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1.
J Med Virol ; 95(4): e28687, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288701

ABSTRACT

Measles virus (MeV) has been an excellent vector platform for delivering vaccines against many pathogens because of its high safety and efficacy, and induction of long-lived immunity. Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, a recombinant MeV (rMeV) expressing the prefusion full-length spike protein stabilized by two prolines (TMV-083) was developed and tested in phase 1 and 1/2 clinical trials but was discontinued because of insufficient immunogenicity and a low seroconversion rate in adults. Here, we compared the immunogenicity of rMeV expressing a soluble prefusion spike (preS) protein stabilized by two prolines (rMeV-preS-2P) with a rMeV expressing a soluble preS protein stabilized by six prolines (rMeV-preS-6P). We found that rMeV-preS-6P expressed approximately five times more preS than rMeV-preS-2P in cell culture. Importantly, rMeV-preS-6P induced 30-60 and six times more serum immunoglobulin G and neutralizing antibody than rMeV-preS-2P, respectively, in IFNAR-/- mice. IFNAR-/- mice immunized with rMeV-preS-6P were completely protected from challenge with a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2, whereas those immunized with rMeV-preS-2P were partially protected. In addition, hamsters immunized with rMeV-preS-6P were completely protected from the challenge with a Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2. Our results demonstrate that rMeV-preS-6P is significantly more efficacious than rMeV-preS-2P, highlighting the value of using preS-6P as the antigen for developing vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cricetinae , Animals , Humans , Mice , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Measles virus/genetics , Proline , Antibodies, Viral
2.
EMBO Rep ; 24(4): e56660, 2023 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265979

ABSTRACT

Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) is an antiviral protein that alters cell membranes to block fusion of viruses. Conflicting reports identified opposing effects of IFITM3 on SARS-CoV-2 infection of cells, and its impact on viral pathogenesis in vivo remains unclear. Here, we show that IFITM3 knockout (KO) mice infected with SARS-CoV-2 experience extreme weight loss and lethality compared to mild infection in wild-type (WT) mice. KO mice have higher lung viral titers and increases in inflammatory cytokine levels, immune cell infiltration, and histopathology. Mechanistically, we observe disseminated viral antigen staining throughout the lung and pulmonary vasculature in KO mice, as well as increased heart infection, indicating that IFITM3 constrains dissemination of SARS-CoV-2. Global transcriptomic analysis of infected lungs shows upregulation of gene signatures associated with interferons, inflammation, and angiogenesis in KO versus WT animals, highlighting changes in lung gene expression programs that precede severe lung pathology and fatality. Our results establish IFITM3 KO mice as a new animal model for studying severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and overall demonstrate that IFITM3 is protective in SARS-CoV-2 infections in vivo.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Mice , COVID-19/genetics , Interferons/genetics , Lung , Mice, Knockout
3.
J Immunol ; 210(9): 1257-1271, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280819

ABSTRACT

Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 that induce mucosal immunity capable of preventing infection and disease remain urgently needed. In this study, we demonstrate the efficacy of Bordetella colonization factor A (BcfA), a novel bacteria-derived protein adjuvant, in SARS-CoV-2 spike-based prime-pull immunizations. We show that i.m. priming of mice with an aluminum hydroxide- and BcfA-adjuvanted spike subunit vaccine, followed by a BcfA-adjuvanted mucosal booster, generated Th17-polarized CD4+ tissue-resident memory T cells and neutralizing Abs. Immunization with this heterologous vaccine prevented weight loss following challenge with mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 (MA10) and reduced viral replication in the respiratory tract. Histopathology showed a strong leukocyte and polymorphonuclear cell infiltrate without epithelial damage in mice immunized with BcfA-containing vaccines. Importantly, neutralizing Abs and tissue-resident memory T cells were maintained until 3 mo postbooster. Viral load in the nose of mice challenged with the MA10 virus at this time point was significantly reduced compared with naive challenged mice and mice immunized with an aluminum hydroxide-adjuvanted vaccine. We show that vaccines adjuvanted with alum and BcfA, delivered through a heterologous prime-pull regimen, provide sustained protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Aluminum Hydroxide , COVID-19 , Humans , Animals , Mice , Immunity, Mucosal , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunization , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(35): e2110105119, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000999

