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1.
Pathogens ; 11(4)2022 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785868

ABSTRACT

Noroviruses (NoVs) are one of the emerging and rapidly spreading groups of pathogens threatening human health. A reduction in sporadic NoV infections was noted following the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, but the return of NoV gastroenteritis during the COVID-19 pandemic has been noted recently. Research in recent years has shown that different virus strains are associated with different clinical characteristics; moreover, there is a paucity of research into extraintestinal or unusual complications that may be associated with NoV. The genomic diversity of circulating NoVs is also complex and may vary significantly. Therefore, this short narrative review focuses on sharing the Taiwan experience of NoV infection including epidemiology, clinical features, and complications following suboptimal rotavirus immunization in Taiwan (after October 2006). We also highlight the unusual complications associated with NoV infections and the impacts of NoV infection during the COVID-19 pandemic in the literature for possible future research directions. To conclude, further research is needed to quantify the burden of NoV across the spectrum of disease severity in Taiwan. The evidence of the connection between NoV and the unusual complications is still lacking.

2.
J Environ Manage ; 309: 114728, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683294

ABSTRACT

Real-time evaluation of the fighting activities during a sudden unknown disaster like the COVID-19 pandemic is a critical challenge for control. This study demonstrates that the temporal variations of effluents from hospital sewage treatment facilities can be used as an effective indicator for such evaluation. Taking a typical infection-suffering city in China as an example, we found that there was an obvious decrease in effluent ammonia and COD concentrations in line with the start of city lockdown, and its temporal variations well indicated the major events happened during the pandemic control. Notably, the lagging period between the change point of effluent residual chlorine and the change points of COD and ammonia concentration coincided with a period in which there was a deficiency in local medical resources. In addition, the diurnal behavior of effluents from designated hospitals has varied significantly at different stages of the pandemic development. The effluent ammonia peaks shifted from daytime to nighttime after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, suggesting a high workload of the designated hospitals in fighting the rapidly emerging pandemic. This work well demonstrates the necessary for data integration at the wastewater-medical service nexus and highlights an unusual role of the effluents from hospital sewage treatment facilities in revealing the status of fighting the pandemic, which helps to control the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sewage
3.
Cell ; 185(7): 1117-1129.e8, 2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1682965

ABSTRACT

Game animals are wildlife species traded and consumed as food and are potential reservoirs for SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. We performed a meta-transcriptomic analysis of 1,941 game animals, representing 18 species and five mammalian orders, sampled across China. From this, we identified 102 mammalian-infecting viruses, with 65 described for the first time. Twenty-one viruses were considered as potentially high risk to humans and domestic animals. Civets (Paguma larvata) carried the highest number of potentially high-risk viruses. We inferred the transmission of bat-associated coronavirus from bats to civets, as well as cross-species jumps of coronaviruses from bats to hedgehogs, from birds to porcupines, and from dogs to raccoon dogs. Of note, we identified avian Influenza A virus H9N2 in civets and Asian badgers, with the latter displaying respiratory symptoms, as well as cases of likely human-to-wildlife virus transmission. These data highlight the importance of game animals as potential drivers of disease emergence.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Disease Reservoirs , Mammals/virology , Virome , Animals , China , Phylogeny , Zoonoses
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674612

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-associated Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was an outbreak in December, 2019 and rapidly spread to the world. All variants of SARS-CoV-2, including the globally and currently dominant Delta variant (Delta-SARS-CoV-2), caused severe disease and mortality. Among all variants, Delta-SARS-CoV-2 had the highest transmissibility, growth rate, and secondary attack rate than other variants except for the new variant of Omicron that still exists with many unknown effects. In Taiwan, the pandemic Delta-SARS-CoV-2 began in Pingtung from 14 June 2021 and ceased at 11 July 2021. Seventeen patients were infected by Delta-SARS-CoV-2 and 1 person died during the Pingtung outbreak. The Public Health Bureau of Pingtung County Government stopped the Delta-SARS-CoV-2 outbreak within 1 month through measures such as epidemic investigation, rapid gene sequencing, rapidly expanding isolation, expanded screening of the Delta-SARS-CoV-2 antigen for people who lived in regional villages, and indirect intervention, including rapid vaccination, short lockdown period, and travel restrictions. Indirect environmental factors, such as low levels of air pollution, tropic weather in the summer season, and rural areas might have accelerated the ability to control the Delta-SARS-CoV-2 spread. This successful experience might be recommended as a successful formula for the unvaccinated or insufficiently vaccinated regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan/epidemiology
6.
Internet Research ; 32(1):90-119, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1626537

