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1.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 90, 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) leads to huge economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The high levels of mutations of IBV render vaccines partially protective. Therefore, it is urgent to explore an effective antiviral drug or agent. The present study aimed to investigate the in vivo anti-IBV activity of a mixture of plant essential oils (PEO) of cinnamaldehyde (CA) and glycerol monolaurate (GML), designated as Jin-Jing-Zi. RESULTS: The antiviral effects were evaluated by clinical signs, viral loads, immune organ indices, antibody levels, and cytokine levels. The infection rates in the PEO-M (middle dose) and PEO-H (high dose) groups were significantly lower than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L (low dose) groups. The cure rates in the PEO-M and PEO-H groups were significantly higher than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups, and the PEO-M group had the highest cure rate of 92.31%. The symptom scores and IBV mRNA expression levels were significantly reduced in the PEO-M group. PEO significantly improved the immune organ indices and IBV-specific antibody titers of infected chickens. The anti-inflammatory factor levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the PEO-M group maintained high concentrations for a long time. The IL-6 levels in the PEO-M group were lower than those in prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups. CONCLUSION: The PEO had remarkable inhibition against IBV and the PEO acts by inhibiting virus multiplication and promoting immune function, suggesting that the PEO has great potential as a novel anti-IBV agent for inhibiting IBV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Oils, Volatile , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Poultry Diseases/drug therapy , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310229

ABSTRACT

Background: More than 230,000 cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have been reported worldwide. We sought to discuss the impact of new electronic communication tools with patients in diagnosis and treatment of these cases. Methods: : We recruited adult patients from Jan 20 to Feb 26, 2020, with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, in Zhuhai, China. 47 eligible patients were enrolled and randomly classified into either a test or control group. All of them were treated with standard therapeutic regimen and routine ward-round. The test group was subdivided into three subgroups. The first subgroup was arranged an extra 5min on-line ward-round by WeChat voice call once daily for basic disease communication. The second subgroup was given an extra 10min voice call once daily for further detail, similarly, the third subgroup was given an extra 10min than the second group every three days. The main end point was the duration of positive-to-negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Results: : 47 patients were included in the final analysis. The median time from disease diagnosed to the endpoint of test group was 7.0 days (interquartile range, 3.8 to 10.8), whereas the control group was 10.0 days (interquartile range, 6.5 to 14.5). It showed significant reduced the duration time of virus from positive to negative by the NAT (nucleic acid testing) (P=0.032), especially compared the 10 minutes group (3.0 days, interquartile range, 3.0 to 7.5) to control group (P=0.0065). Conclusions: : The patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection might benefit from the use of the new electronic communication mode. It’s very valuable to reduce the shortage of medical protection resources and the risk of occupation.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322989

ABSTRACT

Background: Infections induced by influenza viruses, as well as coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic induced by severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) led to acute lung injury (ALI) and multi organ failure, during which traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) played an important role in treatment of the pandemic. The study aimed to investigate the effect of Indigo Naturalis on ALI induced by influenza A virus (IAV) in mice. Method: The anti-influenza and anti-inflammatory properties of aqueous extract of Indigo Naturalis (INAE) were evaluated in vitro . BALB/c mice inoculated intranasally with IAV (H1N1) were treated intragastrically with INAE (40, 80 and 160 mg·kg -1 /d) 2 h later for 4 or 7 days. Animal lifespan and mortality were recorded. Expression of high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB-1) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) were evaluated through immunohistological staining. Inflammatory cytokines were also monitored by ELISA. Result: INAE inhibited virus replication on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and decreased nitric oxide (NO) production from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peritoneal macrophages in vitro . The results showed that oral administration of 160 mg/kg of INAE significantly improved the lifespan ( P < 0.01) and survival rate of IAV infected mice, improved lung injury and lowered viral replication in lung tissue ( P < 0.01). Treatment with INAE (40, 80 and 160 mg/kg) significantly increased liver weight and liver index ( P < 0.05), as well as weight and organ index of thymus and spleen at 160 mg/kg ( P < 0.05). Serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were reduced by INAE administration ( P < 0.05). The expression of HMGB-1 and TLR4 in lung tissue were also suppressed. The increased production of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and methylene dioxyamphetamine (MDA) in lung tissue were inhibited by INAE treatment ( P < 0.05). Treatment with INAE reduced the high levels of interferon α (IFN-α), interferon β (IFN-β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted factor (RANTES), interferon induced protein-10 (IP-10), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) ( P < 0.05), with increased production of interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that INAE alleviated IAV induced ALI in mice. The mechanisms of INAE were associated with its anti-influenza, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidation properties. Indigo Naturalis might have clinical potential to treat ALI induced by IAV.

