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2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(7): 190-198, 2023 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238937

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccine booster doses are safe and maintain protection after receipt of a primary vaccination series and reduce the risk for serious COVID-19-related outcomes, including emergency department visits, hospitalization, and death (1,2). CDC recommended an updated (bivalent) booster for adolescents aged 12-17 years and adults aged ≥18 years on September 1, 2022 (3). The bivalent booster is formulated to protect against the Omicron BA.4 and BA.5 subvariants of SARS-CoV-2 as well as the original (ancestral) strain (3). Based on data collected during October 30-December 31, 2022, from the National Immunization Survey-Child COVID Module (NIS-CCM) (4), among all adolescents aged 12-17 years who completed a primary series, 18.5% had received a bivalent booster dose, 52.0% had not yet received a bivalent booster but had parents open to booster vaccination for their child, 15.1% had not received a bivalent booster and had parents who were unsure about getting a booster vaccination for their child, and 14.4% had parents who were reluctant to seek booster vaccination for their child. Based on data collected during October 30-December 31, 2022, from the National Immunization Survey-Adult COVID Module (NIS-ACM) (4), 27.1% of adults who had completed a COVID-19 primary series had received a bivalent booster, 39.4% had not yet received a bivalent booster but were open to receiving booster vaccination, 12.4% had not yet received a bivalent booster and were unsure about getting a booster vaccination, and 21.1% were reluctant to receive a booster. Adolescents and adults in rural areas had a much lower primary series completion rate and up-to-date vaccination coverage. Bivalent booster coverage was lower among non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black) and Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic) adolescents and adults compared with non-Hispanic White (White) adolescents and adults. Among adults who were open to receiving booster vaccination, 58.9% reported not having received a provider recommendation for booster vaccination, 16.9% had safety concerns, and 4.4% reported difficulty getting a booster vaccine. Among adolescents with parents who were open to getting a booster vaccination for their child, 32.4% had not received a provider recommendation for any COVID-19 vaccination, and 11.8% had parents who reported safety concerns. Although bivalent booster vaccination coverage among adults differed by factors such as income, health insurance status, and social vulnerability index (SVI), these factors were not associated with differences in reluctance to seek booster vaccination. Health care provider recommendations for COVID-19 vaccination; dissemination of information by trusted messengers about the continued risk for COVID-19-related illness and the benefits and safety of bivalent booster vaccination; and reducing barriers to vaccination could improve COVID-19 bivalent booster coverage among adolescents and adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Adult , United States/epidemiology , Adolescent , Vaccination Coverage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(16): 437-444, 2023 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294643

ABSTRACT

In 2021, the CDC Director declared that racism is a serious threat to public health,* reflecting a growing awareness of racism as a cause of health inequities, health disparities, and disease. Racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19-related hospitalization and death (1,2) illustrate the need to examine root causes, including experiences of discrimination. This report describes the association between reported experiences of discrimination in U.S. health care settings and COVID-19 vaccination status and intent to be vaccinated by race and ethnicity during April 22, 2021-November 26, 2022, based on the analysis of interview data collected from 1,154,347 respondents to the National Immunization Survey-Adult COVID Module (NIS-ACM). Overall, 3.5% of adults aged ≥18 years reported having worse health care experiences compared with persons of other races and ethnicities (i.e., they experienced discrimination), with significantly higher percentages reported by persons who identified as non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black) (10.7%), non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) (7.2%), non-Hispanic multiple or other race (multiple or other race) (6.7%), Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic) (4.5%), non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) (3.9%), and non-Hispanic Asian (Asian) (2.8%) than by non-Hispanic White (White) persons (1.6%). Unadjusted differences in prevalence of being unvaccinated against COVID-19 among respondents reporting worse health care experiences than persons of other races and ethnicities compared with those who reported that their health care experiences were the same as those of persons of other races and ethnicities were statistically significant overall (5.3) and for NHOPI (19.2), White (10.5), multiple or other race (5.7), Black (4.6), Asian (4.3), and Hispanic (2.6) adults. Findings were similar for vaccination intent. Eliminating inequitable experiences in health care settings might help reduce some disparities in receipt of a COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Healthcare Disparities , Racism , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Ethnicity , Health Services Accessibility , United States/epidemiology
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(1): 133-140, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299162