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the main target for neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). The S protein trimer is anchored in the virion membrane in its prefusion (preS) but metastable form. The preS protein has been stabilized by introducing two or six proline substitutions, to generate stabilized, soluble 2P or HexaPro (6P) preS proteins. Currently, it is not known which form is the most immunogenic. Here, we generated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) expressing preS-2P, preS-HexaPro, and native full-length S, and compared their immunogenicity in mice and hamsters. The rVSV-preS-HexaPro produced and secreted significantly more preS protein compared to rVSV-preS-2P. Importantly, rVSV-preS-HexaPro triggered significantly more preS-specific serum IgG antibody than rVSV-preS-2P in both mice and hamsters. Antibodies induced by preS-HexaPro neutralized the B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, B.1.427, and B.1.617.2 variants approximately two to four times better than those induced by preS-2P. Furthermore, preS-HexaPro induced a more robust Th1-biased cellular immune response than preS-2P. A single dose (104 pfu) immunization with rVSV-preS-HexaPro and rVSV-preS-2P provided complete protection against challenge with mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 and B.1.617.2 variant, whereas rVSV-S only conferred partial protection. When the immunization dose was lowered to 103 pfu, rVSV-preS-HexaPro induced two- to sixfold higher antibody responses than rVSV-preS-2P in hamsters. In addition, rVSV-preS-HexaPro conferred 70% protection against lung infection whereas only 30% protection was observed in the rVSV-preS-2P. Collectively, our data demonstrate that both preS-2P and preS-HexaPro are highly efficacious but preS-HexaPro is more immunogenic and protective, highlighting the advantages of using preS-HexaPro in the next generation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Proline , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccine Development , Vesicular Stomatitis , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cricetinae , Humans , Mice , Proline/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vesicular Stomatitis/immunology , Vesicular Stomatitis/prevention & control , Vesicular Stomatitis/virology , Vesiculovirus/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(33): e2201616119, 2022 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960617

ABSTRACT

With the rapid increase in SARS-CoV-2 cases in children, a safe and effective vaccine for this population is urgently needed. The MMR (measles/mumps/rubella) vaccine has been one of the safest and most effective human vaccines used in infants and children since the 1960s. Here, we developed live attenuated recombinant mumps virus (rMuV)-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates using the MuV Jeryl Lynn (JL2) vaccine strain backbone. The soluble prefusion SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (preS) gene, stablized by two prolines (preS-2P) or six prolines (preS-6P), was inserted into the MuV genome at the P-M or F-SH gene junctions in the MuV genome. preS-6P was more efficiently expressed than preS-2P, and preS-6P expression from the P-M gene junction was more efficient than from the F-SH gene junction. In mice, the rMuV-preS-6P vaccine was more immunogenic than the rMuV-preS-2P vaccine, eliciting stronger neutralizing antibodies and mucosal immunity. Sera raised in response to the rMuV-preS-6P vaccine neutralized SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, including the Delta variant equivalently. Intranasal and/or subcutaneous immunization of IFNAR1-/- mice and golden Syrian hamsters with the rMuV-preS-6P vaccine induced high levels of neutralizing antibodies, mucosal immunoglobulin A antibody, and T cell immune responses, and were completely protected from challenge by both SARS-CoV-2 USA-WA1/2020 and Delta variants. Therefore, rMuV-preS-6P is a highly promising COVID-19 vaccine candidate, warranting further development as a tetravalent MMR vaccine, which may include protection against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccine Efficacy , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/genetics , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Mesocricetus , Mice , Mumps virus/genetics , Mumps virus/immunology , Proline/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(21): e2202012119, 2022 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852638

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV-2) is a worldwide health concern, and new treatment strategies are needed. Targeting inflammatory innate immunity pathways holds therapeutic promise, but effective molecular targets remain elusive. Here, we show that human caspase-4 (CASP4) and its mouse homolog, caspase-11 (CASP11), are up-regulated in SARS­CoV-2 infections and that CASP4 expression correlates with severity of SARS­CoV-2 infection in humans. SARS­CoV-2­infected Casp11−/− mice were protected from severe weight loss and lung pathology, including blood vessel damage, compared to wild-type (WT) mice and mice lacking the caspase downstream effector gasdermin-D (Gsdmd−/−). Notably, viral titers were similar regardless of CASP11 knockout. Global transcriptomics of SARS­CoV-2­infected WT, Casp11−/−, and Gsdmd−/− lungs identified restrained expression of inflammatory molecules and altered neutrophil gene signatures in Casp11−/− mice. We confirmed that protein levels of inflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and CXCL1, as well as neutrophil functions, were reduced in Casp11−/− lungs. Additionally, Casp11−/− lungs accumulated less von Willebrand factor, a marker for endothelial damage, but expressed more Kruppel-Like Factor 2, a transcription factor that maintains vascular integrity. Overall, our results demonstrate that CASP4/11 promotes detrimental SARS­CoV-2­induced inflammation and coagulopathy, largely independently of GSDMD, identifying CASP4/11 as a promising drug target for treatment and prevention of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caspases, Initiator/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboinflammation , Animals , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/pathology , Caspases, Initiator/genetics , Disease Progression , Humans , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Severity of Illness Index , Thromboinflammation/enzymology , Thromboinflammation/genetics
7.
J Virol ; 96(7): e0005722, 2022 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759284