4.
Curr Med Sci ; 42(1): 226-236, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603118

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The annual influenza epidemic is a heavy burden on the health care system, and has increasingly become a major public health problem in some areas, such as Hong Kong (China). Therefore, based on a variety of machine learning methods, and considering the seasonal influenza in Hong Kong, the study aims to establish a Combinatorial Judgment Classifier (CJC) model to classify the epidemic trend and improve the accuracy of influenza epidemic early warning. METHODS: The characteristic variables were selected using the single-factor statistical method to establish the influencing factor system of an influenza outbreak. On this basis, the CJC model was proposed to provide an early warning for an influenza outbreak. The characteristic variables in the final model included atmospheric pressure, absolute maximum temperature, mean temperature, absolute minimum temperature, mean dew point temperature, the number of positive detections of seasonal influenza viruses, the positive percentage among all respiratory specimens, and the admission rates in public hospitals with a principal diagnosis of influenza. RESULTS: The accuracy of the CJC model for the influenza outbreak trend reached 96.47%, the sensitivity and specificity change rates of this model were lower than those of other models. Hence, the CJC model has a more stable prediction performance. In the present study, the epidemic situation and meteorological data of Hong Kong in recent years were used as the research objects for the construction of the model index system, and a lag correlation was found between the influencing factors and influenza outbreak. However, some potential risk factors, such as geographical nature and human factors, were not incorporated, which ideally affected the prediction performance to some extent. CONCLUSION: In general, the CJC model exhibits a statistically better performance, when compared to some classical early warning algorithms, such as Support Vector Machine, Discriminant Analysis, and Ensemble Classfiers, which improves the performance of the early warning of seasonal influenza.


Subject(s)
Epidemiological Monitoring , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Machine Learning , Models, Statistical , Hong Kong , Humans
5.
J Biomed Inform ; 127: 103999, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654687

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has claimed the lives of over 350,000 people and infected more than 173 million people worldwide, it triggers researchers from diverse fields are accelerating their research to help diagnostics, therapies, and vaccines. Researchers also publish their recent research progress through scientific papers. However, manually writing the abstract of a paper is time-consuming, and it increases the writing burden of the researchers. Abstractive summarization technique which automatically provides researchers reliable draft abstracts, can alleviate this problem. In this work, we propose a linguistically enriched SciBERT-based summarization model for COVID-19 scientific papers, named COVIDSum. Specifically, we first extract salient sentences from source papers and construct word co-occurrence graphs. Then, we adopt a SciBERT-based sequence encoder and a Graph Attention Networks-based graph encoder to encode sentences and word co-occurrence graphs, respectively. Finally, we fuse the above two encodings and generate an abstractive summary of each scientific paper. When evaluated on the publicly available COVID-19 open research dataset, the performance of our proposed model achieves significant improvement compared with other document summarization models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Language , Publishing , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Nano Sel ; 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381944

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report a waterproof anti-SARS-CoV-2 protective film prepared by spray-coating of an aqueous colloidal dispersion of poly(ionic liquid)/copper (PIL/Cu) composite nanoparticles onto a substrate. The PIL dispersion was prepared by suspension polymerization of 3-dodecyl-1-vinylimdiazolium bromide in water at 70°C. The copper acetate salt was added into the PIL nanoparticle dispersion and in situ reduced into copper nanoparticles anchoring onto the PIL nanoparticles. Despite being waterborne, the PIL in bulk is intrinsically insoluble in water and the formed coating is stable in water. The formed surface coating by PIL/copper composite nanoparticles was able to deactivate SARS-CoV-2 virions by 90.0% in 30 minutes and thus may effectively prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 through surface contact. This method may provide waterborne dispersions for a broad range of antivirus protective surface coatings for both outdoor and indoor applications.

8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1638-1648, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341090