ABSTRACT

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a COVID-19 vaccine booster dose for all persons >18 years of age. We analyzed data from the National Immunization Survey-Adult COVID Module collected during February 27-March 26, 2022 to assess COVID-19 booster dose vaccination coverage among adults. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to assess factors associated with vaccination. COVID-19 booster dose coverage among fully vaccinated adults increased from 25.7% in November 2021 to 63.4% in March 2022. Coverage was lower among non-Hispanic Black (52.7%), and Hispanic (55.5%) than non-Hispanic White adults (67.7%). Coverage was 67.4% among essential healthcare personnel, 62.2% among adults who had a disability, and 69.9% among adults who had medical conditions. Booster dose coverage was not optimal, and disparities by race/ethnicity and other factors are apparent in coverage uptake. Tailored strategies are needed to educate the public and reduce disparities in COVID-19 vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
5.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 32(3): 260-270, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271732

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women* and their infants are at increased risk for serious influenza, pertussis, and COVID-19-related complications, including preterm birth, low-birth weight, and maternal and fetal death. The advisory committee on immunization practices recommends pregnant women receive tetanus-toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy, and influenza and COVID-19 vaccines before or during pregnancy. Vaccination coverage estimates and factors associated with maternal vaccination are measured by various surveillance systems. The objective of this report is to provide a detailed overview of the following surveillance systems that can be used to assess coverage of vaccines recommended for pregnant women: Internet panel survey, National Health Interview Survey, National Immunization Survey-Adult COVID Module, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, Vaccine Safety Datalink, and MarketScan. Influenza, Tdap, and COVID-19 vaccination coverage estimates vary by data source, and select estimates are presented. Each surveillance system differs in the population of pregnant women, time period, geographic area for which estimates can be obtained, how vaccination status is determined, and data collected regarding vaccine-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and barriers. Thus, multiple systems are useful for a more complete understanding of maternal vaccination. Ongoing surveillance from the various systems to obtain vaccination coverage and information regarding disparities and barriers related to vaccination are needed to guide program and policy improvements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Premature Birth , Whooping Cough , Adult , Infant , Female , United States , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Humans , Pregnant Women , Vaccination Coverage , COVID-19 Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use
6.
Am J Prev Med ; 64(6): 865-876, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239286

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 vaccines are safe, effective, and widely available, but many adults in the U.S. have not been vaccinated for COVID-19. This study examined the associations between behavioral and social drivers of vaccination with COVID-19 vaccine uptake in the U.S. adults and their prevalence by region. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of U.S. adults participated in a cross-sectional telephone survey in August-November 2021; the analysis was conducted in January 2022. Survey questions assessed self-reported COVID-19 vaccine initiation, demographics, and behavioral and social drivers of vaccination. RESULTS: Among the 255,763 respondents, 76% received their first dose of COVID-19 vaccine. Vaccine uptake was higher among respondents aged ≥75 years (94%), females (78%), and Asian non-Hispanic people (94%). The drivers of vaccination most strongly associated with uptake included higher anticipated regret from nonvaccination, risk perception, and confidence in vaccine safety and importance, followed by work- or school-related vaccination requirements, social norms, and provider recommendation (all p<0.05). The direction of association with uptake varied by reported level of difficulty in accessing vaccines. The prevalence of all of these behavioral and social drivers of vaccination was highest in the Northeast region and lowest in the Midwest and South. CONCLUSIONS: This nationally representative survey found that COVID-19 vaccine uptake was most strongly associated with greater anticipated regret, risk perception, and confidence in vaccine safety and importance, followed by vaccination requirements and social norms. Interventions that leverage these social and behavioral drivers of vaccination have the potential to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake and could be considered for other vaccine introductions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Female , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Cognition
7.
Am J Prev Med ; 64(5): 734-741, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233982

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Focusing on subpopulations that express the intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccination but are unvaccinated may improve the yield of COVID-19 vaccination efforts. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 789,658 U.S. adults aged ≥18 years participated in the National Immunization Survey Adult COVID Module from May 2021 to April 2022. The survey assessed respondents' COVID-19 vaccination status and intent by demographic characteristics (age, urbanicity, educational attainment, region, insurance, income, and race/ethnicity). This study compared composition and within-group estimates of those who responded that they definitely or probably will get vaccinated or are unsure (moveable middle) from the first and last month of data collection. RESULTS: Because vaccination uptake increased over the study period, the moveable middle declined among persons aged ≥18 years. Adults aged 18-39 years and suburban residents comprised most of the moveable middle in April 2022. Groups with the largest moveable middles in April 2022 included persons with no insurance (10%), those aged 18-29 years (8%), and those with incomes below poverty (8%), followed by non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander (7%), non-Hispanic multiple or other race (6%), non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native persons (6%), non-Hispanic Black or African American persons (6%), those with below high school education (6%), those with high school education (5%), and those aged 30-39 years (5%). CONCLUSIONS: A sizable percentage of adults open to receiving COVID-19 vaccination remain in several demographic groups. Emphasizing engagement of persons who are unvaccinated in some racial/ethnic groups, aged 18-39 years, without health insurance, or with lower income may reach more persons open to vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data
8.
Prev Med ; 167: 107415, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165969

