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1.
Chinese Preventive Medicine ; 22(4):246-249, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1761323

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of a cluster of COVID-19 caused by an imported case in late December 2020, and to provide reference for the prevention and control of COVID-19.

2.
Sens Actuators B Chem ; 362: 131765, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757833

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is one of the greatest threats to global human health. Point-of-care diagnostic tools for SARS-CoV-2 could facilitate rapid therapeutic intervention and mitigate transmission. In this work, we report CRISPR-Cas13a cascade-based viral RNA (Cas13C) assay for label-free and isothermal determination of SARS-CoV-2 and its mutations in clinical samples. Cas13a/crRNA was utilized to directly recognize the target of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and the recognition events sequentially initiate the transcription amplification to produce light-up RNA aptamers for output fluorescence signal. The recognition of viral RNA via Cas13a-guide RNA ensures a high specificity to distinguish SARS-CoV-2 from MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, as well as viral mutations. A post transcription amplification strategy was triggered after CRISPR-Cas13a recognition contributes to an amplification cascade that achieves high sensitivity for detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA, with a limit of detection of 0.216 fM. In addition, the Cas13C assay could be able to discriminate single-nucleotide mutation, which was proven with N501Y in SARS-Cov-2 variant. This method was validated by a 100% agreement with RT-qPCR results from 12 clinical throat swab specimens. The Cas13C assay has the potential to be used as a routine nucleic acid test of SARS-CoV-2 virus in resource-limited regions.

3.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(6): 741-747, 2021 Dec 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753706

ABSTRACT

: To explore the association between napping status and depressive symptoms in urban residents during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. : The survey was embedded in the Wellness Living Laboratory-China (WELL China) cohort study. Health and lifestyle information during the COVID-19 epidemic were obtained via the telephone interview from April 8, 2020 to May 29, 2020. A total of 3075 residents aged 18 to from Gongshu district of Hangzhou city with complete data were included in the analyses. The World Health Organization-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5) was used to measure depressive symptoms. Multiple logistic regression model was used to assess the association between napping status and depressive symptoms in the participants. : The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 20.6% in the participants during the epidemic. Daytime napping behavior, especially napping time ≤30 min, was associated with a lower risk of prevalent depressive symptoms (=0.61, 95%: 0.47-0.79, <0.01) and incident depressive symptoms in the population (=0.66, 95%: 0.50-0.88, <0.01). Among those with depressive symptoms at baseline, napping time ≤ was beneficial for the outcome of depressive symptoms (=0.42, 95%: 0.21-0.82, <0.05). : One in five urban residents have depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 epidemic, and a short nap during the day may be a protective factor against depressive symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Risk Factors , Urban Population
4.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(5)2022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742560

ABSTRACT

Proteinaceous nanovaccine delivery systems have significantly promoted the development of various high-efficiency vaccines. However, the widely used method of coupling the expression of scaffolds and antigens may result in their structural interference with each other. Monovalent streptavidin (mSA) is a short monomer sequence, which has a strong affinity for biotin. Here, we discuss an orthogonal, modular, and highly versatile self-assembled proteinaceous nanoparticle chassis that facilitates combinations with various antigen cargos by using mSA and biotin to produce nanovaccines. We first improved the yield of these nanoparticles by appending a short sugar chain on their surfaces in a constructed host strain. After confirming the strong ability to induce both Th1- and Th2-mediated immune responses based on the plasma cytokine spectrum from immunized mice, we further verified the binding ability of biotinylated nanoparticles to mSA-antigens. These results demonstrate that our biotinylated nanoparticle chassis could load both protein and polysaccharide antigens containing mSA at a high affinity. Our approach thus offers an attractive technology for combining nanoparticles and antigen cargos to generate various high-performance nanovaccines. In particular, the designed mSA connector (mSA containing glycosylation modification sequences) could couple with polysaccharide antigens, providing a new attractive strategy to prepare nanoscale conjugate vaccines.

