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1.
Journal of Translational Critical Care Medicine ; 4(1):1-7, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824555

ABSTRACT

Background: There are controversies regarding corticosteroids using in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in the current pandemic. Objectives: This study investigates the efficacy and safety profiles of corticosteroids therapy in COVID-19 patients. Methods: Retrospective, multicenter study case series of consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection at the whole hospital from January 1 to March 1, 2020, were enrolled. Demographic, clinical, radiological, laboratory, and treatment data were collected and analyzed. The effect of corticosteroids therapy on death and organ-failure complications of pneumonia were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: A total of 470 COVID-19 patients at the whole hospital were enrolled. According to the time of corticosteroids initiation and severity of illness, there were 159 patients stratified into critical ill group and 64% (102 of 159) patients received corticosteroids treatments. Ninety-four percent (166 of 176) of corticosteroids were methylprednisolone. The median cumulative corticosteroids dosage was 300 mg equivalent of methylprednisolone over a median duration of 6 days. Multivariate regression analysis showed that corticosteroids use did not affect the mortality. However, corticosteroids therapy at moderate cumulative doses (total exposure 480 mg to 1200 mg) was associated with deceased occurrence of organ-failure complications in critically ill COVID-19. Conclusions: Corticosteroids have no effect to mortality in COVID-19 patients. The moderate cumulative doses of corticosteroids might decrease organ-failure complications in critically ill COVID-19. Further large-scale randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm our findings, until then use of corticosteroids should be used with caution COVID-19 patients.

2.
Journal of Translational Critical Care Medicine ; 3(1):1-7, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824462

ABSTRACT

Background: The effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEIs/ARBs) on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains controversial from clinic evidence. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to report the major characteristics and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients treated with ACEIs and ARBs and compare the different effects of the two drugs for outcomes of COVID-19 patients. Methods: This is a retrospective, two-center case series of 198 consecutive COVID-19 patients with a history of hypertension. Results: Among 198 patients, 58 (29.3%) and 16 (8.1%) were on ARB and ACEI, respectively. Patients who were on ARB or ACEI/ARB had a significantly lower rate of severe illness and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) when compared with patients treated with ACEI alone or not receiving RAAS blocker (P < 0.05). The Kaplan–Meier survival curve showed that patients with ARB in their antihypertensive regimen had a trend toward a higher survival rate when compared with individuals without ARB (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.27;95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07–1.02;P = 0.054). The occurrence rates of severe illness, ARDS, and death were similar in the two groups regardless of receiving ACEI. The Cox regression analyses showed a better survival in the ARB group than the ACEI group (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.03;95% CI, 0.00–0.58;P = 0.02). Conclusions: Our data may provide that some evidence of using ARB, but not ACEI, was associated with a reduced rate of severe illness and ARDS, indicating their potential protective impact in COVID-19. Further large sample sizes and multiethnic populations are warranted to confirm our findings.

3.
Journal of Shandong University ; 58(4):65-70, 2020.
Article in English, Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1812835

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in Wuhan City, and the correlation between inflammatory factors and severity.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322149

ABSTRACT

Background: The effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB) on the COVID-19 remains controversial from clinic evidence. Methods: This is a retrospective, two-center case series of 198 consecutive COVID-19 patients with a history of hypertension. Results: Among 198 patients, 58 (29.3%) and 16 (8.1%) were on were on ARB and ACEI, respectively. Patients who were on ARB or ACEI/ARB had a significantly lower rate of severe illness and ARDS when compared with patients treated with ACEI alone or not receiving and RAAS blocker ( P <0.05). The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that patients with ARB in their antihypertensive regimen had a trend towards a higher survival rate when compared with individuals without ARB (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.27;95% CI, 0.07-1.02;P = 0.054). The Cox-regression analysis to compared ACEI vs. ARB groups showed a significantly lower mortality rate in the ARB group (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.03;95% CI, 0.00-0.58;P = 0.02). Conclusions: Using of ARB was associated with a reduced rate of severe illness and ARDS, indicating their potential protective impact in COVID-19.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321205

