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1.
J Clin Virol ; 150-151: 105156, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773461

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Taiwan, the vaccination program started in March 2021, with ChAdOx1-S being the first available WHO-approved COVID-19 vaccine, followed by Moderna vaccine. This study aimed to investigate the immunogenicity and safety of homologous and heterologous prime-boost regimens with ChAdOx1-S and mRNA-1273. METHODS: From March to November 2021, homologous or heterologous regimens with ChAdOx1-S and mRNA-1273 vaccination (ChAdOx1-S/ChAdOx1-S, mRNA-1273/mRNA-1273, ChAdOx1-S/mRNA-1273) were given to 945 healthy participants. Serum samples were collected at designated time points. The anti-RBD/S1 antibody titers and neutralizing ability were measured by three different immunoassays: Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany), AdviseDx SARS-CoV-2 IgG II (Abbott Diagnostics Division, Sligo, Ireland), and cPass™ SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody Detection Kit (GenScript, New Jersey, USA). RESULTS: We found that heterologous vaccination with ChAdOx1-S/mRNA-1273 had an acceptable safety profile and induced higher total anti-RBD/S1 antibody production (p < 0.0001), yet lower anti-RBD/S1 IgG titer (p < 0.0001) and neutralizing ability (p = 0.0101) than mRNA-1273/mRNA-1273 group. Both regimens showed higher antibody titers and superior neutralizing abilities than ChAdOx1-S/ChAdOx1-S. An age-dependent antibody response to ChAdOx1-S/mRNA-1273 was shown after both the priming and the booster doses. Younger age was associated with higher antibody production and neutralizing ability. CONCLUSIONS: Heterologous ChAdOx1-S/mRNA-1273 vaccination regimen is generally safe and induces a robust humoral immune response that is non-inferior to that of mRNA-1273/mRNA-1273.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan , Vaccination
2.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 26: 308-316, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313234

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the trends in serotypes and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) to dalbavancin, telavancin, tedizolid, eravacycline, omadacycline and other comparator antibiotics from 2017-2020 following implementation of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) and during the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic. METHODS: During the study period, 237 S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from non-duplicate patients, covering 15.0% of IPD cases in Taiwan. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using a Sensititre® system. A latex agglutination method (ImmuLex™ Pneumotest Kit) was used to determine serotypes. RESULTS: Susceptibility rates were high for vancomycin (100%), teicoplanin (100%) and linezolid (100%), followed by ceftaroline (non-meningitis) (98.3%), moxifloxacin (94.9%) and quinupristin/dalfopristin (89.9%). MIC50 and MIC90 values of dalbavancin, telavancin, tedizolid, eravacycline and omadacycline were generally low. Non-vaccine serotype 23A was the leading cause of IPD across the adult age range. Isolates of serotype 15B were slightly fewer than those of PCV-13 serotypes in patients aged ≥65 years. The overall case fatality rate was 15.2% (36/237) but was especially high for non-PCV-13 serotype 15B (21.4%; 3/14). Vaccine coverage was 44.7% for PCV-13 and 49.4% for the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV-23), but was 57% for both PCV-13 and PPSV-23. CONCLUSION: The incidence of IPD was stationary after PCV-13 introduction and only dramatically decreased in the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of dalbavancin, telavancin, tedizolid, eravacycline, omadacycline were generally low for S. pneumoniae causing adult IPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Adult , Aminoglycosides , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Lipoglycopeptides , Oxazolidinones , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Serogroup , Taiwan/epidemiology , Teicoplanin/analogs & derivatives , Teicoplanin/pharmacology , Tetracyclines , Tetrazoles
3.
Respir Med ; 186: 106516, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275693