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329084

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on lifestyle behaviors and depressive symptom among patients with NCDs.We incorporated a COVID-19 survey to the WELL China cohort, a prospective cohort study with the baseline survey conducted 8–16 months before the COVID-19 outbreak in Hangzhou, China. The COVID-19 survey was carried out to collect information on lifestyle and depressive symptom during lockdown.A total of 3,327 participants were included in the COVID-19 survey, including 2,098 (63.1%) reported having NCDs at baseline and 1,457 (44%) without NCDs. The prevalence of current drinkers decreased from 42.9% before COVID-19 lockdown to 23.7% during lockdown, current smokers from 15.9–13.5%, and poor sleepers from 23.9–15.3%, while low physical activity increased from 13.4–25.2%, among participants with NCDs. Participants with NCDs were more likely than those without to have depressive symptom (OR, 1.30;95% CI, 1.05–1.61), especially among those who need to refill their medication during the COVID-19 lockdown (OR, 1.52;95% CI, 1.15–2.02).Our findings provide insight into the development of targeted interventions to better prepare patients with NCDs and healthcare system to meet the challenge of future pandemic and lockdown, which is highly likely to happen in the near future.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308177

ABSTRACT

Background: In late December, 2019, patients of atypical pneumonia due to an unidentified microbial agent were reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Subsequently, a novel coronavirus was identified as the causative pathogen which was named 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). As of Feb 12, 2020, more than 44,000 cases of 2019-nCoV infection have been confirmed in China and continue to expand. Provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions of China have launched first-level response to major public health emergencies one after another from Jan 23.2020, which means restricting movement of people among provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between the migration scale index and the number of confirmed Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (NCP) cases and to depict the effect of restricting population movement. Methods: : Excel 2010 was used to demonstrate the temporal distribution at the day level and SPSS 23.0 was used to analyze the correlation between the migration scale index and the number of confirmed NCP cases. Results: : Since January 23, 2020, Wuhan migration scale index has dropped significantly and since January 26, 2020, Hubei province migration scale index has dropped significantly. New confirmed NCP cases per day in China except Wuhan gradually increased since January 24, 2020, and showed a downward trend from February 6, 2020. New confirmed NCP cases per day in China except Hubei province gradually increased since January 24, 2020, and maintained at a high level from January 24, 2020 to February 4, 2020, then showed a downward trend. Wuhan emigration scale index from January 9 to January 22, January 10 to January 23 and January 11 to January 24 was correlated with the number of new confirmed NCP cases per day in China except Wuhan from January 22 to February 4. Hubei province emigration scale index from January 10 to January 23 and January 11 to January 24 was correlated with the number of new confirmed NCP cases per day in China except Hubei province from January 22 to February 4. Conclusions: : People who left Wuhan from January 9 to January 22 may lead to the outbreak in China except Wuhan and people who left Hubei province from January 10 to January 24 may lead to the outbreak in China except Hubei province. “Wuhan lockdown” and Hubei province launching first-level response to major public health emergencies may have had a good effect the control NCP epidemic. Because there were still new confirmed NCP cases in China except Wuhan and in China except Hubei province and this may indicate that the occurrence of second-generation cases.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323777

ABSTRACT

Background: Taiwan medical centers mainly use "Central Pharmacy" to carry out pharmaceutical operations and human resources management. The pharmacy is a 24-hour medication supply center for all units in the Hospital. Therefore, how to make the pharmacy run continuously in the potential impact of COVID-19 pandemic is an important issue in the epidemic prevention of the medical center. The purpose of this study is to design to reduce the incidence of cross or cluster infection in the event of nosocomial infection and to maintain the continuous operation of pharmaceutical service. Methods: : The planning of "isolation and triage" of pharmaceutical operations is based on the epidemic level of COVID-19, the closing situation of outpatient service, the number of outpatients receiving medicine service and the number of inpatient beds. Results: : After the overall planning, in the case of the low epidemic level (level A1), the emergency pharmacy took advance deployment, and fixed personnel was assigned to work in fixed location in the isolation, while other units started the isolation mode in the case of the moderate epidemic level (level B). Grouping mode was added for the severe epidemic level (level C). Different management measures should be planned according to the different level of risk area evaluated by the infection control center. Conclusions: : In this study, the risk reduction management mechanism of "isolation and triage" was effectively used to make proper manpower allocation and work planning for all pharmaceutical service in Hospital.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315014

