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3.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med ; 2023: 6028554, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269836

ABSTRACT

As a traditional Chinese medicine, Lianhua Qingwen capsules have been widely used to treat Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study was aimed to demonstrate the association between treatment with Lianhua Qingwen capsules and the clinical outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. This retrospective study was conducted at four hospitals in Central China. Data of hospitalized COVID-19 patients were collected between December 19, 2019 and April 26, 2020. Based on whether Lianhua Qingwen capsules were used, patients were classified into Lianhua Qingwen and non-Lianhua Qingwen (control) groups. To control for confounding factors, we used conditional logistic regression in a propensity-score matched (PSM) cohort (1 : 1 balanced), as well as logistic regression without matching as sensitivity analysis. A total of 4918 patients were included, 2760 of whom received Lianhua Qingwen capsules and 2158 of whom did not. In the PSM model, after adjusting for confounders, the in-hospital mortality was similar between the Lianhua Qingwen group and the control group (6.8% vs. 3.3%, adjusted OR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.38-1.15], p = 0.138). The negative conversion rate of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was higher in the Lianhua Qingwen group (88.3% vs. 96.1%, adjusted OR, 4.02 [95% CI, 2.58-6.25], p < 0.001). The incidence of acute liver injury was comparable between the two groups (14.0% vs. 11.5%, adjusted OR: 0.85 [95% CI, 0.71-1.02], p = 0.083), and the incidence of acute kidney injury was lower in the Lianhua Qingwen group (5.3% vs. 3.0%, adjusted OR: 0.71 [95% CI, 0.50-1.00], p = 0.048). Treatment with Lianhua Qingwen capsules was not significantly associated with in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. In the Lianhua Qingwen group, the negative conversion rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher and the incidence of acute kidney injury was lower than in the control group.

4.
Lancet ; 399(10342): 2191-2199, 2022 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several passive surveillance systems reported increased risks of myocarditis or pericarditis, or both, after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination, especially in young men. We used active surveillance from large health-care databases to quantify and enable the direct comparison of the risk of myocarditis or pericarditis, or both, after mRNA-1273 (Moderna) and BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccinations. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study, examining the primary outcome of myocarditis or pericarditis, or both, identified using the International Classification of Diseases diagnosis codes, occurring 1-7 days post-vaccination, evaluated in COVID-19 mRNA vaccinees aged 18-64 years using health plan claims databases in the USA. Observed (O) incidence rates were compared with expected (E) incidence rates estimated from historical cohorts by each database. We used multivariate Poisson regression to estimate the adjusted incidence rates, specific to each brand of vaccine, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) comparing mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2. We used meta-analyses to pool the adjusted incidence rates and IRRs across databases. FINDINGS: A total of 411 myocarditis or pericarditis, or both, events were observed among 15 148 369 people aged 18-64 years who received 16 912 716 doses of BNT162b2 and 10 631 554 doses of mRNA-1273. Among men aged 18-25 years, the pooled incidence rate was highest after the second dose, at 1·71 (95% CI 1·31 to 2·23) per 100 000 person-days for BNT162b2 and 2·17 (1·55 to 3·04) per 100 000 person-days for mRNA-1273. The pooled IRR in the head-to-head comparison of the two mRNA vaccines was 1·43 (95% CI 0·88 to 2·34), with an excess risk of 27·80 per million doses (-21·88 to 77·48) in mRNA-1273 recipients compared with BNT162b2. INTERPRETATION: An increased risk of myocarditis or pericarditis was observed after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination and was highest in men aged 18-25 years after a second dose of the vaccine. However, the incidence was rare. These results do not indicate a statistically significant risk difference between mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2, but it should not be ruled out that a difference might exist. Our study results, along with the benefit-risk profile, continue to support vaccination using either of the two mRNA vaccines. FUNDING: US Food and Drug Administration.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/diagnosis , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination/adverse effects , Young Adult
5.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 1013038, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080196