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is transmitted through respiratory droplets, aerosols and close contact. Cross infections occur because viruses spread rapidly among humans. Nineteen percent (19%) of the infected patients developed severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Hypoxemia usually occurs and patients may require oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation (MV) support. In this article, recently published clinical experience and observational studies were reviewed. Corresponding respiratory therapy regarding different stages of infection is proposed. Infection control principles and respiratory strategies including oxygen therapy, non-invasive respiratory support (NIRS), intubation evaluation, equipment preparation, ventilator settings, special maneuvers comprise of the prone position (PP), recruitment maneuver (RM), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), weaning and extubation are summarized. Respiratory equipment and device disinfection recommendations are worked up. We expect this review article could be used as a reference by healthcare workers in patient care while minimizing the risk of environmental contamination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Infection Control/methods , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiration, Artificial/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/transmission , Cannula , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/transmission , Cross Infection/virology , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
4.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 55(2): 215-224, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274336

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes pneumonia and other invasive diseases, and is a leading cause of mortality in the elderly population. The present study aimed to provide current antimicrobial resistance and epidemiological profiles of S. pneumoniae infections in Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 252 nonduplicate S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from patients admitted to 16 hospitals in Taiwan between January 2017 and December 2019, and were analyzed. The minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics was determined using the Vitek 2 automated system for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Furthermore, epidemiological profiles of S. pneumoniae infections were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the strains analyzed, 88% were recognized as invasive pneumococcal strains. According to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute criteria for non-meningitis, the prevalence of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae demonstrated a declining trend from 43.6% in 2017 to 17.2% in 2019. However, the rate of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae was 85.7% based on the criteria for meningitis. Furthermore, the prevalence of ceftriaxone-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae was 62.7% based on the criteria for meningitis. Isolates demonstrated higher susceptibility toward doripenem and ertapenem than toward meropenem and imipenem. An increased rate of non-susceptibility toward levofloxacin was observed in southern Taiwan (15.1%) and elderly patients (≥65 years; 11.4%). Most isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. CONCLUSION: Empirical treatment with ceftriaxone monotherapy for pneumococcal meningitis should be carefully monitored owing to its high non-susceptibility rate. The susceptibility rates of most isolates to penicillin (used for treating non-meningitis pneumococcal diseases), carbapenems (ertapenem and doripenem), respiratory quinolones (moxifloxacin and levofloxacin), vancomycin, and linezolid suggested the potential of these antibiotics in treating pneumococcal diseases in Taiwan.


Subject(s)
Meningitis, Pneumococcal , Pneumococcal Infections , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Ceftriaxone/pharmacology , Doripenem/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Ertapenem/therapeutic use , Humans , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Linezolid/therapeutic use , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Penicillins/pharmacology , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Pneumococcal Infections/drug therapy , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Taiwan/epidemiology , Vancomycin/pharmacology
5.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 54(5): 794-800, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071666

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly transmitted from person to person, causing global pandemic since December 2019. Instantly detecting COVID-19 is crucial for epidemic prevention. In this study, olfactory dysfunction is a significant symptom in mild to moderate COVID-19 patients but relatively rare in other respiratory viral infections. The Taiwan smell identification test (TWSIT) is a speedy and inexpensive option for accurately distinguishing anosmia that also quantifies the degree of anosmia. Using TWSIT in the outpatient clinic for early identifying the patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 can be promising. METHODS: Nineteen patients confirmed COVID-19 in central Taiwan were collected and divided into two groups: olfactory dysfunction and non-olfactory dysfunction. Demographic characteristics, laboratory findings, and the results of the olfactory test were compared between these two groups. FINDINGS: Thirteen (68.4%) of the 19 patients had olfactory dysfunction. The patients with olfactory dysfunction were younger than those without this symptom. The statistical difference in age distribution was significant between these two groups (IQR: 25.5-35.5 vs. IQR: 32.5-60.3; p-value: 0.012). There was no significant difference in gender, smoking history, comorbidities, travel history, respiratory tract infection symptoms, and laboratory findings between these two groups. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that young adults were prone to develop olfactory dysfunctions. In the flu season, olfactory dysfunction is considered a specific screening criterion for early detecting COVID-19 in the community. TWSIT can serve as a decent test for quantifying and qualifying olfactory dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anosmia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2157-2168, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780276

