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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4154-e4165, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children and older adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) display a distinct spectrum of disease severity yet the risk factors aren't well understood. We sought to examine the expression pattern of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cell-entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the role of lung progenitor cells in children and older patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical features in a cohort of 299 patients with COVID-19. The expression and distribution of ACE2 and lung progenitor cells were systematically examined using a combination of public single-cell RNA-seq data sets, lung biopsies, and ex vivo infection of lung tissues with SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in children and older adults. We also followed up patients who had recovered from COVID-19. RESULTS: Compared with children, older patients (>50 years.) were more likely to develop into serious pneumonia with reduced lymphocytes and aberrant inflammatory response (P = .001). The expression level of ACE2 and lung progenitor cell markers were generally decreased in older patients. Notably, ACE2 positive cells were mainly distributed in the alveolar region, including SFTPC positive cells, but rarely in airway regions in the older adults (P < .01). The follow-up of discharged patients revealed a prolonged recovery from pneumonia in the older (P < .025). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to children, ACE2 positive cells are generally decreased in older adults and mainly presented in the lower pulmonary tract. The lung progenitor cells are also decreased. These risk factors may impact disease severity and recovery from pneumonia caused by SARS-Cov-2 infection in older patients.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e24315, 2021 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138005

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, considerable attention has been paid on its epidemiology and clinical characteristics in children patients. However, it is also crucial for clinicians to summarize and investigate the co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 in children.We retrospectively reviewed the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and imaging characteristics of COVID-19 patients in co-infection group (CI, n = 27) and single infection group (SI, n = 54). Samples were tested for multiple pathogens.A high incidence (27/81, 33%) of co-infection in children with COVID-19 was revealed. The most frequent co-infected pathogen was mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP, 20/81, 25%), followed by virus (6/81, 7%), and bacteria (4/81, 5%). No significant difference in clinical characteristics, laboratory examinations, or hospital stay was observed between the patients with co-infections and those with monomicrobial, only lower in white blood cell counts (CI: 5.54 ±â€Š0.36 vs SI: 7.38 ±â€Š0.37, P = .002), neutrophil counts (CI: 2.20 ±â€Š0.20 vs SI: 2.92 ±â€Š0.23, P = .024) and lymphocyte counts (CI: 2.72 ±â€Š0.024 vs SI: 3.87 ±â€Š0.28, P = .006). Compared with the patients with monomicrobial, chest imaging of those with co-infections showed consolidation in more cases (CI: 29.6% vs SI: 11.1%, P = .038) and duration of positive in nucleic acid was shorter (CI: 6.69 ±â€Š0.82 vs SI: 9.69 ±â€Š0.74, P = .015).Co-infection was relatively common in children with COVID-19, almost 1/3 had co-infection, most commonly caused by MP. Co-infection did not cause a significant exacerbation in clinical manifestations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Adenoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Moraxellaceae Infections/epidemiology , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Theranostics ; 11(5): 2170-2181, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016389

ABSTRACT

Introduction: An increasing number of children with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is being reported, yet the spectrum of disease severity and expression patterns of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in children at different developmental stages are largely unknow. Methods: We analysed clinical features in a cohort of 173 children with COVID-19 (0-15 yrs.-old) between January 22, 2020 and March 15, 2020. We systematically examined the expression and distribution of ACE2 in different developmental stages of children by using a combination of children's lung biopsies, pluripotent stem cell-derived lung cells, RNA-sequencing profiles, and ex vivo SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviral infections. Results: It revealed that infants (< 1yrs.-old), with a weaker potency of immune response, are more vulnerable to develop pneumonia whereas older children (> 1 yrs.-old) are more resistant to lung injury. The expression levels of ACE2 however do not vary by age in children's lung. ACE2 is notably expressed not only in Alveolar Type II (AT II) cells, but also in SOX9 positive lung progenitor cells detected in both pluripotent stem cell derivatives and infants' lungs. The ACE2+SOX9+ cells are readily infected by SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and the numbers of the double positive cells are significantly decreased in older children. Conclusions: Infants (< 1 yrs.-old) with SARS-CoV-2 infection are more vulnerable to lung injuries. ACE2 expression in multiple types of lung cells including SOX9 positive progenitor cells, in cooperation with an unestablished immune system, could be risk factors contributing to vulnerability of infants with COVID-19. There is a need to continue monitoring lung development in young children who have recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Lung/cytology , Stem Cells/metabolism , Adolescent , Biopsy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immune System , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lung/virology , Male , RNA-Seq , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , SOX9 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis , Stem Cells/virology
5.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 386, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-853985