ABSTRACT

Ambroxol is a commonly used mucolytic agent principally used to treat respiratory diseases, which may have a role as adjunctive therapy for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, but there is lack of evidence about its effectiveness on coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients. To study the association between ambroxol use and clinical outcomes among hospitalized patients of COVID-19 infection. We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study involving 3,111 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from three hospitals in Wuhan from 19 December 2019 to 15 April 2020, and the primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. COVID-19 patients were classified into ambroxol and non-ambroxol groups based on the administration of ambroxol during hospitalization. Two analyses including propensity score matching (PSM) to obtain a 1:1 balanced cohort and logistic regression were used to control for confounding factors. The average age of 3,111 patients was 57.55 ± 14.93 years old, 127 of them died during hospitalization, and 924 of them used ambroxol. Treatment with ambroxol did not have a significant effect on in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients when compared with non-ambroxol in PSM model after adjusting for confounders (8.0% vs. 3.5%, adjusted OR, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.54-1.97], p = 0.936). Adverse events such as nausea/vomiting, headache, and rash were comparable between the two groups. Our results suggest that the use of ambroxol is not significantly associated with in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients, which provides evidence for evaluating the effects of ambroxol on COVID-19 patient outcomes and may be helpful for physicians considering medication alternatives for COVID-19 patients.

6.
Opt Express ; 30(12): 22233-22246, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065093

ABSTRACT

We propose a measurement method for sensitive and label-free detections of virus-like particles (VLPs) using color images of nanoplasmonic sensing chips. The nanoplasmonic chip consists of 5×5 gold nanoslit arrays and the gold surface is modified with specific antibodies for spike protein. The resonant wavelength of the 430-nm-period gold nanoslit arrays underwater environment is about 570 nm which falls between the green and red bands of the color CCD. The captured VLPs by the specific antibodies shift the plasmonic resonance of the gold nanoslits. It results in an increased brightness of green pixels and decreased brightness of red pixels. The image contrast signals of (green - red) / (red + green) show good linearity with the surface particle density. The experimental tests show the image contrast method can detect 100-nm polystyrene particles with a surface density smaller than 2 particles/µm2. We demonstrate the application for direct detection of SARS-CoV-2 VLPs using a simple scanner platform. A detection limit smaller than 1 pg/mL with a detection time less than 30 minutes can be achieved.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Antibodies , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Nanostructures/chemistry , Polystyrenes , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16038, 2022 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050535

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causative agent of the COVID-19, which is a global pandemic, has infected more than 552 million people, and killed more than 6.3 million people. SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted through airborne route in addition to direct contact and droplet modes, the development of disinfectants that can be applied in working spaces without evacuating people is urgently needed. TiO2 is well known with some features of the purification, antibacterial/sterilization, making it could be developed disinfectants that can be applied in working spaces without evacuating people. Facing the severe epidemic, we expect to fully expand the application of our proposed effective approach of mechanical coating technique (MCT), which can be prepared on a large-scale fabrication of an easy-to-use TiO2/Ti photocatalyst coating, with hope to curb the epidemic. The photocatalytic inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus, and the photocatalytic degradation of acetaldehyde (C2H4O) and formaldehyde (CH2O) has been investigated. XRD and SEM results show that anatase TiO2 successfully coats on the surface of Ti coatings, while the crystal structure of anatase TiO2 can be increased during the following oxidation in air. The catalytic activity towards methylene blue of TiO2/Ti coating balls has been significantly enhanced by the followed oxidation in air, showing a very satisfying photocatalytic degradation of C2H4O and CH2O. Notably, the TiO2/Ti photocatalyst coating balls demonstrate a significant antiviral activity, with a decrease rate of virus reached 99.96% for influenza virus and 99.99% for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Acetaldehyde , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antiviral Agents , Catalysis , Formaldehyde/chemistry , Humans , Methylene Blue/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Titanium/chemistry , Titanium/pharmacology
8.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273223, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993521

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although frequently used in the early pandemic, data on the effectiveness of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) remain mixed. We investigated the effectiveness and safety of CCP in hospitalized COVID-19 patients in real-world practices during the first two waves of the pandemic in a multi-hospital healthcare system in Texas. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Among 11,322 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection from July 1, 2020 to April 15, 2021, we included patients who received CCP and matched them with those who did not receive CCP within ±2 days of the transfusion date across sites within strata of sex, age groups, days and use of dexamethasone from hospital admission to the match date, and oxygen requirements 4-12 hours prior to the match date. Cox proportional hazards model estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for effectiveness outcomes in a propensity score 1:1 matched cohort. Pre-defined safety outcomes were described. We included 1,245 patients each in the CCP treated and untreated groups. Oxygen support was required by 93% of patients at the baseline. The pre-defined primary effectiveness outcome of 28-day in-hospital all-cause mortality (HR = 0.85; 95%CI: 0.66,1.10) were similar between treatment groups. Sensitivity and stratified analyses found similar null results. CCP-treated patients were less likely to be discharged alive (HR = 0.82; 95%CI: 0.74, 0.91), and more likely to receive mechanical ventilation (HR = 1.48; 95%CI: 1.12, 1.96). Safety outcomes were rare and similar between treatment groups. CONCLUSION: The findings in this large, matched cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and mostly requiring oxygen support at the time of treatment, do not support a clinical benefit in 28-day in-hospital all-cause mortality for CCP. Future studies should assess the potential benefits with specifically high-titer units in perhaps certain subgroups of patients (e.g. those with early disease or immunocompromised).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Oxygen , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , COVID-19 Serotherapy
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(33): e2204141119, 2022 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960626