ABSTRACT

By the end of 2021, approximately 15% of U.S. adults remained unvaccinated against COVID-19, and vaccination initiation rates had stagnated. We used unsupervised machine learning (K-means clustering) to identify clusters of unvaccinated respondents based on Behavioral and Social Drivers (BeSD) of COVID-19 vaccination and compared these clusters to vaccinated participants to better understand social/behavioral factors of non-vaccination. The National Immunization Survey Adult COVID Module collects data on U.S. adults from September 26-December 31,2021 (n = 187,756). Among all participants, 51.6% were male, with a mean age of 61 years, and the majority were non-Hispanic White (62.2%), followed by Hispanic (17.2%), Black (11.9%), and others (8.7%). K-means clustering procedure was used to classify unvaccinated participants into three clusters based on 9 survey BeSD items, including items assessing COVID-19 risk perception, social norms, vaccine confidence, and practical issues. Among unvaccinated adults (N = 23,397), 3 clusters were identified: the "Reachable" (23%), "Less reachable" (27%), and the "Least reachable" (50%). The least reachable cluster reported the lowest concern about COVID-19, mask-wearing behavior, perceived vaccine confidence, and were more likely to be male, non-Hispanic White, with no health conditions, from rural counties, have previously had COVID-19, and have not received a COVID-19 vaccine recommendation from a healthcare provider. This study identified, described, and compared the characteristics of the three unvaccinated subgroups. Public health practitioners, healthcare providers and community leaders can use these characteristics to better tailor messaging for each sub-population. Our findings may also help inform decisionmakers exploring possible policy interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Social Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization , Cluster Analysis
9.
Am J Public Health ; 112(11): 1599-1610, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065243

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To explore previous COVID-19 diagnosis and COVID-19 vaccination status among US essential worker groups. Methods. We analyzed the US Census Household Pulse Survey (May 26-July 5, 2021), a nationally representative sample of adults aged 18 years and older. We compared currently employed essential workers working outside the home with those working at home using adjusted prevalence ratios. We calculated proportion vaccinated and intention to be vaccinated, stratifying by essential worker and demographic groups for those who worked or volunteered outside the home since January 1, 2021. Results. The proportion of workers with previous COVID-19 diagnosis was highest among first responders (24.9%) working outside the home compared with workers who did not (13.3%). Workers in agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting had the lowest vaccination rates (67.5%) compared with all workers (77.8%). Those without health insurance were much less likely to be vaccinated across all worker groups. Conclusions. This study underscores the importance of improving surveillance to monitor COVID-19 and other infectious diseases among workers and identify and implement tailored risk mitigation strategies, including vaccination campaigns, for workplaces. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(11):1599-1610. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.307010).


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines , COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , SAIDS Vaccines , Adult , BCG Vaccine , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine , Humans , Intention , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Vaccination
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_2): S182-S192, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051351

ABSTRACT

The National Immunization Survey Adult COVID Module used a random-digit-dialed phone survey during 22 April 2021-29 January 2022 to quantify coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination, intent, attitudes, and barriers by detailed race/ethnicity, interview language, and nativity. Foreign-born respondents overall and within racial/ethnic categories had higher vaccination coverage (80.9%), higher intent to be vaccinated (4.2%), and lower hesitancy toward COVID-19 vaccination (6.0%) than US-born respondents (72.6%, 2.9%, and 15.8%, respectively). Vaccination coverage was significantly lower for certain subcategories of national origin or heritage (eg, Jamaican [68.6%], Haitian [60.7%], Somali [49.0%] in weighted estimates). Respondents interviewed in Spanish had lower vaccination coverage than interviewees in English but higher intent to be vaccinated and lower reluctance. Collection and analysis of nativity, detailed race/ethnicity and language information allow identification of disparities among racial/ethnic subgroups. Vaccination programs could use such information to implement culturally and linguistically appropriate focused interventions among communities with lower vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Adult , Attitude , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Haiti , Humans , Intention , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
11.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(9): ofac446, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037502

ABSTRACT

A tree model identified adults age ≤34 years, Johnson & Johnson primary series recipients, people from racial/ethnic minority groups, residents of nonlarge metro areas, and those living in socially vulnerable communities in the South as less likely to be boosted. These findings can guide clinical/public health outreach toward specific subpopulations.

