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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307141

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic shows that indoor air disinfection is extremely important. As early as 2012, Taiwan has released indoor air quality standards, and in 2017 announced the second batch of places that should meet indoor air quality standards including sports and fitness places. In this study, the indoor air quality was monitored in the indoor exercise and fitness center under normal operating conditions of air conditioning and ventilation as well as user flow. Chlorine dioxide and weak acid hypochlorite solutions, and water scrubbing were used to improve the quality of the indoor environment under different operating modes. This study investigated the air quality improvement in terms of bacteria and fungi contamination of the indoor exercise and fitness center under normal operating conditions including air conditioning, ventilation, and user flow. In addition, bacteria contamination and disinfection on sports equipment surface were also examined. Background bacteria and fungi densities in bioaerosols were in the range of 249 ± 65 to 812 ± 111 CFU/m 3 and 226 ± 39 to 837 ± 838 CFU/m 3 in the indoor air of the fitness center and 370 ± 86 to 953 ± 136 CFU/m 3 and 465 ± 108 to 1,734 ± 580 CFU/m 3 in the outdoor air, respectively. Chlorine dioxide and weak acid hypochlorous water aerosols could remove both bacteria and fungi much better than water scrubbing. Contact time of 15 minutes was sufficient to control both bacteria and fungi to comply with the official air quality standards. User density and carbon dioxide deteriorated both bacteria and fungi disinfection performance whereas temperature was only statistically significant on fungi disinfection. Other factors including relative humidity, airflow velocity, and particulate matters did not have any statistically significant effect on microbial inactivation. Handle of bicycle, dumbbell, and sit-up bench were found to be contaminated with bacteria and E. coli . Detected densities for bacteria and E. coli on the surface of these sport equipment were in the range of 390 ± 2 to 3,720 ± 736 CFU/cm 2 and 550 ± 70 to 1,080 ± 114 CFU/cm 2 , respectively. Microbial densities detected largely depended on the number of users for each specific equipment. Chlorine dioxide and zinc oxide were noticeably better than weak acid hypochlorous water and commercial disinfectant in term of bacteria inactivation whereas all tested disinfectants had comparable effectiveness on E. coli disinfection. Targeted microorganisms were sufficiently inactivated within 2 minutes after the application of disinfectant.

2.
COVID ; 1(4):666-673, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1542439

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has high infectivity and some of its variants have higher transmissibility. To explore the high infectivity mechanism, the charge distributions of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and variants of concern were calculated through a series of net charge calculation formulas. The results showed that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein had more positive charges than that of SARS-CoV. Further results showed that the variants had similar but higher positive charges than preexisting SARS-CoV-2. In particular, the Delta variant had the greatest increase in positive charges in S1 resulting in the highest infectivity. In particular, the S1 positive charge increased greatly in the Delta variant. The S1 positive charge increased, and due to the large negative charge of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), this resulted in a large increase in Coulomb’s force between S1 and ACE2. This finding agrees with the expectation that the positive charges in the spike protein result in more negative charges on SARS-CoV-2 antibodies than that of SARS-CoV. Thus, the infectivity of a novel SARS-CoV-2 variant may be evaluated preliminarily by calculating the charge distribution.

3.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 81(8): 679-686, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510707