ABSTRACT

PurposeThis paper aims to investigate the impacts of rumors' information characteristics on people's believing and spreading of rumors online.Design/methodology/approachThis study employed a mixed-methods approach by combining qualitative and quantitative methods. In study 1, the authors explored different types of rumors and their information source characteristics through qualitative research. In study 2, the authors utilized the findings from study 1 to develop an empirical model to verify the impact of these characteristics on the public's behaviors of believing and spreading rumors by content analysis and quantitative research.FindingsThe results show that five information source characteristics – credibility, professionalism, attractiveness, mystery and concreteness – influence the spreading effect of different types of rumors.Research limitations/implicationsThis study contributes to rumor spreading research by deepening the theory of information source characteristics and adding to the emerging literature on the COVID-19 pandemic.Practical implicationsInsights from this research offer important practical implications for policymakers and online-platform operators by highlighting how to suppress the spread of rumors, particularly those associated with COVID-19.Originality/valueThis research introduces the theory of information source characteristics into the field of rumor spreading and adopts a mixed-methods approach, taking COVID-19 rumors as a typical case, which provides a unique perspective for a deeper understanding of rumor spreading's antecedences.

7.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(2)2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594013

ABSTRACT

The ongoing SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome)-CoV (coronavirus)-2 pandemic has exposed major gaps in our knowledge on the origin, ecology, evolution, and spread of animal coronaviruses. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a member of the genus Alphacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae that may have originated from bats and leads to significant hazards and widespread epidemics in the swine population. The role of local and global trade of live swine and swine-related products in disseminating PEDV remains unclear, especially in developing countries with complex swine production systems. Here, we undertake an in-depth phylogeographic analysis of PEDV sequence data (including 247 newly sequenced samples) and employ an extension of this inference framework that enables formally testing the contribution of a range of predictor variables to the geographic spread of PEDV. Within China, the provinces of Guangdong and Henan were identified as primary hubs for the spread of PEDV, for which we estimate live swine trade to play a very important role. On a global scale, the United States and China maintain the highest number of PEDV lineages. We estimate that, after an initial introduction out of China, the United States acted as an important source of PEDV introductions into Japan, Korea, China, and Mexico. Live swine trade also explains the dispersal of PEDV on a global scale. Given the increasingly global trade of live swine, our findings have important implications for designing prevention and containment measures to combat a wide range of livestock coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , China , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , United States
8.
Pathogens ; 10(10)2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480900

ABSTRACT

Cats are susceptible to a wide range of influenza A viruses (IAV). Furthermore, cats can serve as an intermediate host, and transfer avian influenza virus (AIV) H7N2 to a veterinarian. In this report, a novel reassortant influenza virus, designated A/feline/Jiangsu/HWT/2017 (H3N2), and abbreviated as FIV-HWT-2017, was isolated from nasal swab of a symptomatic cat in Jiangsu province, China. Sequence analysis indicated that, whilst the other seven genes were most similar to the avian-origin canine influenza viruses (CIV H3N2) isolated in China, the NS gene was more closely related to the circulating human influenza virus (H3N2) in the region. Therefore, FIV-HWT-2017 is a reassortant virus. In addition, some mutations were identified, and they were similar to a distinctive CIV H3N2 clade. Whether these cats were infected with the reassortant virus was unknown, however, this random isolation of a reassortant virus indicated that domestic or stray cats were "mixing vessel" for IAV cannot be ruled out. An enhanced surveillance for novel influenza virus should include pet and stray cats.