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is ongoing globally. Limited data are available for children with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: A retrospective case study was conducted in one designated hospital for children with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Wuhan. Results: Out of the 74 children with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, the median age was 5.8 years, with no notable variation based on gender. All of the children had had direct exposure to at least one family member with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The most common symptoms were cough in 41 (55.4%) and fever in 38 (51.4%). Typical CT patterns of viral pneumonia were exhibited in 40 (54.1%) children, including ground-glass opacity and interstitial abnormalities. However, 17 (23.0%) children were classified as asymptomatic carriers, with neither symptoms nor radiological findings. Also, 68 (91.9%) children recovered fully and showed negative results on RT-PCR assay by nasopharyngeal swabs during our observation period. In contrast to the negative result for nasopharyngeal swab, 34% of the anal swabs showed a continued positive result. The mean hospitalization days of the children discharged after full recovery was 10.0 days. Conclusion: Within family clusters that had SARS-CoV-2 infection, children had mild or even asymptomatic illness. Although CT is highly sensitive, it should be avoided in follow-up of the disease in consideration of the radiological hazards and limited clinical benefits for mild illness in children. Furthermore, it is advocated that both nasopharyngeal and anal swabs should be confirmed negative for viral load prior to declaring full recovery so as to avoid oral-fecal transmission. Asymptomatic children with family clusters are potentially a little-known source of COVID-19. This therefore warrants an urgent reassessment of the transmission dynamics of the current outbreak.

7.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-751

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is ongoing globally. Limited data are available for children with SARS-

8.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(4): 504-506, 2020 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-783522

ABSTRACT

We note that intussusception was likely associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection in 2 infants in Wuhan and London. The intussusception was reduced by enemas in Wuhan; the outcome was fatal. The intussusception was not reduced by enemas in London and required surgery; the outcome was favorable.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Enema , Intussusception/therapy , Intussusception/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Infant , Intussusception/diagnostic imaging , London , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 80-83, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, considerable attention has been paid to its epidemiology and clinical characteristics in children. However, it is also crucial for clinicians to differentiate COVID-19 from other respiratory infectious diseases, such as influenza viruses. METHODS: This was a retrospective study. Two groups of COVID-19 patients (n=57) and influenza A patients (n=59) were enrolled. We analyzed and compared their clinical manifestations, imaging characteristics and treatments. RESULTS: The proportions of cough (70.2%), fever (54.4%) and gastrointestinal symptoms (14.1%) in COVID-19 patients were lower than those of influenza A patients (98.3%, P<0.001; 84.7%, P<0.001; and 35.6%, P=0.007; respectively). In addition, COVID-19 patients showed significantly lower levels of leukocytes (7.87 vs. 9.89×109L-1, P=0.027), neutrophils (2.43 vs. 5.16×109L-1, P<0.001), C-reactive protein (CRP; 3.7 vs. 15.1mg/L, P=0.001) and procalcitonin (PCT; 0.09 vs. 0.68mm/h, P<0.001), while lymphocyte levels (4.58 vs. 3.56×109L-1; P=0.006) were significantly higher compared with influenza A patients. In terms of CT imaging, ground-glass opacification in chest CT was more common in COVID-19 patients than in influenza A patients (42.1% vs. 15%, P=0.032). In contrast, consolidation was more common in influenza A patients (25%) than in COVID-19 patients (5.2%, P=0.025). CONCLUSION: The clinical manifestations and laboratory tests of COVID-19 children are milder than those of influenza A children under 5 years. Additionally, imaging results more commonly presented as ground-glass opacities in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Influenza, Human/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Neutrophils , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(7): e91-e94, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-590561