ABSTRACT

Understanding factors associated with disease severity and mortality from coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was critical for effective risk stratification. We aimed to investigate the association between biomarkers of clinical laboratory tests, including serum C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid protein (SAA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and D-dimer (DD) and poor prognosis of COVID-19. We have searched many studies on COVID-19 on PubMed (Medline), Web of Science and Cochrane until 1 March 2021. The interest of this study was original articles reporting on laboratory testing projects and outcome of patients with COVID-19 that comprises mortality, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), need for care in an intensive care unit (ICU), and severe COVID-19. After synthesizing all data, we performed meta-analysis of random effects, and determined mean difference (MD) and standard mean difference at the biomarker level for different disease severity. A total of 7,739 patients with COVID-19 were pooled from 32 studies. CRP was significantly associated with poor prognosis of COVID-19 (SMD = 0.98, 95% CI = (0.85, 1.11), p < .001). Elevated SAA was associated with an increased composite poor outcome in COVID-19 (SMD = 1.06, 95% CI = (0.39, 1.72), p = .002). An elevated LDH was associated with a composite poor outcome (SMD = 1.18, 95% CI = (1.00, 1.36), p < .001). Patients with a composite poor outcome had a higher DD level (SMD = 0.91, 95% CI = (0.79, 1.02), p < .001). This meta-analysis showed that elevated serum CRP, SAA, LDH, and DD were associated with a poor outcome in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Mathematics ; 9(15):1715, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1325728

ABSTRACT

Since its conception, corporate social responsibility (CSR) has seen continuous growth and become a highly discussed issue. In this paper, we propose an evaluation of how the COVID-19 pandemic could impact CSR applications. The pandemic has provided an opportunity for commerce to move on to being more authentic, to offer genuine CSR applications and to contribute toward dealing with pressing environmental and social issues. Hence, this purpose of the research is to obtain a better understanding of whether the integration of environment, social, corporate governance and economic (ESGE) aspects into CSR strategies can support sustainable development toward more sustainable growth during the COVID-19 pandemic. To meet this challenge, we offer a mixture multiple-criteria decision making (MCDM) model. Very few empirical studies have discussed CSR in the high-tech industry and proposed strategies and planning for ESGE efficiency. Using interviews with experts and a literature review, we identify the elements related to actual practices of the high-tech industry’s appraisal and the integrated MCDM techniques to suggest efficient enhancement models. The best worst method (BWM) and modified VIKOR are implemented to estimate the strategic weights and the gaps of the aspiration value. The results are valuable for classifying the priorities of CSR and are therefore helpful for those who are associated with high-tech industry management, practices and implementation.

5.
J Integr Med ; 19(5): 460-466, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260803

ABSTRACT

There is currently no drug or therapy that can cure the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is highly contagious and can be life-threatening in severe cases. Therefore, seeking potential effective therapies is an urgent task. An older female at the Leishenshan Hospital in Wuhan, China, with a severe case of COVID-19 with significant shortness of breath and decrease in peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), was treated using manual acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine granule formula Fuzheng Rescue Lung with Xuebijing Injection in addition to standard care. The patient's breath rate, SpO2, heart rate, ratio of neutrophil/lymphocyte (NLR), ratio of monocyte/lymphocyte (MLR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and chest computed tomography were monitored. Acupuncture significantly improved the patient's breathing function, increased SpO2, and decreased her heart rate. Chinese herbal medicine might make the effect of acupuncture more stable; the use of herbal medicine also seemed to accelerate the absorption of lung infection lesions when its dosage was increased. The combination of acupuncture and herbs decreased NLR from 14.14 to 5.83, MLR from 1.15 to 0.33 and CRP from 15.25 to 6.01 mg/L. These results indicate that acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine, as adjuvants to standard care, might achieve better results in treating severe cases of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Treatment Outcome
6.
Sustainability ; 13(8):4348, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1187043

ABSTRACT

The effects of green marketing orientations for increasing the competitive advantage and improving the sustainability of the hospitality industry during the COVID-19 pandemic are receiving more attention. As the hospitality industry attempts to assimilate green marketing and move in the path of sustainable development, administrators need to expand their efforts for improving natural environmental orientation (NEO), market orientation, resource orientation, and brand orientation by applying their green marketing orientations to hospitality’s strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Only few studies have examined the improvement of green marketing orientations. The objective of the research is to address this issue, applying the methods of fuzzy mixture MCDM (multiple criteria decision-making), with fuzzy decision-making trials and an evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL), and fuzzy DEMATEL-based ANP (fuzzy DANP) to inspect the feedback and interdependent issues among numerous elements/dimensions of green marketing orientations. In an uncertain environment, an empirical case study of the hospitality industry is shown to demonstrate the recommended combined approaches and, finally, to state the best enhancement approaches for administrators. This result shows that the natural environmental orientation is the most important factor.