9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 722027, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399138

ABSTRACT

Approximately half of the SARS-CoV-2 infections occur without apparent symptoms, raising questions regarding long-term humoral immunity in asymptomatic individuals. Plasma levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) against the viral spike or nucleoprotein were determined for 25,091 individuals enrolled in a surveillance program in Wuhan, China. We compared 405 asymptomatic individuals who mounted a detectable antibody response with 459 symptomatic COVID-19 patients. The well-defined duration of the SARS-CoV-2 endemic in Wuhan allowed a side-by-side comparison of antibody responses following symptomatic and asymptomatic infections without subsequent antigen re-exposure. IgM responses rapidly declined in both groups. However, both the prevalence and durability of IgG responses and neutralizing capacities correlated positively with symptoms. Regardless of sex, age, and body weight, asymptomatic individuals lost their SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies more often and rapidly than symptomatic patients did. These findings have important implications for immunity and favour immunization programs including individuals after asymptomatic infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Young Adult
10.
Chin J Acad Radiol ; : 1-9, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is an independent risk factor of major adverse cardiovascular events; however, the impact of CAC on in-hospital death and adverse clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between CAC and in-hospital mortality and adverse events in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective cohort study enrolled 2067 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients with definitive clinical outcomes (death or discharge) admitted from 22 tertiary hospitals in China between January 3, 2020 and April 2, 2020. Demographic, clinical, laboratory results, chest CT findings, and CAC on admission were collected. The primary outcome was in-hospital death and the secondary outcome was composed of in-hospital death, admission to intensive care unit (ICU), and requiring mechanical ventilation. Multivariable Cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier plots were used to explore the association between CAC and in-hospital death and adverse clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The mean age was 50 years (SD,16) and 1097 (53.1%) were male. A total of 177 patients showed high CAC level, and compared with patients with low CAC, these patients were older (mean age: 49 vs. 69 years, P < 0.001) and more likely to be male (52.0% vs. 65.0%, P = 0.001). Comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) ([33.3%, 59/177] vs. [4.7%, 89/1890], P < 0.001), presented more often among patients with high CAC, compared with patients with low CAC. As for laboratory results, patients with high CAC had higher rates of increased D-dimer, LDH, as well as CK-MB (all P < 0.05). The mean CT severity score in high CAC group was also higher than low CAC group (12.6 vs. 11.1, P = 0.005). In multivariable Cox regression model, patients with high CAC were at a higher risk of in-hospital death (hazard ratio [HR], 1.731; 95% CI 1.010-2.971, P = 0.046) and adverse clinical outcomes (HR, 1.611; 95% CL 1.087-2.387, P = 0.018). CONCLUSION: High CAC is a risk factor associated with in-hospital death and adverse clinical outcomes in patients with confirmed COVID-19, which highlights the importance of calcium load testing for hospitalized COVID-19 patients and calls for attention to patients with high CAC. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s42058-021-00072-4.

11.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 40(6): 891-896, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952512

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the evidence from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practice in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and provide timely clinical practice guidance. METHODS: The guidelines were developed in accordance with the World Health Organization rapid guideline process. The evidence on TCM for COVID-19 from published guidelines, direct and indirect published clinical evidence, first hand clinical data, and expert experience and consensus were collected. The grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) method was used to grade the evidence and make the recommendations. RESULTS: Based on the available evidence, the guidelines recommended 17 Chinese medicines for COVID-19: 2 Chinese herbal granules, 7 Chinese patent medicines, and 8 Chinese herbal injections. CONCLUSION: As the literature search was conducted on March, any subsequent versions of these guidelines require an up-to-date literature review. We hope that the evidence summary in these will be helpful in global efforts to address COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
12.
Theranostics ; 10(14): 6372-6383, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-494062

