaria onset to initial diagnosis (Z = -1.663, P > 0.05), from initial diagnosis to definitive diagnosis (Z = -0.413, P > 0.05) or from malaria onset to definitive diagnosis (Z = -0.838, P > 0.05). The median duration (interquartile range) from initial diagnosis to definitive diagnosis of malaria was 3.00 (2.00), 3.00 (6.00), 2.00 (4.00) d and 1.00 (1.00) d among cases seeking medical care at township-level and lower, county-, city- and province-level medical institutions, and the median duration from initial diagnosis to definitive diagnosis of malaria was significantly longer among cases seeking medical care at township-level and lower medical institutions than at city (Z = -3.286, P < 0.008 33) and province-level medical institutions (Z = -9.119, P < 0.008 33), while the median duration from initial diagnosis to definitive diagnosis [1.00 (3.00) d vs. 2.00 (4.00) d; Z = -4.099, P < 0.016] and from malaria onset to definitive diagnosis [3.00 (4.00) d vs. 4.00 (5.00) d; Z = -2.868, P < 0.016] among malaria cases with the current residency address in Zhengzhou City was both shorter than in other cities of Henan Province. The diagnostic accuracy was 89.1% (269/302) among malaria cases in which definitive diagnosis was made, and the accuracy of malaria reexaminations was 94.0% (284/302) in Zhengzhou Municipal Malaria Diagnosis Reference Laboratory. CONCLUSIONS: P. falciparum malaria was predominant among reported imported malaria cases in Zhengzhou City from 2016 to 2020, and these imported malaria cases were predominantly diagnosed at medical institutions; however, the diagnostic capability of malaria is poor in township-level and lower medical institutions. Strengthening the collaboration between medical institutions and disease control and prevention institutions and improving the diagnostic capability building at medical institutions are recommended to consolidate malaria elimination achivements.


Subject(s)
Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria , Africa , China/epidemiology , Cities , Female , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/epidemiology , Male
5.
J Clin Virol ; 153: 105217, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Humoral and cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination among immunosuppressed patients remain poorly defined, as well as variables associated with poor response. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study at a large Northern California healthcare system of infection-naïve individuals fully vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 (mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, or Ad26.COV2.S) with clinical SARS-CoV-2 interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) ordered between January through November 2021. Humoral and cellular immune responses were measured by anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG ELISA (anti-S1 IgG) and IGRA, respectively, following primary and/or booster vaccination. RESULTS: 496 immunosuppressed patients (54% female; median age 50 years) were included. 62% (261/419) of patients had positive anti-S1 IgG and 71% (277/389) had positive IGRA after primary vaccination, with 20% of patients having a positive IGRA only. Following booster, 69% (81/118) had positive anti-S1 IgG and 73% (91/124) had positive IGRA. Factors associated with low humoral response rates after primary vaccination included anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (P < 0.001), sphingosine 1-phsophate (S1P) receptor modulators (P < 0.001), mycophenolate (P = 0.002), and B cell lymphoma (P = 0.004); those associated with low cellular response rates included S1P receptor modulators (P < 0.001) and mycophenolate (P < 0.001). Of patients who had poor humoral response to primary vaccination, 35% (18/52) developed a significantly higher response after the booster. Only 5% (2/42) of patients developed a significantly higher cellular response to the booster dose compared to primary vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Humoral and cellular response rates to primary and booster SARS-CoV-2 vaccination differ among immunosuppressed patient groups. Clinical testing of cellular immunity is important in monitoring vaccine response in vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
6.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):63, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1881039

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern harbor mutations in the Spike (S) glycoprotein that confer more efficient transmission and dampen the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines and antibody therapies. S mediates virus entry and is the primary target for antibody responses, with structural studies of soluble S variants revealing an increased propensity towards conformations accessible to the human Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (hACE2) receptor. However, real-time observations of conformational dynamics that govern the structural equilibriums of the S variants have been lacking. Methods: Here, we report single-molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (smFRET) studies of S variants of concern containing critical mutations, including D614G and E484K, in the context of virus particles. Results: Investigated variants were shown by smFRET to predominantly occupy more open hACE2-accessible conformations, agreeing with predictions from structures of soluble trimers. Additionally, S variants exhibited decelerated transitions from hACE2-accessible/bound states. Conclusion: Here, we provide the real-time dimension to distinct structures of Spikes in the context of virus particles and present the first experimental evidence of increased stability of Spike variants. Our finding of increased S kinetic stability in the open conformation provides a new perspective on SARS-CoV-2 adaptation to the human population.