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused the suspension of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) production in China, the source of the global largest medication supply chain, resulting in the potential risks of hospital insufficient drug stocks affecting clinical treatment. If all drug inventory of the hospital increased, the short-term drug shortage risk can be reduced, but the inventory costs will be increased. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to establish a risk assessment mechanism for inventory management of APIs from China, to identify the medical priorities affected by drug shortages, and to plan different countermeasures to achieve the best effect of inventory management. Methods In this study, the tables of "Incidence of Drug Shortage" and "Impact Level of Drug Shortage" related to the risk of drug inventory were developed, which were evaluated in four levels respectively, and "Drug Shortage Risk Assessment Matrix" was designed according to the probability of drug shortage and impact according to the model data of Reproductive Number (R 0) value and pandemic prediction. Each drug requiring APIs from China was evaluated and ranked according to the hazard index, so as to increase the different inventory and to find alternatives. Results We have evaluated the inventory risk level of drugs requiring APIs from China through the risk assessment mechanism, and increased the different backup stock according to the levels. The total increasing purchase amount was NTD 4.85 million, which could reduce the stock cost by about 2/3 compared with NTD 14.61 million of the total inventories for three months. Conclusions The study shows that there are significant differences between scientific inventory management and general method during COVID-19 pandemic. It can provide a reliable reference for other hospitals to adjust drug stocks in the face of other emerging infectious diseases or major emergencies by using the innovative mechanism.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312194

ABSTRACT

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, patients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs), even without symptoms or a diagnosis of COVID-19, may be affected more than the general population due to the lockdown and healthcare service redistribution. This study aims to investigate the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on lifestyle behaviors and depressive symptom among patients with NCDs.Methods: We incorporated a COVID-19 survey to the WELL China cohort, a prospective cohort study with the baseline survey conducted 8-16 months before the COVID-19 outbreak in Hangzhou, China. The COVID-19 survey was carried out to collect information on lifestyle and depressive symptom during lockdown.Findings: A total of 3,327 participants were included in the COVID-19 survey, including 2,098 (63.1%) reported having NCDs at baseline and 1,457 (44%) without NCDs. The prevalence of current drinkers decreased from 42.9% before COVID-19 lockdown to 23.7% during lockdown, current smokers from 15.9% to 13.5%, and poor sleepers from 23.9% to 15.3%, while low physical activity increased from 13.4% to 25.2%, among participants with NCDs. Participants with NCDs were more likely than those without to have depressive symptom (OR, 1.30;95% CI, 1.05-1.61), especially among those who need to refill their medication during the COVID-19 lockdown (OR, 1.52;95% CI, 1.15-2.02).Interpretation: Our findings provide insight into the development of targeted interventions to better prepare patients with NCDs and healthcare system to meet the challenge of future pandemic and lockdown, which is highly likely to happen in the near future.Funding: Initial foundational funding for the Stanford Wellness Living laboratory (WELL) was provided by Amway via an unrestricted gift through the Nutrilite Health Institute Wellness Fund to Stanford University. Through Zhejiang University, the Cyrus Tang Foundation and Zhejiang University Education Foundation also provided important financial support for the study. The follow-up survey was supported by Hsun K. Chou Fund of Zhejiang University Education Foundation.Declaration of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.Ethical Approval: The WELL-China project was approved by the ethics review board at both Zhejiang University (No. ZGL201507-3) in China and Stanford University (IRB- 35020) in USA. All participants provided written informed consent. The follow-up telephone interview was further approved by the ethics review board at Zhejiang University (No. ZGL202004-01).