ABSTRACT

Background: The risk factors for adverse events of Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) have not been well described. We aimed to explore the predictive value of clinical, laboratory and CT imaging characteristics on admission for short-term outcomes of COVID-19 patients. Methods: This multicenter, retrospective, observation study enrolled 703 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to 16 tertiary hospitals from 8 provinces in China between January 10, 2020 and March 13, 2020. Demographic, clinical, laboratory data, CT imaging findings on admission and clinical outcomes were collected and compared. The primary endpoint was in-hospital death, the secondary endpoints were composite clinical adverse outcomes including in-hospital death, admission to intensive care unit (ICU) and requiring invasive mechanical ventilation support (IMV). Multivariable Cox regression, Kaplan-Meier plots and log-rank test were used to explore risk factors related to in-hospital death and in-hospital adverse outcomes. Results: Of 703 patients, 55 (8%) developed adverse outcomes (including 33 deceased), 648 (92%) discharged without any adverse outcome. Multivariable regression analysis showed risk factors associated with in-hospital death included ≥ 2 comorbidities (hazard ratio [HR], 6.734; 95% CI; 3.239-14.003, p < 0.001), leukocytosis (HR, 9.639; 95% CI, 4.572-20.321, p < 0.001), lymphopenia (HR, 4.579; 95% CI, 1.334-15.715, p = 0.016) and CT severity score > 14 (HR, 2.915; 95% CI, 1.376-6.177, p = 0.005) on admission, while older age (HR, 2.231; 95% CI, 1.124-4.427, p = 0.022), ≥ 2 comorbidities (HR, 4.778; 95% CI; 2.451-9.315, p < 0.001), leukocytosis (HR, 6.349; 95% CI; 3.330-12.108, p < 0.001), lymphopenia (HR, 3.014; 95% CI; 1.356-6.697, p = 0.007) and CT severity score > 14 (HR, 1.946; 95% CI; 1.095-3.459, p = 0.023) were associated with increased odds of composite adverse outcomes. Conclusion: The risk factors of older age, multiple comorbidities, leukocytosis, lymphopenia and higher CT severity score could help clinicians identify patients with potential adverse events.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infant , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Theranostic Nanomedicine , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
13.
Microb Pathog ; 145: 104209, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72283

ABSTRACT

As the outbreaks of COVID-19 in worldwide, coronavirus has once again caught the attention of people. Canine coronavirus is widespread among dog population, and sometimes causes even fatal cases. Here, to characterize the prevalence and evolution of current circulating canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains in China, we collected 213 fecal samples from diarrheic pet dogs between 2018 and 2019. Of the 213 samples, we found 51 (23.94%) were positive for CCoV. Co-infection with canine parvovirus (CPV), canine astrovirus (CaAstV), canine kobuvirus (CaKV), Torque teno canis virus (TTCaV) were ubiquitous existed. Mixed infection of different CCoV subtypes exists extensively. Considering the limited sequences data in recent years, we sequenced 7 nearly complete genomes and 10 complete spike gene. Phylogenetic analysis of spike gene revealed a new subtype CCoV-II Variant and CCoV-IIa was the most prevalent subtype currently circulating. Moreover, we identified strain B906_ZJ_2019 shared 93.24% nucleotide identifies with previous strain A76, and both of them clustered with CCoV-II Variant, which were not well clustered with the known subtypes. Recombination analysis of B906_ZJ_2019 indicated that strain B906_ZJ_2019 may a recombinant variant between CCoV-I and CCoV-II, which is consistent with strain A76. Furthermore, amino acid variations widely existed among current CCoV-IIa strains circulating in China and the classic CCoV-IIa strains, in spite of the unknown functions. In a word, we report a useful information as to the etiology and evolution of canine coronavirus in China based on the available sequences, which is urgent for the devise of future effective disease prevention and control strategies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Canine/classification , Coronavirus, Canine/genetics , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Animals , Base Sequence , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , DNA, Viral/genetics , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Feces/virology , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
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