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Frontiers in Immunology ; 12, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2142042


While the immunogenicity of inactivated vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been characterized in several well-conducted clinical trials, real-world evidence concerning immune responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) raised by such vaccines is currently missing. Here, we comprehensively characterized various parameters of SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular and humoral immune responses induced by inactivated COVID-19 vaccines in 126 individuals under real-world conditions. After two doses of vaccination, S-receptor binding domain IgG (S-RBD IgG) and neutralizing antibody (NAb) were detected in 87.06% (74/85) and 78.82% (67/85) of individuals, respectively. Female participants developed higher concentrations of S-RBD IgG and NAb compared to male vaccinees. Interestingly, a longer dosing interval between the first and second vaccination resulted in a better long-term SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD IgG response. The frequencies of CD4+ T cells that produce effector cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-2, and TNF-alpha) in response to stimulation with peptide pools corresponding to the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S), nucleocapsid (N) or membrane (M) protein were significantly higher in individuals received two doses of vaccine than those received one dose of vaccine and unvaccinated individuals. S, N, or M-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were detectable in 95.83% (69/72) and 54.16% (39/72) of double-vaccinated individuals, respectively. The longitudinal analysis demonstrated that CD4+ T cell responses recognizing S, N, and M waned quickly after a single vaccine dose, but were boosted and became more sustained following a second dose. Overall, we provide a comprehensive characterization of immune responses induced by inactivated COVID-19 vaccines in real-world settings, suggesting that both humoral and cellular SARS-CoV-2 specific immunity are elicited in the majority of individuals after two doses of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines.

Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(9):7, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1003722


Background. The course of disease in mild and moderate COVID-19 has many implications for mobile patients, such as the risk of spread of the infection, precautions taken, and investigations targeted at preventing transmission. Methods. Three hundred thirty-one adults were hospitalized from January 21 to February 22, 2020, and classified as severe (10%) or critical (4.8%) cases;1.5% died. Two hundred eighty-two (85.2%) mild or moderate cases were admitted to regular wards. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, chest computed tomography (CT) scan, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data from patient records were analyzed retrospectively. Results. Patients were symptomatic for 9.82 +/- 5.75 (1-37) days. Pulmonary involvement was demonstrated on a chest CT scan in 97.9% of cases. It took 16.81 +/- 8.54 (3-49) days from the appearance of the first symptom until 274 patients tested virus-negative in naso- and oropharyngeal (NP) swabs, blood, urine, and stool, and 234 (83%) patients were asymptomatic for 9.09 +/- 7.82 (1-44) days. Subsequently, 131 patients were discharged. One hundred sixty-nine remained in the hospital;these patients tested virus-free and were clinically asymptomatic because of widespread persisting or increasing pulmonary infiltrates. Hospitalization took 16.24 +/- 7.57 (2-47) days;the time interval from the first symptom to discharge was 21.37 +/- 7.85 (3-52) days. Conclusions. With an asymptomatic phase, disease courses are unexpectedly long until the stage of virus negativity. NP swabs are not reliable in the later stages of COVID-19. Pneumonia outlasts virus-positive tests if sputum is not acquired. Imminent pulmonary fibrosis in high-risk groups demands follow-up examinations. Investigation of promising antiviral agents should heed the specific needs of mild and moderate COVID-19 patients.

Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 59(9): 689-694, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729664


Objective: To analyze the effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (ACEI/ARB) on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with hypertension, and to provide an evidence for selecting antihypertensive drugs in those patients. Methods: Clinical data were retrospectively analyzed in 58 COVID-19 patients with hypertension admitted to Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from January 20 to February 22, 2020, including epidemiological history, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, chest CT and outcome. Patients were divided into ACEI/ARB group and non-ACEI/ARB group. Results: Twenty-six patients were in ACEI/ARB group and the other 32 patients in non-ACEI/ARB group, with median age 64.0 (49.5, 72.0) years and 64.0 (57.0, 68.8) years respectively. The median time to onset was 5(3, 8) days in ACEI/ARB group and 4 (3, 7) days in non-ACEI/ARB group, the proportion of patients with severe or critical illness was 19.2% and 15.6% respectively. The main clinical symptoms in two groups were fever (80.8% vs. 84.4%) and cough (23.1% vs. 31.3%). The following parameters were comparable including lymphocyte counts, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, bilateral involvement in chest CT (76.9% vs. 71.9%), worsening of COVID-19 (15.4% vs. 9.4%), favorable outcome (92.3% vs. 96.9%) between ACEI/ARB group and non-ACEI/ARB group respectively (all P>0.05). However, compared with non-ACEI/ARB group, serum creatinine [80.49 (68.72, 95.30) µmol/L vs. 71.29 (50.98, 76.98) µmol/L, P=0.007] was higher significantly in ACEI/ARB group. Conclusions: ACEI/ARB drugs have no significant effects on baseline clinical parameters (serum creatine and myoglobin excluded) , outcome, and prognosis of COVID-19 patients with hypertension. Antihypertensive drugs are not suggested to adjust in those patients, but the potential impairment of renal function as elevation of serum creatinine should be paid attention in patients administrating ACEI/ARB drugs.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Hypertension , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2