ABSTRACT

Susceptibility and severity of COVID-19 infection vary widely. Prior exposure to endemic coronaviruses, common in young children, may protect against SARS-CoV-2. We evaluated risk of severe COVID-19 among adults with and without exposure to young children in a large, integrated healthcare system. Adults with children 0-5 years were matched 1:1 to adults with children 6-11 years, 12-18 years, and those without children based upon a COVID-19 propensity score and risk factors for severe COVID-19. COVID-19 infections, hospitalizations, and need for intensive care unit (ICU) were assessed in 3,126,427 adults, of whom 24% (N = 743,814) had children 18 years or younger, and 8.8% (N = 274,316) had a youngest child 0-5 years. After 1:1 matching, propensity for COVID-19 infection and risk factors for severe COVID-19 were well balanced between groups. Rates of COVID-19 infection were slightly higher for adults with exposure to older children (incident risk ratio, 1.09, 95% confidence interval, [1.05-1.12] and IRR 1.09 [1.05-1.13] for adults with children 6-11 and 12-18, respectively), compared to those with children 0-5 years, although no difference in rates of COVID-19 illness requiring hospitalization or ICU admission was observed. However, adults without exposure to children had lower rates of COVID-19 infection (IRR 0.85, [0.83-0.87]) but significantly higher rates of COVID-19 hospitalization (IRR 1.49, [1.29-1.73]) and hospitalization requiring ICU admission (IRR 1.76, [1.19-2.58]) compared to those with children aged 0-5. In a large, real-world population, exposure to young children was associated with less severe COVID-19 illness. Endemic coronavirus cross-immunity may play a role in protection against severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors
10.
Am J Public Health ; 112(6): 913-922, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817598

ABSTRACT

We analyzed COVID-19 influences on the design, implementation, and validity of assessing the quality of primary health care using unannounced standardized patients (USPs) in China. Because of the pandemic, we crowdsourced our funding, removed tuberculosis from the USP case roster, adjusted common cold and asthma cases, used hybrid online-offline training for USPs, shared USPs across provinces, and strengthened ethical considerations. With those changes, we were able to conduct fieldwork despite frequent COVID-19 interruptions. Furthermore, the USP assessment tool maintained high validity in the quality checklist (criteria), USP role fidelity, checklist completion, and physician detection of USPs. Our experiences suggest that the pandemic created not only barriers but also opportunities to innovate ways to build a resilient data collection system. To build data system reliance, we recommend harnessing the power of technology for a hybrid model of remote and in-person work, learning from the sharing economy to pool strengths and optimize resources, and dedicating individual and group leadership to problem-solving and results. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(6):913-922. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306779).


Subject(s)
Acacia , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Health Care
11.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 799338, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779956

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to the emergence of global health care. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between drug treatments and the incidence of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. A retrospective study was conducted on 5113 COVID-19 patients in Hubei province, among which 395 incurred liver injury. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models. The results showed that COVID-19 patients who received antibiotics (HR 1.97, 95% CI: 1.55-2.51, p < 0.001), antifungal agents (HR 3.10, 95% CI: 1.93-4.99, p < 0.001) and corticosteroids (HR 2.31, 95% CI: 1.80-2.96, p < 0.001) had a higher risk of DILI compared to non-users. Special attention was given to the use of parenteral nutrition (HR 1.82, 95% CI: 1.31-2.52, p < 0.001) and enteral nutrition (HR 2.71, 95% CI: 1.98-3.71, p < 0.001), which were the risk factors for liver injury. In conclusion, this study suggests that the development of DILI in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 needs to be closely monitored, and the above-mentioned drug treatments may contribute to the risk of DILI.