10.
PLoS Med ; 19(2): e1003928, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Digital network-based methods may enhance peer distribution of HIV self-testing (HIVST) kits, but interventions that can optimize this approach are needed. We aimed to assess whether monetary incentives and peer referral could improve a secondary distribution program for HIVST among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between October 21, 2019 and September 14, 2020, a 3-arm randomized controlled, single-blinded trial was conducted online among 309 individuals (defined as index participants) who were assigned male at birth, aged 18 years or older, ever had male-to-male sex, willing to order HIVST kits online, and consented to take surveys online. We randomly assigned index participants into one of the 3 arms: (1) standard secondary distribution (control) group (n = 102); (2) secondary distribution with monetary incentives (SD-M) group (n = 103); and (3) secondary distribution with monetary incentives plus peer referral (SD-M-PR) group (n = 104). Index participants in 3 groups were encouraged to order HIVST kits online and distribute to members within their social networks. Members who received kits directly from index participants or through peer referral links from index MSM were defined as alters. Index participants in the 2 intervention groups could receive a fixed incentive ($3 USD) online for the verified test result uploaded to the digital platform by each unique alter. Index participants in the SD-M-PR group could additionally have a personalized peer referral link for alters to order kits online. Both index participants and alters needed to pay a refundable deposit ($15 USD) for ordering a kit. All index participants were assigned an online 3-month follow-up survey after ordering kits. The primary outcomes were the mean number of alters motivated by index participants in each arm and the mean number of newly tested alters motivated by index participants in each arm. These were assessed using zero-inflated negative binomial regression to determine the group differences in the mean number of alters and the mean number of newly tested alters motivated by index participants. Analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. We also conducted an economic evaluation using microcosting from a health provider perspective with a 3-month time horizon. The mean number of unique tested alters motivated by index participants was 0.57 ± 0.96 (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) in the control group, compared with 0.98 ± 1.38 in the SD-M group (mean difference [MD] = 0.41),and 1.78 ± 2.05 in the SD-M-PR group (MD = 1.21). The mean number of newly tested alters motivated by index participants was 0.16 ± 0.39 (mean ± SD) in the control group, compared with 0.41 ± 0.73 in the SD-M group (MD = 0.25) and 0.57 ± 0.91 in the SD-M-PR group (MD = 0.41), respectively. Results indicated that index participants in intervention arms were more likely to motivate unique tested alters (control versus SD-M: incidence rate ratio [IRR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.82 to 4.89, p-value < 0.001; control versus SD-M-PR: IRR = 3.26, 95% CI = 2.29 to 4.63, p-value < 0.001) and newly tested alters (control versus SD-M: IRR = 4.22, 95% CI = 1.93 to 9.23, p-value < 0.001; control versus SD-M-PR: IRR = 3.49, 95% CI = 1.92 to 6.37, p-value < 0.001) to conduct HIVST. The proportion of newly tested testers among alters was 28% in the control group, 42% in the SD-M group, and 32% in the SD-M-PR group. A total of 18 testers (3 index participants and 15 alters) tested as HIV positive, and the HIV reactive rates for alters were similar between the 3 groups. The total costs were $19,485.97 for 794 testers, including 450 index participants and 344 alter testers. Overall, the average cost per tester was $24.54, and the average cost per alter tester was $56.65. Monetary incentives alone (SD-M group) were more cost-effective than monetary incentives with peer referral (SD-M-PR group) on average in terms of alters tested and newly tested alters, despite SD-M-PR having larger effects. Compared to the control group, the cost for one more alter tester in the SD-M group was $14.90 and $16.61 in the SD-M-PR group. For newly tested alters, the cost of one more alter in the SD-M group was $24.65 and $49.07 in the SD-M-PR group. No study-related adverse events were reported during the study. Limitations include the digital network approach might neglect individuals who lack internet access. CONCLUSIONS: Monetary incentives alone and the combined intervention of monetary incentives and peer referral can promote the secondary distribution of HIVST among MSM. Monetary incentives can also expand HIV testing by encouraging first-time testing through secondary distribution by MSM. This social network-based digital approach can be expanded to other public health research, especially in the era of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR) ChiCTR1900025433.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Testing/instrumentation , Homosexuality, Male , Reimbursement, Incentive , Self-Testing , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adult , China , Costs and Cost Analysis , HIV Testing/economics , HIV Testing/methods , Humans , Male
11.
Frontiers in public health ; 9, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1652076

ABSTRACT

Background: There has been a significant decline in the morbidity of almost all infectious diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, while the incidence of norovirus-related acute gastroenteritis declined in Guangzhou, China during the initial period of the pandemic, incidence increased significantly once the new school year began in September 2020. Methods: Norovirus-related acute gastroenteritis clusters and outbreaks were assessed in Guangzhou from 2015 to 2020. Medians and interquartile ranges were compared between groups using the Mann–Whitney U-test, and attack rates were calculated. Results: While 78,579 cases of infectious diarrhea were reported from 2015 to 2019, with an average of 15,716 cases per year, only 12,065 cases of infectious diarrhea were reported in 2020. The numbers of sporadic cases and outbreaks reported from January to August 2020 were lower than the average numbers reported during the same time period each year from 2015 to 2019 but began to increase in September 2020. The number of cases in each reported cluster ranged from 10 to 70 in 2020, with a total of 1,280 cases and an average attack rate of 5.85%. The median number of reported cases, the cumulative number of cases, and the attack rate were higher than the average number reported each year from 2015 to 2019. The intervention time in 2020 was also higher than the average intervention time reported during 2015–2019. The main norovirus genotypes circulating in Guangzhou during 2015–2020 included genogroup 2 type 2 (GII.2) (n = 79, 26.69%), GII.17 (n = 36, 12.16%), GII.3 (n = 27, 9.12%), GII.6 (n = 8, 2.7%), GII.4 Sydney_2012 (n = 7, 2.36%), and GII.4 (n = 6, 2.03%). Conclusions: Our findings illustrate the importance of maintaining epidemiological surveillance for viral gastroenteritis during the COVID-19 pandemic. Local disease prevention and control institutions need to devote sufficient human resources to control norovirus clusters.