13.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2012014

ABSTRACT

A tree model identified adults aged ≤34 years, Johnson & Johnson primary series recipients, people from racial/ethnic minority groups, residents of non-large metro areas, and those living in socially vulnerable communities in the South as less likely to be boosted. These findings can guide clinical/public health outreach toward specific sub-populations.

14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(23): 757-763, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955140

ABSTRACT

Some racial and ethnic minority groups have experienced disproportionately higher rates of COVID-19-related illness and mortality (1,2). Vaccination is highly effective in preventing severe COVID-19 illness and death (3), and equitable vaccination can reduce COVID-19-related disparities. CDC analyzed data from the National Immunization Survey Adult COVID Module (NIS-ACM), a random-digit-dialed cellular telephone survey of adults aged ≥18 years, to assess disparities in COVID-19 vaccination coverage by race and ethnicity among U.S. adults during December 2020-November 2021. Asian and non-Hispanic White (White) adults had the highest ≥1-dose COVID-19 vaccination coverage by the end of April 2021 (69.6% and 59.0%, respectively); ≥1-dose coverage was lower among Hispanic (47.3%), non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black) (46.3%), Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander (NH/OPI) (45.9%), multiple or other race (42.6%), and American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) (38.7%) adults. By the end of November 2021, national ≥1-dose COVID-19 vaccination coverage was similar for Black (78.2%), Hispanic (81.3%), NH/OPI (75.7%), and White adults (78.7%); however, coverage remained lower for AI/AN (61.8%) and multiple or other race (68.0%) adults. Booster doses of COVID-19 vaccine are now recommended for all adults (4), but disparities in booster dose coverage among the fully vaccinated have become apparent (5). Tailored efforts including community partnerships and trusted sources of information could be used to increase vaccination coverage among the groups with identified persistent disparities and can help achieve vaccination equity and prevent new disparities by race and ethnicity in booster dose coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Minority Groups , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
15.
Am J Prev Med ; 63(6): 883-893, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936001

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about how the drivers of COVID-19 vaccination vary across the U.S. To inform vaccination outreach efforts, this study explores geographic variation in correlates of COVID-19 nonvaccination among adults. METHODS: Participants were a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults identified through random-digit dialing for the National Immunization Survey-Adult COVID Module. Analyses examined the geographic and temporal landscape of constructs in the Behavioral and Social Drivers of Vaccination Framework among unvaccinated respondents from May 2021 to December 2021 (n=531,798) and sociodemographic and geographic disparities and Behavioral and Social Drivers of Vaccination predictors of COVID-19 nonvaccination from October 2021 to December 2021 (n=187,756). RESULTS: National coverage with at least 1 dose of COVID-19 vaccine was 79.3% by December 2021, with substantial geographic heterogeneity. Regions with the largest proportion of unvaccinated persons who would probably get a COVID-19 vaccine or were unsure resided in the Southeast and Midwest (Health and Human Services Regions 4 and 5). Both regions had similar temporal trends regarding concerns about COVID-19 and confidence in vaccine importance, although the Southeast had especially low confidence in vaccine safety in December 2021, lowest in Florida (5.5%) and highest in North Carolina (18.0%). The strongest Behavioral and Social Drivers of Vaccination correlate of not receiving a COVID-19 vaccination was lower confidence in COVID-19 vaccine importance (adjusted prevalence ratio=5.19, 95% CI=4.93, 5.47; strongest in the Northeast, Southwest, and Mountain West and weakest in the Southeast and Midwest). Other Behavioral and Social Drivers of Vaccination correlates also varied by region. CONCLUSIONS: Contributors to nonvaccination showed substantial geographic heterogeneity. Strategies to improve COVID-19 vaccination uptake may need to be tailored regionally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Humans , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Patient Acceptance of Health Care
16.
Vaccine ; 40(51): 7476-7482, 2022 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907857