ABSTRACT

MW33 is a fully humanized IgG1κ monoclonal neutralizing antibody, and may be used for the prevention and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, dose-escalation Phase 1 study to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and immunogenicity of MW33. Healthy adults aged 18-45 years were sequentially enrolled into the 4, 10, 20, 40, and 60 mg/kg dose groups and infused with MW33 over 60 ± 15 min and followed for 85 days. All 42 enrolled participants completed the MW33 infusion, and 40 participants completed the 85-day follow-up period. 34 participants received a single infusion of 4 (n = 2), 10 (n = 8), 20 (n = 8), 40 (n = 8), and 60 mg/kg (n = 8) of MW33. 27 subjects in the test groups experienced 78 adverse events (AEs) post-dose, with an incidence of 79.4% (27/34). The most common AEs included abnormal laboratory test results, vascular and lymphatic disorders, and infectious diseases. The severity of AEs was mainly Grade 1 (92 AEs), and three Grade 2 and one Grade 4. The main PK parameters, maximum concentration (Cmax), and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞) in 34 subjects showed a linear kinetic relationship in the range of 10-60 mg/kg. The plasma half-life was approximately 25 days. The positive rates of serum ADAs and antibody titres were low with no evidence of an impact on safety or PK. In conclusion, MW33 was well-tolerated, demonstrated linear PK, with a lower positive rate of serum ADAs and antibody titres in healthy subjects.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04427501.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04533048.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04627584.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Data Analysis , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e044940, 2021 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327656

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the epidemiological characteristics of family clusters of COVID-19 and the three stages of the comprehensive non-pharmaceutical interventions and measures implemented in Shenzhen. METHODS: The epidemic curve of COVID-19 was drawn and the impact of the comprehensive non-pharmaceutical interventions and measures was analysed by the different periods of the epidemic. RESULTS: A total of 427 cases (417 confirmed cases and 10 asymptomatic infectious cases) were reported in Shenzhen, of which 259 (60.7%) were clustered cases. 97 cluster events were drawn and most cluster events (97.3%) occurred in families. There were three stages of the COVID-19 epidemic in Shenzhen. The epidemic increased rapidly, but the peak lasted for a short time, while the decline in incidence was rapid and large. CONCLUSIONS: Family clusters were the main feature of the COVID-19 outbreak in Shenzhen in 2020, and the Shenzhen government rolled out a quick response to the epidemic. Non-pharmaceutical interventions and measures were proven to have effectively contained community transmission, limit the transmission to aggregation and reduce the scale of transmission within a household.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Biomech Eng ; 143(8)2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169857

ABSTRACT

Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) is a characteristic histopathologic pattern in most cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome and severe viral pneumonia, such as COVID-19. DAD is characterized by an acute phase with edema, hyaline membranes, and inflammation followed by an organizing phase with pulmonary fibrosis and hyperplasia. The degree of pulmonary fibrosis and surface tension is different in the pathological stages of DAD. The effects of pulmonary fibrosis and surface tension on alveolar sac mechanics in DAD are investigated by using the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method. The human pulmonary alveolus is idealized by a three-dimensional honeycomb-like geometry, with alveolar geometries approximated as closely packed 14-sided polygons. A dynamic compression-relaxation model for surface tension effects is adopted. Compared to a healthy model, DAD models are created by increasing the tissue thickness and decreasing the concentration of the surfactant. The FSI results show that pulmonary fibrosis is more influential than the surface tension on flow rate, volume, P-V loop, and resistance. The lungs of the disease models become stiffer than those of the healthy models. According to the P-V loop results, the surface tension plays a more important role in hysteresis than the material nonlinearity of the lung tissue. Our study demonstrates the differences in air flow and lung function on the alveolar sacs between the healthy and DAD models.


Subject(s)
Mechanical Phenomena , Models, Biological , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Biomechanical Phenomena , Diffusion , Humans , Surface Tension
11.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(8): 1083-1088, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159749