ABSTRACT

This multicenter, retrospective study included 346 serum samples from 74 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 194 serum samples from non-COVID-19 patients to evaluate the performance of five anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody tests, i.e. two chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIAs): Roche Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Test (Roche Test) and Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG (Abbott Test), and three lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs): Wondfo SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Test (Wondfo Test), ASK COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test (ASK Test), and Dynamiker 2019-nCoV IgG/IgM Rapid Test (Dynamiker Test). We found high diagnostic sensitivities (%, 95% confidence interval [CI]) for the Roche Test (97.4%, 93.4-99.0%), Abbott Test (94.0%, 89.1-96.8%), Wondfo Test (91.4%, 85.8-94.9%), ASK Test (97.4%, 93.4-99.0%), and Dynamiker Test (90.1%, 84.3-94.0%) after >21 days of symptom onset. Meanwhile, the diagnostic specificity was 99.0% (95% CI, 96.3-99.7%) for the Roche Test, 97.9% (95% CI, 94.8-99.2%) for the Abbott Test, and 100.0% (95% CI, 98.1-100.0%) for the three LFIAs. Cross-reactivity was observed in sera containing anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG/IgM antibodies and autoantibodies. No difference was observed in the time to seroconversion detection of the five serological tests. Specimens from patients with COVID-19 pneumonia demonstrated a shorter seroconversion time and higher chemiluminescent signal than those without pneumonia. Our data suggested that understanding the dynamic antibody response after COVID-19 infection and performance characteristics of different serological test are crucial for the appropriate interpretation of serological test result for the diagnosis and risk assessment of patient with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunoassay/methods , Luminescent Measurements/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/standards , Luminescent Measurements/standards , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion , Serologic Tests , Severity of Illness Index , Taiwan/epidemiology
7.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 53(4): 652-656, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324528

ABSTRACT

A 63-year-old diabetic smoker with alcoholism was the first mortality case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Taiwan. As concurrently infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae and subsequently with Klebsiella aerogenes, he was exposed by a national survey of patients with critically influenza-negative pneumonia. We recommend COVID-19 screening for patients with severe flu-like syndrome and protecting health-care workers from being infected.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/diagnosis , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/pathology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/physiopathology , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan
9.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 53(3): 459-466, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-19981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CO-V-2), was first reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China has now rapidly spread over 50 countries. For the prevention and control of infection, Taiwan Centers for Disease Control initiated testing of SARS-CoV-2 on January 24th 2020 for persons suspected with this disease. Until February 28th, 43 flu-like symptomatic patients were screened in China Medical University Hospital. METHODS: Two patients were confirmed positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection by rRT-PCR as COVID-19 patients A and B. Causative pathogens for included patients were detected using FilmArray™ Respiratory Panel. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical presentations, laboratory data, radiologic findings, and travel and exposure contact histories, of the COVID-19 patients in comparison to those with other respiratory infections. RESULTS: Through contact with Taiwan No. 19 case patient on 27th January, COVID-19 patients A and B were infected. Both patients had no identified comorbidities and developed mild illness with temporal fever, persistent cough, and lung interstitial infiltrates. Owing to the persistence of positive SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory specimen, the two COVID-19 patients are still in the isolation rooms despite recovery until 10th of March. The results of FilmArrayTM Respiratory Panel revealed 22 of the 41 non-COVID-19 patients were infected by particular pathogens. In general, seasonal respiratory pathogens are more prevalent than SARS-CoV-2 in symptomatic patients in non- COVID-19 endemic area during the flu season. Since all patients shared similar clinical and laboratory findings, expanded surveillance of detailed exposure history for suspected patients and application of rapid detection tools are highly recommended.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Taiwan/epidemiology , Travel
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