7.
Appl Clin Inform ; 12(2): 266-273, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171630

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease with strong infectious power and fatality rate. To protect national health, government agencies have regulations on hospital chaperoning and visiting. This article presents the development and implementation of a monitoring system for hospital visiting and chaperoning during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study aimed to create a hospital visiting and chaperoning monitor system that uses nation-wide data sources to more accurately screen hospital visitors and chaperones, assist contract tracing, and prevent transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. METHODS: This project was implemented in 57 ward units of an academic medical center. The system was connected to the National Health Insurance (NHI) system and Hospital Information System (HIS), and built on the data of everyone who accessed either the hospital or ward using an NHI smart card or national identification card. To shorten the time for manual identification, we also developed a new system of "app for appointment visits and chaperones" to make appointments online. RESULTS: After the implementation of the system, data from visitors and chaperones in the nursing information system could be accessed. Given that all data were registered in the HIS visiting/chaperoning monitor system, an epidemic investigation could be performed whenever there was a confirmed case. CONCLUSION: Through the establishment of this system, people entering the ward can be accurately controlled, and all the contacts of potential cases can be traced.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals , Medical Chaperones , Pandemics , Visitors to Patients , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 814, 2021 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065864

ABSTRACT

On the basis of Covid-19-induced pulmonary pathological and vascular changes, we hypothesize that the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drug bevacizumab might be beneficial for treating Covid-19 patients. From Feb 15 to April 5, 2020, we conducted a single-arm trial (NCT04275414) and recruited 26 patients from 2-centers (China and Italy) with severe Covid-19, with respiratory rate ≥30 times/min, oxygen saturation ≤93% with ambient air, or partial arterial oxygen pressure to fraction of inspiration O2 ratio (PaO2/FiO2) >100 mmHg and ≤300 mmHg, and diffuse pneumonia confirmed by chest imaging. Followed up for 28 days. Among these, bevacizumab plus standard care markedly improves the PaO2/FiO2 ratios at days 1 and 7. By day 28, 24 (92%) patients show improvement in oxygen-support status, 17 (65%) patients are discharged, and none show worsen oxygen-support status nor die. Significant reduction of lesion areas/ratios are shown in chest computed tomography (CT) or X-ray within 7 days. Of 14 patients with fever, body temperature normalizes within 72 h in 13 (93%) patients. Relative to comparable controls, bevacizumab shows clinical efficacy by improving oxygenation and shortening oxygen-support duration. Our findings suggest bevacizumab plus standard care is highly beneficial for patients with severe Covid-19. Randomized controlled trial is warranted.


Subject(s)
Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aged , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Body Temperature/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , China , Female , Fever/prevention & control , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome
9.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4461

ABSTRACT

A review. High-resolution CT scan can detect lung lesion before patients show clin. symptoms, which plays a greater role in COVID-19 clin. screening and disease severity assessment. The article reviews the pathogenesis, imaging technol., imaging features, and differential diagnosis of COVID-19.