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study explored the change in mortality rates of respiratory disease during the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Death data of registered residents of Suzhou from 2014 to 2020 were collected and the weekly mortality rates due to respiratory disease and all deaths were analyzed. The differences in mortality rates during the pandemic and the same period in previous years were compared. RESULTS: Before the pandemic, the crude mortality rate (CMR) and standardized mortality rate (SMR) of Suzhou residents including respiratory disease, were not much different from those in previous years. During the emergency period, the CMR of Suzhou residents was 180.2/100,000 and the SMR was 85.5/100,000, decreasing by 9.1% and 14.6%, respectively; the CMR of respiratory disease was 16.4/100,000 and the SMR was 6.8/100,000, down 41.4% and 44.9%, respectively. Regardless of the mortality rates of all deaths or respiratory disease, the rates were higher in males than in females, although males had aslightly greater decrease in all deaths during the emergency period compared with females, and the opposite was true for respiratory disease. CONCLUSION: During the pandemic, the death rate of residents decreased, especially that due to respiratory disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiration Disorders , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 1071, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread globally, causing an unprecedented pandemic. However, there is no specific antiviral therapy for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a clinical trial to compare the effectiveness of three antiviral treatment regimens in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. METHODS: This was a single-center, randomized, open-labeled, prospective clinical trial. Eligible patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 were randomized into three groups: ribavirin (RBV) plus interferon-α (IFN-α), lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) plus IFN-α, and RBV plus LPV/r plus IFN-α at a 1:1:1 ratio. Each patient was invited to participate in a 28-d follow-up after initiation of an antiviral regimen. The outcomes include the difference in median interval to SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid negativity, the proportion of patients with SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid negativity at day 14, the mortality at day 28, the proportion of patients re-classified as severe cases, and adverse events during the study period. RESULTS: In total, we enrolled 101 patients in this study. Baseline clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients were comparable among the three groups. In the analysis of intention-to-treat data, the median interval from baseline to SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid negativity was 12 d in the LPV/r+IFN-α-treated group, as compared with 13 and 15 d in the RBV+IFN-α-treated group and in the RBV+LPV/r+ IFN-α-treated group, respectively (p=0.23). The proportion of patients with SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid negativity in the LPV/r+IFN-α-treated group (61.1%) was higher than the RBV+ IFN-α-treated group (51.5%) and the RBV+LPV/r+IFN-α-treated group (46.9%) at day 14; however, the difference between these groups was calculated to be statistically insignificant. The RBV+LPV/r+IFN-α-treated group developed a significantly higher incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events than the LPV/r+ IFN-α-treated group and the RBV+ IFN-α-treated group. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that there are no significant differences among the three regimens in terms of antiviral effectiveness in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. Furthermore, the combination of RBV and LPV/r is associated with a significant increase in gastrointestinal adverse events, suggesting that RBV and LPV/r should not be co-administered to COVID-19 patients simultaneously. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: ChiCTR2000029387. Registered on January 28, 2019.

13.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4830

ABSTRACT

A review. OBJECTIVE To promote the safety and rationality of traditional Chinese medicine for prevention and treatment of COVID-19 in the elderly. METHODS According to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prevention program of COVID-19 formulated by the various of China, combined with the physiol. characteristics, pathol. conditions, basic diseases and medication principles of the elderly were analyzed. RESULTS This article proposes a rational application strategy of Chinese medicine for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 in the elderly. CONCLUSION As the key population for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the intervention of rational drug use should be strengthened to ensure the safety use of traditional Chinese medicine and reduce adverse reactions in the elderly.

14.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4465

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) via the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is an acute infectious disease caused by extremely contagious, mainly spread through droplets and contact, not spread through aerosol and digestive tract. COVID-19 has fever, cough, and shortness of breath. RT-PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid is currently an important method for the diagnosis of COVID-19. It is important to determine the severity of the illness, whether you can be discharged from the hospital, and release the isolation. Different types of specimens and different brands The results of reagents for nucleic acid detection are not completely consistent. Serol. test SARS-CoV-2 pos. rate is relatively high, the nuclear The combination of acid testing and serol. testing may increase the detection rate.

15.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4066

ABSTRACT

A review. Due to the rapid spread of COVID-19 epidemic, it is particularly important for patients with clin. symptoms and suspected patients to perform timely and accurate nucleic acid detection. This article briefly introduces the gene structure characteristics, mol. biol. detection and related clin. diseases caused by SARS-CoV-2, in order to provide a certain reference for clin. diagnosis.

16.
Applied Soft Computing ; 101:107006, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1009298

ABSTRACT

The counting and identification of white blood cells (WBCs, i.e., leukocytes) in blood smear images play a crucial role in the diagnosis of certain diseases, including leukemia, infections, and COVID-19 (corona virus disease 2019). WBC image segmentation lays a firm foundation for automatic WBC counting and identification. However, automated WBC image segmentation is challenging due to factors such as background complexity and variations in appearance caused by histological staining conditions. To improve WBC image segmentation accuracy, we propose a deep learning network called WBC-Net, which is based on UNet++ and ResNet. Specifically, WBC-Net designs a context-aware feature encoder with residual blocks to extract multi-scale features, and introduces mixed skip pathways on dense convolutional blocks to obtain and fuse image features at different scales. Moreover, WBC-Net uses a decoder incorporating convolution and deconvolution to refine the WBC segmentation mask. Furthermore, WBC-Net defines a loss function based on cross-entropy and the Tversky index to train the network. Experiments on four image datasets show that the proposed WBC-Net achieves better WBC segmentation performance than several state-of-the-art methods.