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, COVID-19 has emerged in Wuhan, China and spread globally. As of now, there is still no explicit therapeutic regimen and the use of corticosteroid is also controversial. We aimed to explore the effectiveness of corticosteroid and provide evidence for the rational use of corticosteroid in different patients with COVID-19.Methods In this multi-centered, retrospective study, we extracted the clinical data of 649 cases with COVID-19 with definite outcome (discharged or dead) from 14 hospitals in Hubei province, and evaluated the clinical characteristics, treatment regimens, and their association with outcomes.Results Ninety-five of 649 patients had died. Older male patients with comorbidities had an increased risk of death and more obvious abnormalities in clinical indicators. Corticosteroid, γ-globulin treatment and invasive ventilation were more frequently used in non-survivors. Survivors with corticosteroid treatment had a prolonged hospitalization. The median time duration for temperature restore for non-survivors after corticosteroid treatment was longer than that of both survivors. The lymphocyte count on admission was lower in the patients treated with corticosteroids compared to those without corticosteroid treatment. Lymphocyte count recovered significantly after corticosteroid treatment in survivors, but not in non-survivors.Conclusions The responses to corticosteroid treatment were different in COVID-19 patients with different outcomes. The surviving patients with relatively lower lymphocyte count were more likely to be given corticosteroids. For non-survivors, the lymphocyte count was too low and the effect of corticosteroids was poor. Survivors under corticosteroid treatment had a prolonged hospitalization, but had a recovery of lymphocytes. The recovery of lymphocyte count and temperature after corticosteroid treatment may be used as predictors of prognosis of patients with COVID-19.

6.
Tianjin Medical Journal ; 48(6):465-469, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-961857

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze clinical characteristics in patients died of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and provide experience for guiding clinical treatment and evaluating prognosis.

7.
Lancet ; 395(10236): 1569-1578, 2020 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: No specific antiviral drug has been proven effective for treatment of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Remdesivir (GS-5734), a nucleoside analogue prodrug, has inhibitory effects on pathogenic animal and human coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro, and inhibits Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, SARS-CoV-1, and SARS-CoV-2 replication in animal models. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial at ten hospitals in Hubei, China. Eligible patients were adults (aged ≥18 years) admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, with an interval from symptom onset to enrolment of 12 days or less, oxygen saturation of 94% or less on room air or a ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen of 300 mm Hg or less, and radiologically confirmed pneumonia. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to intravenous remdesivir (200 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg on days 2-10 in single daily infusions) or the same volume of placebo infusions for 10 days. Patients were permitted concomitant use of lopinavir-ritonavir, interferons, and corticosteroids. The primary endpoint was time to clinical improvement up to day 28, defined as the time (in days) from randomisation to the point of a decline of two levels on a six-point ordinal scale of clinical status (from 1=discharged to 6=death) or discharged alive from hospital, whichever came first. Primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population and safety analysis was done in all patients who started their assigned treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04257656. FINDINGS: Between Feb 6, 2020, and March 12, 2020, 237 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to a treatment group (158 to remdesivir and 79 to placebo); one patient in the placebo group who withdrew after randomisation was not included in the ITT population. Remdesivir use was not associated with a difference in time to clinical improvement (hazard ratio 1·23 [95% CI 0·87-1·75]). Although not statistically significant, patients receiving remdesivir had a numerically faster time to clinical improvement than those receiving placebo among patients with symptom duration of 10 days or less (hazard ratio 1·52 [0·95-2·43]). Adverse events were reported in 102 (66%) of 155 remdesivir recipients versus 50 (64%) of 78 placebo recipients. Remdesivir was stopped early because of adverse events in 18 (12%) patients versus four (5%) patients who stopped placebo early. INTERPRETATION: In this study of adult patients admitted to hospital for severe COVID-19, remdesivir was not associated with statistically significant clinical benefits. However, the numerical reduction in time to clinical improvement in those treated earlier requires confirmation in larger studies. FUNDING: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Emergency Project of COVID-19, National Key Research and Development Program of China, the Beijing Science and Technology Project.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Male , Middle Aged , Negative Results , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 32(4): 407-411, 2020 Apr.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596688