12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 743558, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775906

ABSTRACT

Background: As the first domestic PD-1 antibody approved for lung cancer in China, camrelizumab has exhibited proven effectiveness for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, the cost-effectiveness of this new regimen remains to be investigated. Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of camrelizumab combination therapy vs. chemotherapy for previously untreated patients with advanced, non-squamous NSCLC without Alk or Egfr genomic aberrations from the perspective of China's healthcare system. Methods: Based on the CameL trial, the study developed a three-health state Markov model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adding camrelizumab to chemotherapy compared to chemotherapy alone in NSCLC patients. The analysis models were conducted for patients unselected by PD-L1 tumor expression (the base case) and the patient subgroup with PD-L1-expressing tumors (≥1%). Primary model outcomes included the costs in US dollars and health outcomes in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) as well as the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) under a willingness-to-pay threshold of $31,500 per QALY. Additionally, a scenario analysis that adjusted within-trial crossover was employed to evaluate camrelizumab combination therapy compared to chemotherapy without subsequent use of PD1/PD-L1 antibodies. Results: Camrelizumab combination therapy was more costly and provided additional 0.11 QALYs over chemotherapy in the base case analysis (0.86 vs. 0.75 QALYs), 0.12 QALYs over chemotherapy in the subgroup analysis (0.99 vs. 0.88 QALYs), and 0.34 QALYs over chemotherapy in the scenario analysis (0.86 vs. 0.52 QALYs). Correspondingly, the ICER was $63,080 per QALY, $46,311 per QALY, and $30,591 per QALY, in the base case, the subgroup, and the scenario analysis, respectively. One-way sensitivity analyses revealed that ICERs of the base case and the subgroup analysis were most sensitive to the cost of camrelizumab, the cost of pemetrexed. Besides, the base case and subgroup analysis were more sensitive to the risk of neutrophil count decreased in the camrelizumab and the utility of stable disease, respectively. Conclusion: Although camrelizumab combination therapy is not cost-effective as first-line therapy for NSCLC patients in China in the base case, adjusting within-trial crossover would move the treatment regimen toward cost-effectiveness in the scenario analysis.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology
14.
J Infect Dis ; 225(4): 567-577, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated prevaccine pandemic period COVID-19 death risk factors among nursing home (NH) residents. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study covering Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged ≥65 years residing in US NHs, we estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regressions. RESULTS: Among 608251 elderly NH residents, 57398 (9.4%) died of COVID-19-related illness 1 April to 22 December 2020; 46.9% (26893) of these deaths occurred without prior COVID-19 hospitalizations. We observed a consistently increasing age trend for COVID-19 deaths. Racial/ethnic minorities shared similarly high risk of NH COVID-19 deaths with whites. NH facility characteristics for-profit ownership and low health inspection ratings were associated with higher death risk. Resident characteristics (male [HR, 1.69], end-stage renal disease [HR, 1.42], cognitive impairment [HR, 1.34], and immunocompromised status [HR, 1.20]) were death risk factors. Other individual-level characteristics were less predictive of death than in community-dwelling population. CONCLUSIONS: Low NH health inspection ratings and private ownership contributed to COVID-19 death risks. Nearly half of NH COVID-19 deaths occurred without prior COVID-19 hospitalization and older residents were less likely to get hospitalized with COVID-19. No substantial differences were observed by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status for NH COVID-19 deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nursing Homes , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Medicare , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
15.
Asian American Journal of Psychology ; : No Pagination Specified, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1475265
16.
J Evid Based Med ; 14(4): 313-332, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has turned into a pandemic and resulted in huge death tolls and burdens. Integrating Chinese and western medicine has played an important role in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. PURPOSE: We aimed to develop a living evidence-based guideline of integrating Chinese and western medicine for COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Living evidence-based guideline. METHODS: This living guideline was developed using internationally recognized and accepted guideline standards, dynamically monitoring the release of new clinical evidence, and quickly updating the linked living systematic review, evidence summary tables, and recommendations. Modified Delphi method was used to reach consensus for all recommendations. The certainty of the evidence, resources, and other factors were fully considered, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to rate the certainty of evidence and the strength of recommendations. RESULTS: The first version of this living guidance focuses on patients who are mild or moderate COVID-19. A multidisciplinary guideline development panel was established. Ten clinical questions were identified based on the status of evidence and a face-to-face experts' consensus. Finally, nine recommendations were reached consensus, and were formulated from systematic reviews of the benefits and harms, certainty of evidence, public accessibility, policy supports, feedback on proposed recommendations from multidisciplinary experts, and consensus meetings. CONCLUSION: This guideline panel made nine recommendations, which covered five traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription granules/decoction (MXXFJD, QFPD, XFBD, TJQW, and JWDY), three Chinese patent medicines (LHQW granules/capsule, JHQG granules, and LHQK granules), and one Chinese herbal injection (XBJ injection). Of them, two were strongly recommended (LHQW granules/capsule and QFPD decoction), and five were weakly recommended (MXXFJD decoction, XFBD decoction, JHQG granules, TJQW granules, and JWDY decoction) for the treatment of mild and moderate COVID-19; two were weakly recommended against (XBJ injection and LHQK granules) the treatment of mild and moderate COVID-19. The users of this living guideline are most likely to be clinicians, patients, governments, ministries, and health administrators.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , China , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(12): 3802-3809, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are theoretical concerns that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) could increase the risk of severe Covid-19. OBJECTIVE: To determine if ACEIs and ARBs are associated with an increased risk of Covid-19 hospitalization overall, or hospitalization involving intensive care unit (ICU) admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death. DESIGN: Observational case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥ 66 years with hypertension, treated with ACEIs, ARBs, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), or thiazide diuretics. MAIN MEASURES: Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the outcomes of Covid-19 hospitalization, or hospitalization involving ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death. RESULTS: A total of 35,300 cases of hospitalized Covid-19 were matched to 228,228 controls on calendar date and neighborhood of residence. The median age of cases was 79 years, 57.4% were female, and the median duration of hospitalization was 8 days (interquartile range 5-12). ACEIs and ARBs were associated with a slight reduction in Covid-19 hospitalization risk compared with treatment with other first-line antihypertensives (OR for ACEIs 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98; OR for ARBs 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.97). Similar results were obtained for hospitalizations involving ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death. There were no meaningful differences in risk for ACEIs compared with ARBs. In an analysis restricted to monotherapy with a first-line agent, CCBs were associated with a small increased risk of Covid-19 hospitalization compared with ACEIs (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04-1.14), ARBs (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.05-1.15), or thiazide diuretics (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.19). CONCLUSIONS: ACEIs and ARBs were not associated with an increased risk of Covid-19 hospitalization or with hospitalization involving ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death. The finding of a small increased risk of Covid-19 hospitalization with CCBs was unexpected and could be due to residual confounding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Medicare , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2623, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225506