17.
Chin Med ; 15(1): 128, 2020 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infections induced by influenza viruses, as well as coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic induced by severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) led to acute lung injury (ALI) and multi organ failure, during which traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) played an important role in treatment of the pandemic. The study aimed to investigate the effect of Indigo Naturalis on ALI induced by influenza A virus (IAV) in mice. METHOD: The anti-influenza and anti-inflammatory properties of aqueous extract of Indigo Naturalis (INAE) were evaluated in vitro. BALB/c mice inoculated intranasally with IAV (H1N1) were treated intragastrically with INAE (40, 80 and 160 mg/kg/day) 2 h later for 4 or 7 days. Animal lifespan and mortality were recorded. Expression of high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB-1) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) were evaluated through immunohistological staining. Inflammatory cytokines were also monitored by ELISA. RESULT: INAE inhibited virus replication on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and decreased nitric oxide (NO) production from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The results showed that oral administration of 160 mg/kg of INAE significantly improved the lifespan (P < 0.01) and survival rate of IAV infected mice, improved lung injury and lowered viral replication in lung tissue (P < 0.01). Treatment with INAE (40, 80 and 160 mg/kg) significantly increased liver weight and liver index (P < 0.05), as well as weight and organ index of thymus and spleen at 160 mg/kg (P < 0.05). Serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were reduced by INAE administration (P < 0.05). The expression of HMGB-1 and TLR4 in lung tissue were also suppressed. The increased production of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and methylene dioxyamphetamine (MDA) in lung tissue were inhibited by INAE treatment (P < 0.05). Treatment with INAE reduced the high levels of interferon α (IFN-α), interferon ß (IFN-ß), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted factor (RANTES), interferon induced protein-10 (IP-10), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) (P < 0.05), with increased production of interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results showed that INAE alleviated IAV induced ALI in mice. The mechanisms of INAE were associated with its anti-influenza, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidation properties. Indigo Naturalis might have clinical potential to treat ALI induced by IAV.

18.
J Immunol Res ; 2020: 9465398, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-879699

ABSTRACT

This new decade has started with a global pandemic of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), precipitating a worldwide health crisis and economic downturn. Scientists and clinicians have been racing against time to find therapies for COVID-19. Repurposing approved drugs, developing vaccines and employing passive immunization are three major therapeutic approaches to fighting COVID-19. Chicken immunoglobulin Y (IgY) has the potential to be used as neutralizing antibody against respiratory infections, and its advantages include high avidity, low risk of adverse immune responses, and easy local delivery by intranasal administration. In this study, we raised antibody against the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 in chickens and extracted IgY (called IgY-S) from egg yolk. IgY-S exhibited high immunoreactivity against SARS-CoV-2 S, and by epitope mapping, we found five linear epitopes of IgY-S in SARS-CoV-2 S, two of which are cross-reactive with SARS-CoV S. Notably, epitope SIIAYTMSL, one of the identified epitopes, partially overlaps the S1/S2 cleavage region in SARS-CoV-2 S and is located on the surface of S trimer in 3D structure, close to the S1/S2 cleavage site. Thus, antibody binding at this location could physically block the access of proteolytic enzymes to S1/S2 cleavage site and thereby impede S1/S2 proteolytic cleavage, which is crucial to subsequent virus-cell membrane fusion and viral cell entry. Therefore, the feasibility of using IgY-S or epitope SIIAYTMS-specific IgY as neutralizing antibody for preventing or treating SARS-CoV-2 infection is worth exploring.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Epitope Mapping , Immunoglobulins/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Reactions , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulins/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulins/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
20.
Open Med (Wars) ; 15(1): 805-814, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760726

ABSTRACT

AIM: Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for the survival of severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, but data with regard to risk factors for disease progression from milder COVID-19 to severe COVID-19 remain scarce. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis on 116 patients. RESULTS: Three factors were observed to be independently associated with progression to severe COVID-19 during 14 days after admission: (a) age 65 years or older (hazard ratio [HR] = 8.456; 95% CI: 2.706-26.426); (b) creatine kinase (CK) ≥ 180 U/L (HR = 3.667; 95% CI: 1.253-10.733); and (c) CD4+ T-cell counts <300 cells/µL (HR = 4.695; 95% CI: 1.483-14.856). The difference in rates of severe COVID-19 development was found to be statistically significant between patients aged 65 years or older (46.2%) and those younger than 65 years (90.2%), between patients with CK ≥ 180 U/L (55.6%) and those with CK < 180 U/L (91.5%), and between patients with CD4+ T-cell counts <300 cells/µL (53.8%) and those with CD4+ cell counts ≥300 cells/µL (83.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Age ≥ 65 years, CK ≥ 180 U/L, and CD4+ T-cell counts <300 cells/µL at admission were risk factors independently associated with disease progression to severe COVID-19 during 14 days after admission and are therefore potential markers for disease progression in patients with milder COVID-19.

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