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is spreading globally. Little is known about the risk factors for the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in children. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was taken in children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronary virus-2 infection in Wuhan Children's Hospital. Risk factors associated with the development of COVID-19 and progression were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Eight of 260 children diagnosed with severe COVID-19 pneumonia were included in the study. Thirty-five children with COVID-19 infection matched for age, sex and date of admission, and who classified as non-severe type, were randomly selected from the hospital admissions. For cases with severe pneumonia caused by COVID-19, the most common symptoms were dyspnea (87.5%), fever (62.5%) and cough (62.5%). In laboratory, white blood cells count was significantly higher in severe children than non-severe children. Levels of inflammation bio-makers such as hsCRP, IL-6, IL-10 and D-dimer elevated in severe children compared with non-severe children on admission. The level of total bilirubin and uric acid clearly elevated in severe children compared with non-severe children on admission. All of severe children displayed the lesions on chest CT, more lung segments were involved in severe children than in non-severe children, which was only risk factor associated with severe COVID-19 pneumonia in multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS: More than 3 lung segments involved were associated with greater risk of development of severe COVID-19 in children. Moreover, the possible risk of the elevation of IL-6, high total bilirubin and D-dimer with univariable analysis could identify patients to be severe earlier.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Fever/virology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Leukocyte Count , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
13.
Arch Dis Child ; 105(12): 1146-1150, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-257265

ABSTRACT

The pandemic due to a novel coronavirus has been sweeping across different regions of the globe since January 2020. Early reports of this infection due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) consisted of mostly adult patients. As the outbreak spreads rapidly beyond the epicentre of Wuhan, it becomes clear that infants and children of all ages are susceptible to this infection. In China, there have been more than 1200 paediatric cases. Most paediatric patients acquire the infection through household contact with infected adults. The disease in children is usually self-limiting and most infected children will recover uneventfully within 7-10 days. Other than symptoms of the respiratory tract, many children may present with gastrointestinal symptoms. Older children are more likely to have asymptomatic infection. Although deaths related to SARS-CoV-2 are rarely reported in the paediatric age group, young children and those with underlying medical conditions are more likely to develop severe illness. Only a small fraction of neonates born to infected mother would acquire the virus by vertical transmission. Because a large proportion of children and adolescents may have asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic infection, children are likely to play an important role in community transmission of this infection. Screening of children who have a definitive contact history will facilitate early diagnosis and isolation of all infected children. This review summarises the lessons learned in China with regard to the current understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the paediatric population.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , China/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
14.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 31(5): 449-453, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116502

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a cluster of patients with severe pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in the city of Wuhan, China. The disease is now termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In the early reports, the patients were mainly middle-aged and elderly men, and children appeared to be less susceptible to this infection. With modern and efficient transportation, the disease quickly spread to almost all corners of the world and the mortality far exceeds that caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus. As the number of children with COVID-19 gradually increases, the disease has been documented in premature babies, infants, children, and adolescents. Severe and fatal cases in children are relatively rare. The burden of disease in children has been relatively low, but the high proportions of asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic infections in children deserve careful attention. A clear understanding of the immune responses to the virus in children and the transmission potential of asymptomatic children is of paramount importance for the development of specific treatments and vaccine in order to effectively control the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pediatrics/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(6): e69-e70, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-53033

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia (coronavirus disease 19) occurred in Wuhan and rapidly spread throughout China and beyond. During this period, increasing of reports found that several recovered patients from different hospitals showed positive results of nucleic acid test again soon after discharge. However, little attention has been paid to recovered children. Herein, we reported a case of 8-year-old recovered child, who was rehospitalized again because of unexplained fever.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Patient Readmission , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , China , Fever , Humans , Male , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2
17.
World J Pediatr ; 16(3): 223-231, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus infection (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan City, China, by January 30, 2020, a total of 9692 confirmed cases and 15,238 suspected cases have been reported around 31 provinces or cities in China. Among the confirmed cases, 1527 were severe cases, 171 had recovered and been discharged at home, and 213 died. And among these cases, a total of 28 children aged from 1 month to 17 years have been reported in China. For standardizing prevention and management of 2019-nCoV infections in children, we called up an experts' committee to formulate this experts' consensus statement. This statement is based on the Novel Coronavirus Infection Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Standards (the fourth edition) (National Health Committee) and other previous diagnosis and treatment strategies for pediatric virus infections. The present consensus statement summarizes current strategies on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019-nCoV infection in children.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control
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