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 constitutes a global public health crisis with enormous economic consequences. Monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 can provide an important treatment option to fight COVID-19, especially for the most vulnerable populations. In this work, potent antibodies binding to SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein were identified from COVID-19 convalescent patients. Among them, P4A1 interacts directly with and covers majority of the Receptor Binding Motif of the Spike Receptor-Binding Domain, shown by high-resolution complex structure analysis. We further demonstrate the binding and neutralizing activities of P4A1 against wild type and mutant Spike proteins or pseudoviruses. P4A1 was subsequently engineered to reduce the potential risk for Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of infection and to extend its half-life. The engineered antibody exhibits an optimized pharmacokinetic and safety profile, and it results in complete viral clearance in a rhesus monkey model of COVID-19 following a single injection. These data suggest its potential against SARS-CoV-2 related diseases.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Specificity/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mutation , Pandemics , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Treatment Outcome , Vero Cells , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
20.
Environ Pollut ; 285: 117257, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217544

ABSTRACT

Reusing treated wastewater can effectively alleviate water shortages and water contamination problems but depends on ensuring the safety of the reclaimed water that is produced. The operating and management conditions for water reclamation plants in China have been changed since the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic in China at the end of 2019 to prevent emerging viruses being spread through wastewater treatment processes and the reclaimed water that is produced. Removal of pathogens and trace organic compounds (e.g., pharmaceuticals and personal care products and endocrine disrupting chemicals) in a real water reclamation plant after the start of COVID-19 epidemic was studied. Disinfection byproduct formation caused by chlorine being added to meet disinfection requirements was also assessed. The pathogenic microorganism concentrations in effluent were <2 (most probable number)/L, and the removal rates for most trace organic compounds were >80% when advanced treatments were performed using ozone, ultraviolet light, and chlorine doses of 2 mg/L, 20.5 mJ/cm2, and 2-3 mg/L, respectively. The main disinfection byproduct produced at a chlorine dose of 2 mg/L and a residence time of 1 h was chloroform (at concentrations <15 µg/L). The results indicated that the water reclamation processes with modified conditions gave high pathogen and trace organic compound removal rates and reasonably well-controlled disinfection byproduct concentrations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Chlorine , Disinfection , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Wastewater , Water , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
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