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Employer vaccination requirements have been used to increase vaccination uptake among healthcare personnel (HCP). In summer 2021, HCP were the group most likely to have employer requirements for COVID-19 vaccinations as healthcare facilities led the implementation of such requirements. This study examined the association between employer requirements and HCP's COVID-19 vaccination status and attitudes about the vaccine. METHODS: Participants were a national representative sample of United States (US) adults who completed the National Immunization Survey Adult COVID Module (NIS-ACM) during August-September 2021. Respondents were asked about COVID-19 vaccination and intent, requirements for vaccination, place of work, attitudes surrounding vaccinations, and sociodemographic variables. This analysis focused on HCP respondents. We first calculated the weighted proportion reporting COVID-19 vaccination for HCP by sociodemographic variables. Then we computed unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios for vaccination coverage and key indicators on vaccine attitudes, comparing HCP based on individual self-report of vaccination requirements. RESULTS: Of 12,875 HCP respondents, 41.5% reported COVID-19 vaccination employer requirements. Among HCP with vaccination requirements, 90.5% had been vaccinated against COVID-19, as compared to 73.3% of HCP without vaccination requirements-a pattern consistent across sociodemographic groups. Notably, the greatest differences in uptake between HCP with and without employee requirements were seen in sociodemographic subgroups with the lowest vaccination uptake, e.g., HCP aged 18-29 years, HCP with high school or less education, HCP living below poverty, and uninsured HCP. In every sociodemographic subgroup examined, vaccine uptake was more equitable among HCP with vaccination requirements than in HCP without. Finally, HCP with vaccination requirements were also more likely to express confidence in the vaccine's safety (68.3% vs. 60.1%) and importance (89.6% vs 79.6%). CONCLUSION: In a large national US sample, employer requirements were associated with higher and more equitable HCP vaccination uptake across all sociodemographic groups examined. Our findings suggest that employer requirements can contribute to improving COVID-19 vaccination coverage, similar to patterns seen for other vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adult , United States , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Health Personnel , Surveys and Questionnaires , Attitude , Delivery of Health Care
17.
Am J Prev Med ; 63(5): 760-771, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906704

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Individuals with certain medical conditions are at substantially increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19. The purpose of this study is to assess COVID-19 vaccination among U.S. adults with reported medical conditions. METHODS: Data from the National Immunization Survey-Adult COVID Module collected during August 1-September 25, 2021 were analyzed in 2022 to assess COVID-19 vaccination status, intent, vaccine confidence, behavior, and experience among adults with reported medical conditions. Unadjusted and age-adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs and APRs) were generated using logistic regression and predictive marginals. RESULTS: Overall, COVID-19 vaccination coverage with ≥1 dose was 81.8% among adults with reported medical conditions, and coverage was significantly higher compared with those without such conditions (70.3%) Among adults aged ≥18 years with medical conditions, COVID-19 vaccination coverage was significantly higher among those with a provider recommendation (86.5%) than those without (76.5%). Among all respondents, 9.2% of unvaccinated adults with medical conditions reported they were willing or open to vaccination. Adults who reported high risk medical conditions were more likely to report receiving a provider recommendation, often or always wearing masks during the last 7 days, concerning about getting COVID-19, thinking the vaccine is safe, and believing a COVID-19 vaccine is important for protection from COVID-19 infection than those without such conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 18.0% of those with reported medical conditions were unvaccinated. Receiving a provider recommendation was significantly associated with vaccination, reinforcing that provider recommendation is an important approach to increase vaccination coverage. Ensuring access to vaccine, addressing vaccination barriers, and increasing vaccine confidence can improve vaccination coverage among unvaccinated adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
18.
Vaccine ; 40(32): 4554-4563, 2022 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant and postpartum women are at increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19. We assessed COVID-19 vaccination coverage, intent, and attitudes among women of reproductive age overall and by pregnancy status in the United States. METHODS: Data from the National Immunization Survey Adult COVID Module collected during April 22-November 27, 2021, were analyzed to assess COVID-19 vaccination (receipt of ≥1 dose), intent for vaccination, and attitudes towards vaccination among women aged 18-49 years overall and by pregnancy status (trying to get pregnant, currently pregnant, breastfeeding, and not trying to get pregnant or currently pregnant or breastfeeding). Logistic regression and predictive marginals were used to generate unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs and aPRs). Trend analyses were conducted to assess monthly changes in vaccination and intent. RESULTS: Our analyses included 110,925 women aged 18-49 years. COVID-19 vaccination coverage (≥1 dose) was 63.2% overall (range from 53.3% in HHS Region 4 to 76.5% in HHS Region 1). Vaccination coverage was lowest among pregnant women (45.1%), followed by women who were trying to get pregnant (49.5%), women who were breastfeeding (51.5%), and all other women (64.9%). Non-Hispanic (NH) Black women who were pregnant or breastfeeding had significantly lower vaccination coverage (aPR: 0.74 and 0.66, respectively) than NH White women. DISCUSSION: Our findings are consistent with other studies showing lower vaccination coverage among pregnant individuals, with substantially lower vaccination coverage among NH Black women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. Given the overlapping and disproportionate risks of COVID-19 and maternal mortality among Black women, it is critical that COVID-19 vaccination be strongly recommended for these populations and all women of reproductive age. Healthcare and public health providers may take advantage of every opportunity to encourage vaccination and enlist the assistance of community leaders, particularly in communities with low vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccination Coverage , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(5): 171-176, 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675341