8.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):19, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880234

ABSTRACT

Background: Little is known regarding global COVID-19 vaccination rates in people with HIV (PWH), a population with significant morbidity from COVID-19. The Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events (REPRIEVE) is a global primary cardiovascular prevention trial among PWH (N=7770) with representation from >100 sites across twelve countries (Brazil, Botswana, Canada, Haiti, India, Peru, Spain, South Africa, Thailand, Uganda, USA, Zimbabwe). Data collected on COVID-19 vaccination rates in REPRIEVE afford a unique opportunity to assess such rates among PWH across global regions. Methods: We assessed cumulative COVID-19 vaccination rates from January through July 2021 among 6952 active participants and compared rates to region-and country-specific vaccination data among the general population, determined from publicly available datasets (CDC, World Bank). Secondarily, within the REPRIEVE cohort, demographic, cardiovascular, and HIV-specific data were compared among those vaccinated vs not via Kaplan-Meier. Results: The cumulative probability of COVID-19 vaccination through the end of July 2021 was 47% among REPRIEVE participants, with rates varying substantially by global burden of disease (GBD) super-region and specific countries. Cumulative vaccination rates (Figure) were highest in the High-Income super-region (64%), followed by Latin America and the Caribbean (51%), Southeast/East Asia (36%), South Asia (16%) and Sub-Saharan Africa (12%). Country-specific rates varied dramatically, with vaccination rates highest in the United States, Peru, and Brazil, 67%, 60%, and 55%, and lowest in South Africa, Uganda, and Haiti with 11%, 3%, and 0%, respectively. Overall factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination among PWH included age, White race, natal male sex, BMI, and higher burden of cardiovascular risk factors, with important differences across GBD super-regions by log-rank test. Vaccination rates among PWH in REPRIEVE were largely comparable to the general population, in most GBD super-regions (Figure), though differences were observed in comparison to the general population in specific countries (data not shown). Conclusion: Global inequities in COVID-19 vaccine access among PWH are apparent, with highest vaccination rates observed among those residing in high-income regions. In addition to region, factors associated with vaccination among PWH included White race, natal male sex, and higher burden of CVD risk factors. Efforts are needed to increase global and regional vaccine rates for PWH.

11.
SAGE Open ; 12(2), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1833211

ABSTRACT

This research paper investigated the adoption behavior of college students toward the e-learning system amidst the current COVID-19. The model was developed and validated based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and the partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to analyze the data. The data was generated from 316 Chinese college students based on the convenient sampling technique. The research outcomes indicate that the perceived ease of use is a significant predictor of the intention to use and perceived usefulness of an e-learning system. To our surprise, perceived usefulness does not determine the intention to use an e-learning system. Computer self-efficacy and technical support respectively were significant determinants of the perceived usefulness and the perceived ease of use of an e-learning system. Interestingly, the study showed that internet experience does not influence students’ sensitivity to the usefulness and ease of use associated with an e-learning system. The theoretical and managerial implications of these results findings are thoroughly interrogated. © The Author(s) 2022.

12.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-334610

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Risk calculators can facilitate shared medical decision-making 1 . Demographics, comorbidities, medication use, geographic region, and other factors may increase the risk for COVID-19-related complications among patients with IBD 2,3 . OBJECTIVES: Develop an individualized prognostic risk prediction tool for predicting the probability of adverse COVID-19 outcomes in patients with IBD. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This study developed and validated prognostic penalized logistic regression models 4 using reports to Surveillance Epidemiology of Coronavirus Under Research Exclusion for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (SECURE-IBD) from March-October 2020. Model development was done using a training data set (85% of cases reported March 13 - September 15, 2020), and model validation was conducted using a test data set (the remaining 15% of cases plus all cases reported September 16-October 20, 2020). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: COVID-19 related:Hospitalization+: composite outcome of hospitalization, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, or deathICU+: composite outcome of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, or deathDeathWe assessed the resulting models' discrimination using the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves and reported the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: We included 2709 cases from 59 countries (mean age 41.2 years [s.d. 18], 50.2% male). A total of 633 (24%) were hospitalized, 137 (5%) were admitted to the ICU or intubated, and 69 (3%) died. 2009 patients comprised the training set and 700 the test set. The models demonstrated excellent discrimination, with a test set AUC (95% CI) of 0.79 (0.75, 0.83) for Hospitalization+, 0.88 (0.82, 0.95) for ICU+, and 0.94 (0.89, 0.99) for Death. Age, comorbidities, corticosteroid use, and male gender were associated with higher risk of death, while use of biologic therapies was associated with a lower risk. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Prognostic models can effectively predict who is at higher risk for COVID-19-related adverse outcomes in a population of IBD patients. A free online risk calculator ( https://covidibd.org/covid-19-risk-calculator/ ) is available for healthcare providers to facilitate discussion of risks due to COVID-19 with IBD patients. The tool numerically and visually summarizes the patient's probabilities of adverse outcomes and associated CIs. Helping physicians identify their highest-risk patients will be important in the coming months as cases rise in the US and worldwide. This tool can also serve as a model for risk stratification in other chronic diseases. KEY POINTS: Question: How well can a multivariable risk model predict the risk of hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, or death due to COVID-19 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)?Findings: Multivariable prediction models developed using data from an international voluntary registry of IBD patients and available for use online ( https://covidibd.org/ ) have very good discrimination for predicting hospitalization (Test set AUC 0.79) and excellent discrimination for ICU admission (Test set AUC 0.88) and death (Test set AUC 0.94). The models were developed with a training sample of 2009 cases and validated in an independent test sample of 700 cases comprised of a random sub-sample of cases and all cases entered in the registry during a one-month period after model development. Meaning: This risk prediction model may serve as an effective tool for healthcare providers to facilitate conversations about COVID-19-related risks with IBD patients.