12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(48): e27846, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583962

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has caused a worldwide pandemic. Control measures differ among countries and have a varying degree of effectiveness, which requires assessment. To evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Guangzhou by 3 periods according to interventions: January 7 to 22 (no intervention), January 23 to February 23 (implemented intensive interventions), and February 24 to May 17 (the normalization mode of COVID-19 prevention and control).We collected the information of 745 COVID-19 patients and their close contacts as well as control measures in Guangzhou from January 7 to May 17, 2020. We estimated the epidemiological characteristics, disease spectrum of COVID-19 cases, key time-to-event intervals, and effective reproduction number over the 3 periods. The basic reproduction number of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was also calculated over period 1.Approximately 45.8%, 49.8%, and 4.4% of cases from close contacts were asymptomatic, symptomatic, and severe, respectively. The median incubation period was 5.3 days (the percentiles of 2.5-97.5, 1.5-18.4 days) and the median serial interval fitted with gamma distribution was 5.1 days (the percentiles of 2.5-97.5, 0.8-15.9 days). The estimated median of onset-to-quarantined time in Period 1 to 3 were 7.5, 3.4, and 2.9 days (the percentiles of 2.5-97.5, 2.1-14.2, 3.9-14.7, and 6.0-20.0 days) respectively and the median of onset-to-confirmation time in period 1 to 3 were 8.9, 4.9 and 2.4 days (the percentiles of 2.5-97.5, 2.6-16.6, 0.9-14.6, and 0.5-11.8 days). In period 1, the reproduction number was 0.9 (95% confidence interval, 0.5-1.4) and fluctuated below 1.0 before January 22 except for January 14. The effective reproduction number gradually decreased in the period 2 with the lowest point of 0.1 on February 20, then increased again since March 27 and reach a spike of 1.8 on April 12. The number decreased to below 1.0 after April 17 and decreased further to <0.2 after May 7 in the period 3.Under prospective dynamic observation, close contacts turned into infected cases could provide a spectrum of COVID-19 cases from real-world settings. The lockdown of Wuhan and closed-loop management of people arriving Guangzhou were effective in halting the spread of the COVID-19 cases to Guangzhou. The spread of COVID-19 was successfully controlled in Guangzhou by social distancing, wearing a face mask, handwashing, disinfection in key places, mass testing, extensive contact tracing, and strict quarantine of close contacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Public Health , Young Adult
13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(24): e022913, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566423

ABSTRACT

Background Currently, there is limited research on the prognostic value of NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) as a biomarker in COVID-19. We proposed the a priori hypothesis that an elevated NT-proBNP concentration at admission is associated with increased in-hospital mortality. Methods and Results In this prospective, observational cohort study of the American Heart Association's COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry, 4675 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were divided into normal and elevated NT-proBNP cohorts by standard age-adjusted heart failure thresholds, as well as separated by quintiles. Patients with elevated NT-proBNP (n=1344; 28.7%) were older, with more cardiovascular risk factors, and had a significantly higher rate of in-hospital mortality (37% versus 16%; P<0.001) and shorter median time to death (7 versus 9 days; P<0.001) than those with normal values. Analysis by quintile of NT-proBNP revealed a steep graded relationship with mortality (7.1%-40.2%; P<0.001). NT-proBNP was also associated with major adverse cardiac events, intensive care unit admission, intubation, shock, and cardiac arrest (P<0.001 for each). In subgroup analyses, NT-proBNP, but not prior heart failure, was associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality. Adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors with presenting vital signs, an elevated NT-proBNP was associated with 2-fold higher adjusted odds of death (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.23; 95% CI, 1.80-2.76), and the log-transformed NT-proBNP with other biomarkers projected a 21% increased risk of death for each 2-fold increase (adjusted OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08-1.34). Conclusions Elevated NT-proBNP levels on admission for COVID-19 are associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality and other complications in patients with and without heart failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Hospital Mortality , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Humans , Prognosis , Prospective Studies
14.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(5): 369-377, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), first identified in Wuhan, China, has been rapidly spreading around the world. This study investigates the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in Zhejiang Province who did or did not have a history of Wuhan exposure. METHODS: We collected data from medical records of confirmed COVID-19 patients in Zhejiang Province from Jan. 17 to Feb. 7, 2020 and analyzed epidemiological, clinical, and treatment data of those with and without recorded recent exposure in Wuhan. RESULTS: Patients in the control group were older than those in the exposure group ((48.19±16.13) years vs. (43.47±13.12) years, P<0.001), and more were over 65 years old (15.95% control vs. 5.60% exposure, P<0.001). The rate of clustered onset was also significantly higher in the control group than in the exposure group (31.39% vs. 18.66%, P<0.001). The symptom of a sore throat in patients in the exposure group was significantly higher than that in the control group (17.30% vs. 10.89%, P=0.01); however, headache in the exposure group was significantly lower than that in the control group (6.87% vs. 12.15%, P=0.015). More patients in the exposure group had a significantly lower level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) than those in the control group. There was no significant difference in any degree of COVID-19 including mild, severe, and critical between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: From the perspective of epidemiological and clinical characteristics, there was no significant difference between COVID-19 patients with and without Wuhan exposure history.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
15.
Prev Med Rep ; 23: 101451, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267888

