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1.
Academia Economic Papers ; 49(4):495-526, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1589666

ABSTRACT

We study Taiwan's air quality after the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) pandemic in January 2020. We find a significant reduction, about 14.6%, in the daily PM2.5 concentration after the COVID-19 outbreak. Our paper controls for both year effects and time-of-year effects by comparing the average change over time in the PM2.5 levels before and after the outbreak of COVID-19 in the period from October 2019 to April 2020, to the average change over time from October to April in 2016/17, 2017/18, and 2018/19, and is robust to the policies and seasonal patterns in each year. Among the 14.6% decrease in PM2.5 concentration, we find that about 12.9 percentage points are related to the air quality improvement in China, Japan, and Korea and the reduction of transboundary air pollution.

2.
Asian American Journal of Psychology ; : No Pagination Specified, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1475265

ABSTRACT

Using a cross-sectional survey design, we examined whether social support was a stress buffer against direct online and vicarious general racial discrimination for 218 Asian/Asian American college students in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, and whether the buffering effect depended on external locus of control (external LOC). An alarming percentage of Asian/Asian American students reported direct online (58.7%) and vicarious racial discrimination (88.1%). Moderated moderation with bootstrap analysis revealed detrimental effects of direct online and vicarious racial discrimination on mental health, and protective effects of social support and low external LOC. Importantly, we found several significant Racial discrimination x Social support x External LOC interaction effects. High levels of social support were only consistently found to be a significant buffer against direct online racial discrimination for those with moderate-to-high external LOC. Results indicated that the buffering effect of social support depended on external LOC and the type of racial discrimination during the current pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved) Impact Statement Asian/Asian American college students with limited social support and high external LOC were especially vulnerable to racism-related psychological symptoms during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. High levels of social support were a buffer against direct online racial discrimination for those with high external LOC. Social support may be less effective as a stress buffer for vicarious racial discrimination. It is important to promote coping strategies that are consistent with one's values and beliefs and responsive to the nature of the racial stressors. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

3.
J Evid Based Med ; 2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has turned into a pandemic and resulted in huge death tolls and burdens. Integrating Chinese and western medicine has played an important role in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. PURPOSE: We aimed to develop a living evidence-based guideline of integrating Chinese and western medicine for COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Living evidence-based guideline. METHODS: This living guideline was developed using internationally recognized and accepted guideline standards, dynamically monitoring the release of new clinical evidence, and quickly updating the linked living systematic review, evidence summary tables, and recommendations. Modified Delphi method was used to reach consensus for all recommendations. The certainty of the evidence, resources, and other factors were fully considered, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to rate the certainty of evidence and the strength of recommendations. RESULTS: The first version of this living guidance focuses on patients who are mild or moderate COVID-19. A multidisciplinary guideline development panel was established. Ten clinical questions were identified based on the status of evidence and a face-to-face experts' consensus. Finally, nine recommendations were reached consensus, and were formulated from systematic reviews of the benefits and harms, certainty of evidence, public accessibility, policy supports, feedback on proposed recommendations from multidisciplinary experts, and consensus meetings. CONCLUSION: This guideline panel made nine recommendations, which covered five traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription granules/decoction (MXXFJD, QFPD, XFBD, TJQW, and JWDY), three Chinese patent medicines (LHQW granules/capsule, JHQG granules, and LHQK granules), and one Chinese herbal injection (XBJ injection). Of them, two were strongly recommended (LHQW granules/capsule and QFPD decoction), and five were weakly recommended (MXXFJD decoction, XFBD decoction, JHQG granules, TJQW granules, and JWDY decoction) for the treatment of mild and moderate COVID-19; two were weakly recommended against (XBJ injection and LHQK granules) the treatment of mild and moderate COVID-19. The users of this living guideline are most likely to be clinicians, patients, governments, ministries, and health administrators.