ABSTRACT

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations have higher prevalences of health conditions associated with severe COVID-19 illness compared with non-LGBT populations (1). The potential for low vaccine confidence and coverage among LGBT populations is of concern because these persons historically experience challenges accessing, trusting, and receiving health care services (2). Data on COVID-19 vaccination among LGBT persons are limited, in part because of the lack of routine data collection on sexual orientation and gender identity at the national and state levels. During August 29-October 30, 2021, data from the National Immunization Survey Adult COVID Module (NIS-ACM) were analyzed to assess COVID-19 vaccination coverage and confidence in COVID-19 vaccines among LGBT adults aged ≥18 years. By sexual orientation, gay or lesbian adults reported higher vaccination coverage overall (85.4%) than did heterosexual adults (76.3%). By race/ethnicity, adult gay or lesbian non-Hispanic White men (94.1%) and women (88.5%), and Hispanic men (82.5%) reported higher vaccination coverage than that reported by non-Hispanic White heterosexual men (74.2%) and women (78. 6%). Among non-Hispanic Black adults, vaccination coverage was lower among gay or lesbian women (57.9%) and bisexual women (62.1%) than among heterosexual women (75.6%). Vaccination coverage was lowest among non-Hispanic Black LGBT persons across all categories of sexual orientation and gender identity. Among gay or lesbian adults and bisexual adults, vaccination coverage was lower among women (80.5% and 74.2%, respectively) than among men (88.9% and 81.7%, respectively). By gender identity, similar percentages of adults who identified as transgender or nonbinary and those who did not identify as transgender or nonbinary were vaccinated. Gay or lesbian adults and bisexual adults were more confident than were heterosexual adults in COVID-19 vaccine safety and protection; transgender or nonbinary adults were more confident in COVID-19 vaccine protection, but not safety, than were adults who did not identify as transgender or nonbinary. To prevent serious illness and death, it is important that all persons in the United States, including those in the LGBT community, stay up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Gender Identity , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Heterosexuality/psychology , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , United States/epidemiology
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(50): 1723-1730, 2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575163

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is critical to controlling the COVID-19 pandemic, and health care providers play an important role in achieving high vaccination coverage (1). To examine the prevalence of report of a provider recommendation for COVID-19 vaccination and its association with COVID-19 vaccination coverage and attitudes, CDC analyzed data among adults aged ≥18 years from the National Immunization Survey-Adult COVID Module (NIS-ACM), a nationally representative cellular telephone survey. Prevalence of report of a provider recommendation for COVID-19 vaccination among adults increased from 34.6%, during April 22-May 29, to 40.5%, during August 29-September 25, 2021. Adults who reported a provider recommendation for COVID-19 vaccination were more likely to have received ≥1 dose of a COVID-19 vaccine (77.6%) than were those who did not receive a recommendation (61.9%) (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.12). Report of a provider recommendation was associated with concern about COVID-19 (aPR = 1.31), belief that COVID-19 vaccines are important to protect oneself (aPR = 1.15), belief that COVID-19 vaccination was very or completely safe (aPR = 1.17), and perception that many or all of their family and friends had received COVID-19 vaccination (aPR = 1.19). Empowering health care providers to recommend vaccination to their patients could help reinforce confidence in, and increase coverage with, COVID-19 vaccines, particularly among groups known to have lower COVID-19 vaccination coverage, including younger adults, racial/ethnic minorities, and rural residents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Physician-Patient Relations , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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