ABSTRACT

Psychosocial health can influence the development and experience of several chronic diseases, and has been negatively affected for many individuals amid the COVID-19 global pandemic. To understand the impact of contemplative practices on emotional and mental health during COVID-19, the Stanford WELL for Life Study (US component), incorporated a series of additional surveys into its ongoing study. A total of 1,097 participants residing in California who responded to at least one of three COVID-19 surveys were included in this analysis. Linear and generalized mixed-effects regression models were used to investigate relationships between individual contemplative practice behaviors (CPB) (embodied observing meditation, non-reactive mindfulness meditation, self-compassion cultivation, cultivation of compassion for others) and four psychosocial outcomes measured in the original WELL questionnaire (resilience, dealing with stress, positive emotions, and negative emotions). In addition, the associations between CPB and depression, distress, and compliance with local Shelter-In-Place orders were also investigated. Participants who engaged in any contemplative practice reported significantly more resilience and positive emotions, dealing better with stress, lower distress, and were less likely to report an experience with depression in the last week. Similar findings held when CPB was modeled as a continuous variable. Significant interactions between the duration of the SIP and CPB were also observed for resilience and SIP compliance outcomes, indicating that steeper declines were observed among participants with little or no CPB across the study period. Further investigation into the potential protective benefits of CPB during times of major disruption and uncertainty is warranted.

16.
Clin Chem ; 67(4): 672-683, 2021 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165392

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious disease outbreaks such as the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic call for rapid response and complete screening of the suspected community population to identify potential carriers of pathogens. Central laboratories rely on time-consuming sample collection methods that are rarely available in resource-limited settings. METHODS: We present a highly automated and fully integrated mobile laboratory for fast deployment in response to infectious disease outbreaks. The mobile laboratory was equipped with a 6-axis robot arm for automated oropharyngeal swab specimen collection; virus in the collected specimen was inactivated rapidly using an infrared heating module. Nucleic acid extraction and nested isothermal amplification were performed by a "sample in, answer out" laboratory-on-a-chip system, and the result was automatically reported by the onboard information platform. Each module was evaluated using pseudovirus or clinical samples. RESULTS: The mobile laboratory was stand-alone and self-sustaining and capable of on-site specimen collection, inactivation, analysis, and reporting. The automated sampling robot arm achieved sampling efficiency comparable to manual collection. The collected samples were inactivated in as short as 12 min with efficiency comparable to a water bath without damage to nucleic acid integrity. The limit of detection of the integrated microfluidic nucleic acid analyzer reached 150 copies/mL within 45 min. Clinical evaluation of the onboard microfluidic nucleic acid analyzer demonstrated good consistency with reverse transcription quantitative PCR with a κ coefficient of 0.979. CONCLUSIONS: The mobile laboratory provides a promising solution for fast deployment of medical diagnostic resources at critical junctions of infectious disease outbreaks and facilitates local containment of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Laboratories , Mobile Health Units , Pathology, Molecular/methods , RNA, Viral/analysis , Adult , Automobiles , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , Female , Humans , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Male , Microfluidic Analytical Techniques/instrumentation , Microfluidic Analytical Techniques/methods , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/chemistry , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/instrumentation , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Pandemics , Pathology, Molecular/instrumentation , Robotics , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry
17.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5160