13.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology ; 149(2):AB57-AB57, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1798264
14.
Biophysical Journal ; 121(3):39-39, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1756157
15.
Frontiers in Political Science ; 3, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1715033

ABSTRACT

Among the many striking features of the COVID 19 pandemic is the geographic heterogeneity of its incidence and its disproportionate effects on low income people. We examine links between individual risk and COVID 19 outcomes in the federal context in Mexico characterized by high socioeconomic and political heterogeneity. Using highly detailed individual mobility data for five Mexican cities, we document the relationship between local income and education factors and the behaviors associated with COVID 19 risk after the national lockdown: staying home, going to work, and going other places. While low income people are disproportionately likely to contract COVID 19 and die from illnesses associated with COVID 19 in Mexico, we find very mixed evidence that people living in low income urban census blocs are engaging in observably riskier behaviors. Both before and after the national lockdown, people in low income locations spend more time at home and less time going other places, suggesting a lower overall risk of contracting the virus based on voluntary movement. However, people in low income and less educated places appear to shift their movement less in response to Mexico’s national lockdown. Less educated people, in particular, show much less change in their movement patterns in response to the lockdown. At the same time, we find enormous variance between cities and in some cities such as Mexico City and Ecatepec people in low income places changed their behavior more after the lockdown. Understanding the reasons for these income and education differences in outcomes is crucial for policy responses–whether the government should focus on educating individuals about their behavior, or whether the response requires a much more difficult overhaul of societal protections. Copyright © 2021 Rogers, Zeng, Marx, Poynor and Lu.

16.
18.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326958

ABSTRACT

Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) is a host antiviral protein that alters cell membranes to block fusion of viruses. Published reports have identified conflicting pro- and antiviral effects of IFITM3 on SARS-CoV-2 in cultured cells, and its impact on viral pathogenesis in vivo remains unclear. Here, we show that IFITM3 knockout (KO) mice infected with mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 experienced extreme weight loss and lethality, while wild type (WT) mice lost minimal weight and recovered. KO mice had higher lung viral titers and increases in lung inflammatory cytokine levels, CD45-positive immune cell infiltration, and histopathology, compared to WT mice. Mechanistically, we observed disseminated viral antigen staining throughout the lung tissue and pulmonary vasculature in KO mice, while staining was observed in confined regions in WT lungs. Global transcriptomic analysis of infected lungs identified upregulation of gene signatures associated with interferons, inflammation, and angiogenesis in KO versus WT animals, highlighting changes in lung gene expression programs that precede severe lung pathology and fatality. Corroborating the protective effect of IFITM3 in vivo, K18-hACE2/IFITM3 KO mice infected with non-adapted SARS-CoV-2 showed enhanced, rapid weight loss and early death compared to control mice. Increased heart infection was observed in both mouse models in the absence of IFITM3, indicating that IFITM3 constrains extrapulmonary dissemination of SARS-CoV-2. Our results establish IFITM3 KO mice as a new animal model for studying severe SARS-CoV-2 infection of the lung and cardiovascular system, and overall demonstrate that IFITM3 is protective in SARS-CoV-2 infections of mice.

19.
18th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age, CELDA 2021 ; : 87-94, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1678977

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in school closures all across the world, and lots of students have shifted from conventional classrooms to online learning. With the help of ICT technologies nowadays, learning online can be more effective in a number of ways. However, most of the online learning environments without instructors' attention may result in different learning patterns compared to the traditional face-to-face classroom. In this paper, we aimed at detecting the slide reading behaviors of the students by analyzing operational event logs from a digital textbook reader for a lecture offered in our university. We compared reading patterns between traditional face-to-face lectures and hybrid online lectures, our results show that online lectures lead to more off-task behaviors. Our analysis provides a rich understanding of e-book reading and informs design implications for online learning during the pandemic. The findings can also be used to improve the instruction designs and learning strategies. © 2021 Virtual Simulation Innovation Workshop, SIW 2021. All rights reserved.

20.
3rd IEEE International Conference on Civil Aviation Safety and Information Technology, ICCASIT 2021 ; : 401-407, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1672707

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 has had a great impact on the global air transport industry. This paper analyzes the impact on China's air economic operation, including the current situation, challenges and problems of the regulation mechanism. A warning system for the economic operation of air passenger transport industry is conducted. With the help of warning lights, it reflects the degree of hotness or coldness of economic operation in 2011-2020.In addition, the study establishes the BP neural network forecast model to predict the economic operation of civil aviation industry in the next three years, and proposes the specific early warning management mechanism from five aspects. The conclusion of this study provides a strong support for guiding the civil aviation industry to prevent economic operation risks and improving the anti-vulnerability and resilience of the development of China's civil aviation industry. © 2021 IEEE

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