10.
Dig Dis Sci ; 66(11): 4026-4034, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: To investigate the risk of hepatitis B virus reactivation in patients undergoing long-term tocilizumab therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. METHOD: From January 2011 through August 2019, a total of 97 patients were enrolled in this retrospective study. Clinical data, comedications, and the occurrence of HBV reactivation were recorded. RESULTS: Seven patients were HBsAg+ (7.2%), 64 were HBsAg-/HBcAb+ (65.9%), and 26 were HBsAg-/HBcAb- (26.8%). The median disease follow-up time was 9 years. TCZ was administered for a median of 29 months. Four patients (4.1%) experienced HBV reactivation after tocilizumab therapy. Of the 7 HBsAg+ patients, 4 received antiviral prophylaxis and had no HBV reactivation; the remaining 3 patients did not receive antiviral prophylaxis, and all 3 (100%) experienced HBV reactivation and hepatitis flare-up. Hyperbilirubinemia occurred in 2 of these 3 patients, with mild prothrombin time prolongation in one. After salvage entecavir treatment, all patients had a favorable outcome. Of the 64 HBsAg-/HBcAb+ patients, only one became positive for serum HBV DNA (2.5 × 107 IU/mL) after 18 months of tocilizumab treatment (1.6%; 1/64). This patient was immediately treated with entecavir, which prevented hepatitis flare-up. CONCLUSIONS: Tocilizumab is widely used in treating rheumatoid arthritis and has the potential to reduce the mortality rate among severe COVID-19 patients. However, HBV reactivation needs to be considered. HBsAg+ patients have a high risk of HBV reactivation, which could be prevented by antiviral prophylaxis. Although the risk of reactivation is low in HBsAg-/HBcAb+ patients, strict monitoring is necessary.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Virus Activation/drug effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Guanine/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B virus/physiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Virus Latency/drug effects
11.
Front Neurol ; 11: 498, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-589794

ABSTRACT

Objective: Review and integrate the neurologic manifestations of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, to aid medical practitioners who are combating the newly derived infectious disease. Methods: We reviewed the clinical research, consisting of mainly case series, on reported neurologic manifestations of COVID-19. We also reviewed basic studies to understand the mechanism of these neurologic symptoms and signs. Results: We included 79 studies for qualitative synthesis and 63 studies for meta-analysis. The reported neurologic manifestations were olfactory/taste disorders (35.6%), myalgia (18.5%), headache (10.7%), acute cerebral vascular disease (8.1%), dizziness (7.9%), altered mental status (7.8%), seizure (1.5%), encephalitis, neuralgia, ataxia, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Miller Fisher syndrome, intracerebral hemorrhage, polyneuritis cranialis, and dystonic posture. Conclusions: Neurologic manifestations in COVID-19 may alert physicians and medical practitioners to rule in high-risk patients. The increasing incidence of olfactory/taste disorders, myalgia, headache, and acute cerebral vascular disease renders a possibility that COVID-19 could attack the nervous system. The cytokine secretion and bloodstream circulation (viremia) are among the most possible routes into the nervous system.

12.
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi ; 23(4): 255-260, 2020 Apr 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-17439

ABSTRACT

The worldwide epidemic of three coronaviruses and one influenza virus in 21st century have seriously threatened human health. Infection with these viruses can cause respiratory symptoms. The patients with lung cancer are more susceptible to viral infection and have a worse prognosis due to the advanced age and the systemic immunosuppressive state caused by malignancy itself and the anticancer treatments. In addition, without sufficient clinical awareness, a missed diagnosis of viral pneumonia may occur due to the fever and respiratory symptoms caused by lung cancer and its secondary diseases. Furthermore, control measures against viral outbreaks may interfere with routine diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer patients. Therefore, scientific protection and individualized management of lung cancer patients are particularly important during virus epidemic prevention and control. Here, we systematically reviewed the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of viral pneumonia, its impact on patients with lung cancer and the differential diagnosis of lung cancer-related respiratory manifestations, aiming to provide guidance for the individual management of lung cancer patients during the prevention and control of viral pneumonia epidemic.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Precision Medicine
13.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(5): 361-368, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-8786

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence in December 2019, corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has impacted several countries, affecting more than 90 thousand patients and making it a global public threat. The routes of transmission are direct contact, and droplet and possible aerosol transmissions. Due to the unique nature of dentistry, most dental procedures generate significant amounts of droplets and aerosols, posing potential risks of infection transmission. Understanding the significance of aerosol transmission and its implications in dentistry can facilitate the identification and correction of negligence in daily dental practice. In addition to the standard precautions, some special precautions that should be implemented during an outbreak have been raised in this review.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Dentistry , Infection Control/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
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