ABSTRACT

A review. At Dec. 2019, a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) broke out in China and spread rapidly to many other countries, threating global public health security. To satisfy the urgent demand of SARS-CoV-2 detection, many enterprises and research institutions have developed a number of detection methods and products. The research progress on detection methods of SARS-CoV-2 are reviewed in this paper. The principle of these detection techniques is introduced, and their advantages and limitations, as well as some typical research works discusses are illustrated.

18.
Psychol Health ; 37(1): 51-61, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010190

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Physical activity (PA) during COVID-19 shelter-in-place (SIP) may offset stress. This study examined associations between PA, stress and stress management strategies during SIP. DESIGN AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants (N = 990) from a cohort of Northern California adults completed surveys during early SIP (3/23/20-4/2/20) and mid-SIP (4/24/20-5/8/20). Participants self-reported past-month PA (meeting vs. not meeting guidelines), changes in stress (decreased/unchanged vs. increased) and use (yes/no) of 10 stress management strategies. We tested differences in mid-SIP stress and stress management strategies by PA, and differences in mid-SIP stress by stress management strategies. RESULTS: Compared to participants inactive at mid-SIP, active participants reported less stress (AOR = 0.60 [0.45, 0.81]). Active participants were more likely to manage stress using outdoor PA, indoor PA, yoga/meditation/prayer, gardening, and reading (AORs > 1.42), and less likely to sleep (AOR = 0.65 [0.48, 0.89]) or eat ([AOR = 0.48 [0.35, 0.66]) more. Managing stress using outdoor PA, indoor PA or reading was associated with lower stress; managing stress using TV/movies, sleeping or eating was associated with increased stress (ps < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Meeting PA guidelines during SIP was associated with less stress. Inactive participants reported greater sleeping and eating to cope; active participants used active stress management strategies. Engagement in physically active stress management was associated with lower stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 100: 34-41, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-943159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) in patients with COVID-19 is generally high but varies markedly. However, the relationship between anticoagulation and mortality in patients with COVID-19 is still unclear. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the incidence of VTE and evaluate the role of anticoagulation in patients with COVID-19. Random effects models were used to determine overall pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: After a database search, 25 observational studies (20 on VTE incidence and 5 on the relationship between anticoagulation and mortality) were included. The pooled incidence rates of VTE, pulmonary embolism (PE), and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in hospitalised COVID-19 patients were 21% (95% CI 15-27%), 15% (95% CI 10-20%), and 27% (95% CI 19-36%), respectively. A meta-analysis of five studies found that anticoagulation was not associated with an increased risk of mortality in hospitalised COVID-19 patients (RR = 0.86, 95% CI, 0.69-1.09, P = 0.218; I2 = 47.4%). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the incidence of VTE among hospitalised COVID-19 patients was high. Clinical trials are urgently needed to evaluate the roles of prophylactic and therapeutic anticoagulation in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
20.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 509, 2020 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916351

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: With the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, large numbers of people will receive one of the several medications proposed to treat COVID-19, including patients of reproductive age. Given that some medications have shown adverse effects on sperm quality, there might be a transgenerational concern. We aim at examining the association between drugs proposed to treat COVID-19 when taken by the father around conception and any pre-term birth or major birth defects in offspring in a nation-wide cohort study using Danish registry data. Offspring whose father filled at least one prescription of the following medications in the 3 months preceding conception were considered exposed: chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, losartan, azithromycin, naproxen, dexamethasone and prednisone. RESULTS: For azithromycin and naproxen, large numbers of offspring were exposed (> 1800 offspring), and we found no association with adverse birth outcomes. For chloroquine, losartan and dexamethasone, exposure was intermediate (~ 900 offspring), and there was no statistically significant association with birth defects. For hydroxychloroquine and prednisone, exposure was limited (< 300 offspring). Our evidence suggests that azithromycin and naproxen are safe with respect to pre-term birth and birth defects. For the other drugs investigated larger exposures are needed for conclusive statements.


Subject(s)
Abnormalities, Drug-Induced/etiology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Paternal Exposure , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Premature Birth/chemically induced , Abnormalities, Drug-Induced/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Denmark , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Risk Assessment
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