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics and the risk factors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed to examine the basic data, clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with COVID-19 in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University and Wuhan Fourth Hospital from January 1st to February 1st in 2020. According to the diagnostic criteria of Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO), patients with AKI were included in AKI group and those without AKI were included in non-AKI group. The differences of each index between the two groups were compared. The prognostic value of AKI for COVID-19 was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier survival curve and Cox regression. RESULTS: A total of 394 COVID-19 patients were included, with a total mortality of 5.6%; 37 (9.4%) of them developed AKI. The mortality of patients with COVID-19 associated AKI was 18.9%. There were significant differences in age, gender, smoking history, hypertension history, malignancy history, cardiovascular disease history and cerebrovascular disease history between the two groups. In addition to the difference of serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil count (NEU), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer, procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reaction protein (CRP) in AKI group were significantly higher than those in non-AKI group [WBC (×109/L): 5.75 (4.13, 7.83) vs. 4.52 (3.35, 5.90), NEU (×109/L): 4.55 (2.81, 6.11) vs. 3.06 (2.03, 4.50), AST (U/L): 40.0 (24.5, 69.5) vs. 30.0 (23.0, 42.5), LDH (µmol×s-1×L-1): 5.21 (3.68, 7.57) vs. 4.24 (3.05, 5.53), D-dimer (µg/L): 456 (266, 2 172) vs. 290 (152, 610), PCT (µg/L): 0.33 (0.03, 1.52) vs. 0.01 (0.01, 0.11), CRP (mg/L): 53.80 (26.00, 100.90) vs. 23.60 (9.25, 51.10), all P < 0.05], while lymphocyte count (LYM) and platelet count (PLT) were decreased [LYM (×109/L): 0.68 (0.47, 1.05) vs. 0.91 (0.63, 1.25), PLT (×109/L): 142.0 (118.0, 190.0) vs. 171.0 (130.0, 2 190.0), both P < 0.05]. The mortality of AKI group was significantly higher than that of non-AKI group [18.9% (7/37) vs. 4.2% (15/357), P < 0.01]. Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that the 30-day cumulative survival of AKI group was lower than that of non-AKI group (log-rank: P = 0.003). Cox analysis also showed that AKI increased the odds of patients with COVID-19 mortality by 3.2-fold [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.208, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 1.076-9.566, P = 0.037]. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of AKI is higher in patients with COVID-19. Early intervention to prevent AKI in patients with COVID-19 is of great significance to improve the prognosis of patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Trials ; 21(1): 422, 2020 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-342726

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel corinavirus (later named SARS-CoV-2 virus), was fistly reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China towards the end of 2019. Large-scale spread within China and internationally led the World Health Organization to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30th January 2020. The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 virus infection include asymptomatic infection, mild upper respiratory symptoms, severe viral pneumonia with respiratory failure, and even death. There are no antivirals of proven clinical efficacy in coronavirus infections. Remdesivir (GS-5734), a nucleoside analogue, has inhibitory effects on animal and human highly pathogenic coronaviruses, including MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, in in vitro and in vivo experiments. It is also inhibitory against the COVID-19 virus in vitro. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of remdesivir in adult patients with severe COVID-19. METHODS: The protocol is prepared in accordance with the SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials) guidelines. This is a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. Adults (≥ 18 years) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 virus infection, severe pneumonia signs or symptoms, and radiologically confirmed severe pneumonia are randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to intravenously administered remdesivir or placebo for 10 days. The primary endpoint is time to clinical improvement (censored at day 28), defined as the time (in days) from randomization of study treatment (remdesivir or placebo) until a decline of two categories on a six-category ordinal scale of clinical status (1 = discharged; 6 = death) or live discharge from hospital. One interim analysis for efficacy and futility will be conducted once half of the total number of events required has been observed. DISCUSSION: This is the first randomized, placebo-controlled trial in COVID-19. Enrolment began in sites in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China on 6th February 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04257656. Registered on 6 February 2020.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , China , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Double-Blind Method , Equivalence Trials as Topic , Female , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Male , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
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