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused over 5 million deaths worldwide. Pneumonia and systemic inflammation contribute to its high mortality. Many viruses use heparan sulfate proteoglycans as coreceptors for viral entry, and heparanase (HPSE) is a known regulator of both viral entry and inflammatory cytokines. We evaluated the heparanase inhibitor Roneparstat, a modified heparin with minimum anticoagulant activity, in pathophysiology and therapy for COVID-19. We found that Roneparstat significantly decreased the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, and retroviruses (human T-lymphotropic virus 1 [HTLV-1] and HIV-1) in vitro. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis of cells from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of COVID-19 patients revealed a marked increase in HPSE gene expression in CD68+ macrophages compared to healthy controls. Elevated levels of HPSE expression in macrophages correlated with the severity of COVID-19 and the expression of inflammatory cytokine genes, including IL6, TNF, IL1B, and CCL2. In line with this finding, we found a marked induction of HPSE and numerous inflammatory cytokines in human macrophages challenged with SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein. Treatment with Roneparstat significantly attenuated SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein-mediated inflammatory cytokine release from human macrophages, through disruption of NF-κB signaling. HPSE knockdown in a macrophage cell line also showed diminished inflammatory cytokine production during S1 protein challenge. Taken together, this study provides a proof of concept that heparanase is a target for SARS-CoV-2-mediated pathogenesis and that Roneparstat may serve as a dual-targeted therapy to reduce viral infection and inflammation in COVID-19. IMPORTANCE The complex pathogenesis of COVID-19 consists of two major pathological phases: an initial infection phase elicited by SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication and an inflammation phase that could lead to tissue damage, which can evolve into acute respiratory failure or even death. While the development and deployment of vaccines are ongoing, effective therapy for COVID-19 is still urgently needed. In this study, we explored HPSE blockade with Roneparstat, a phase I clinically tested HPSE inhibitor, in the context of COVID-19 pathogenesis. Treatment with Roneparstat showed wide-spectrum anti-infection activities against SARS-CoV-2, HTLV-1, and HIV-1 in vitro. In addition, HPSE blockade with Roneparstat significantly attenuated SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein-induced inflammatory cytokine release from human macrophages through disruption of NF-κB signaling. Together, this study provides a proof of principle for the use of Roneparstat as a dual-targeting therapy for COVID-19 to decrease viral infection and dampen the proinflammatory immune response mediated by macrophages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Heparin/analogs & derivatives , Cell Line , Cytokines/metabolism , Fenofibrate , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Glucuronidase/genetics , Glucuronidase/metabolism , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunity/drug effects , Inflammation , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , NF-kappa B , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Virol ; 95(20): e0059221, 2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440799

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to dramatic economic and health burdens. Although the worldwide SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaign has begun, exploration of other vaccine candidates is needed due to uncertainties with the current approved vaccines, such as durability of protection, cross-protection against variant strains, and costs of long-term production and storage. In this study, we developed a methyltransferase-defective recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (mtdVSV)-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate. We generated mtdVSVs expressing SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike (S) protein, S1, or its receptor-binding domain (RBD). All of these recombinant viruses grew to high titers in mammalian cells despite high attenuation in cell culture. The SARS-CoV-2 S protein and its truncations were highly expressed by the mtdVSV vector. These mtdVSV-based vaccine candidates were completely attenuated in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice. Among these constructs, mtdVSV-S induced high levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and Th1-biased T-cell immune responses in mice. In Syrian golden hamsters, the serum levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific NAbs triggered by mtdVSV-S were higher than the levels of NAbs in convalescent plasma from recovered COVID-19 patients. In addition, hamsters immunized with mtdVSV-S were completely protected against SARS-CoV-2 replication in lung and nasal turbinate tissues, cytokine storm, and lung pathology. Collectively, our data demonstrate that mtdVSV expressing SARS-CoV-2 S protein is a safe and highly efficacious vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2 infection. IMPORTANCE Viral mRNA cap methyltransferase (MTase) is essential for mRNA stability, protein translation, and innate immune evasion. Thus, viral mRNA cap MTase activity is an excellent target for development of live attenuated or live vectored vaccine candidates. Here, we developed a panel of MTase-defective recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (mtdVSV)-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates expressing full-length S, S1, or several versions of the RBD. These mtdVSV-based vaccine candidates grew to high titers in cell culture and were completely attenuated in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice. Among these vaccine candidates, mtdVSV-S induces high levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) and Th1-biased immune responses in mice. Syrian golden hamsters immunized with mtdVSV-S triggered SARS-CoV-2-specific NAbs at higher levels than those in convalescent plasma from recovered COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, hamsters immunized with mtdVSV-S were completely protected against SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Thus, mtdVSV is a safe and highly effective vector to deliver SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Brain/virology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/genetics , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/metabolism , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mesocricetus , Methyltransferases/genetics , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Mice , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/enzymology , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/physiology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
9.
J Virol ; 94(16)2020 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214962

ABSTRACT

The 5' cap methylation of viral RNA plays important roles in RNA stability, efficient translation, and immune evasion. Thus, RNA cap methylation is an attractive target for antiviral discovery and development of new live attenuated vaccines. For coronaviruses, RNA cap structure is first methylated at the guanine-N-7 (G-N-7) position by nonstructural protein 14 (nsp14), which facilitates and precedes the subsequent ribose 2'-O methylation by the nsp16-nsp10 complex. Using porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an Alphacoronavirus, as a model, we showed that G-N-7 methyltransferase (G-N-7 MTase) of PEDV nsp14 methylated RNA substrates in a sequence-unspecific manner. PEDV nsp14 can efficiently methylate RNA substrates with various lengths in both neutral and alkaline pH environments and can methylate cap analogs (GpppA and GpppG) and single-nucleotide GTP but not ATP, CTP, or UTP. Mutations to the S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) binding motif in the nsp14 abolished the G-N-7 MTase activity and were lethal to PEDV. However, recombinant rPEDV-D350A with a single mutation (D350A) in nsp14, which retained 29.0% of G-N-7 MTase activity, was viable. Recombinant rPEDV-D350A formed a significantly smaller plaque and had significant defects in viral protein synthesis and viral replication in Vero CCL-81 cells and intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-DQ). Notably, rPEDV-D350A induced significantly higher expression of both type I and III interferons in IPEC-DQ cells than the parental rPEDV. Collectively, our results demonstrate that G-N-7 MTase activity of PEDV modulates viral replication, gene expression, and innate immune responses.IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses (CoVs) include a wide range of important human and animal pathogens. Examples of human CoVs include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and the most recently emerged SARS-CoV-2. Examples of pig CoVs include porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), and swine enteric alphacoronavirus (SeACoV). There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs for most of these viruses. All known CoVs encode a bifunctional nsp14 protein which possesses ExoN and guanine-N-7 methyltransferase (G-N-7 MTase) activities, responsible for replication fidelity and RNA cap G-N-7 methylation, respectively. Here, we biochemically characterized G-N-7 MTase of PEDV nsp14 and found that G-N-7 MTase-deficient PEDV was defective in replication and induced greater responses of type I and III interferons. These findings highlight that CoV G-N-7 MTase may be a novel target for rational design of live attenuated vaccines and antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
Exoribonucleases/metabolism , Interferon Type I/biosynthesis , Interferons/biosynthesis , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , RNA Caps/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Exoribonucleases/genetics , Gene Expression , Guanine/metabolism , Immunity, Innate , Methylation , Mutation , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/enzymology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , RNA, Viral/metabolism , S-Adenosylmethionine/metabolism , Swine , Vero Cells , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication , Interferon Lambda
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(12)2021 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125668

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) highlights an urgent need to develop a safe, efficacious, and durable vaccine. Using a measles virus (rMeV) vaccine strain as the backbone, we developed a series of recombinant attenuated vaccine candidates expressing various forms of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and its receptor binding domain (RBD) and evaluated their efficacy in cotton rat, IFNAR-/-mice, IFNAR-/--hCD46 mice, and golden Syrian hamsters. We found that rMeV expressing stabilized prefusion S protein (rMeV-preS) was more potent in inducing SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies than rMeV expressing full-length S protein (rMeV-S), while the rMeVs expressing different lengths of RBD (rMeV-RBD) were the least potent. Animals immunized with rMeV-preS produced higher levels of neutralizing antibody than found in convalescent sera from COVID-19 patients and a strong Th1-biased T cell response. The rMeV-preS also provided complete protection of hamsters from challenge with SARS-CoV-2, preventing replication in lungs and nasal turbinates, body weight loss, cytokine storm, and lung pathology. These data demonstrate that rMeV-preS is a safe and highly efficacious vaccine candidate, supporting its further development as a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Genetic Vectors , Measles virus , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Humans , Immunization , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Measles virus/genetics , Measles virus/immunology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Rats , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics
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