4.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455314

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evaluate pre-vaccine pandemic period COVID-19 death risk factors among nursing home (NH) residents. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study covering Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries ages ≥65 residing in U.S. NHs. We estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regressions. RESULTS: Among 608,251 elderly NH residents, 57,398 (9.4%) died of COVID-related illness April 1 to December 22, 2020. About 46.9% (26,893) of these COVID-19 deaths occurred without prior COVID-19 hospitalizations. We observed a consistently increasing age trend for COVID-19 deaths. Racial/ethnic minorities generally shared a similarly high risk of NH COVID-19 deaths with Whites. NH facility characteristics including for-profit ownership and low health inspection ratings were associated with higher death risk. Resident characteristics, including male (HR 1.69), end-stage renal disease (HR 1.42), cognitive impairment (HR 1.34), and immunocompromised status (HR 1.20) were important death risk factors. Other individual-level characteristics were less predictive of death than they were in community-dwelling population. CONCLUSIONS: Low NH health inspection ratings and private ownership contributed to COVID-19 death risks. Nearly half of NH COVID-19 deaths occurred without prior COVID-19 hospitalization and older residents were less likely to get hospitalized with COVID-19. No substantial differences were observed by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status for NH COVID-19 deaths.

5.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(12): 3802-3809, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are theoretical concerns that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) could increase the risk of severe Covid-19. OBJECTIVE: To determine if ACEIs and ARBs are associated with an increased risk of Covid-19 hospitalization overall, or hospitalization involving intensive care unit (ICU) admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death. DESIGN: Observational case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥ 66 years with hypertension, treated with ACEIs, ARBs, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), or thiazide diuretics. MAIN MEASURES: Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the outcomes of Covid-19 hospitalization, or hospitalization involving ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death. RESULTS: A total of 35,300 cases of hospitalized Covid-19 were matched to 228,228 controls on calendar date and neighborhood of residence. The median age of cases was 79 years, 57.4% were female, and the median duration of hospitalization was 8 days (interquartile range 5-12). ACEIs and ARBs were associated with a slight reduction in Covid-19 hospitalization risk compared with treatment with other first-line antihypertensives (OR for ACEIs 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98; OR for ARBs 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.97). Similar results were obtained for hospitalizations involving ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death. There were no meaningful differences in risk for ACEIs compared with ARBs. In an analysis restricted to monotherapy with a first-line agent, CCBs were associated with a small increased risk of Covid-19 hospitalization compared with ACEIs (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04-1.14), ARBs (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.05-1.15), or thiazide diuretics (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.19). CONCLUSIONS: ACEIs and ARBs were not associated with an increased risk of Covid-19 hospitalization or with hospitalization involving ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death. The finding of a small increased risk of Covid-19 hospitalization with CCBs was unexpected and could be due to residual confounding.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2623, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225506

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 constitutes a global public health crisis with enormous economic consequences. Monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 can provide an important treatment option to fight COVID-19, especially for the most vulnerable populations. In this work, potent antibodies binding to SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein were identified from COVID-19 convalescent patients. Among them, P4A1 interacts directly with and covers majority of the Receptor Binding Motif of the Spike Receptor-Binding Domain, shown by high-resolution complex structure analysis. We further demonstrate the binding and neutralizing activities of P4A1 against wild type and mutant Spike proteins or pseudoviruses. P4A1 was subsequently engineered to reduce the potential risk for Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of infection and to extend its half-life. The engineered antibody exhibits an optimized pharmacokinetic and safety profile, and it results in complete viral clearance in a rhesus monkey model of COVID-19 following a single injection. These data suggest its potential against SARS-CoV-2 related diseases.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Specificity/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mutation , Pandemics , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Treatment Outcome , Vero Cells
8.
Environ Pollut ; 285: 117257, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217544

ABSTRACT

Reusing treated wastewater can effectively alleviate water shortages and water contamination problems but depends on ensuring the safety of the reclaimed water that is produced. The operating and management conditions for water reclamation plants in China have been changed since the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic in China at the end of 2019 to prevent emerging viruses being spread through wastewater treatment processes and the reclaimed water that is produced. Removal of pathogens and trace organic compounds (e.g., pharmaceuticals and personal care products and endocrine disrupting chemicals) in a real water reclamation plant after the start of COVID-19 epidemic was studied. Disinfection byproduct formation caused by chlorine being added to meet disinfection requirements was also assessed. The pathogenic microorganism concentrations in effluent were <2 (most probable number)/L, and the removal rates for most trace organic compounds were >80% when advanced treatments were performed using ozone, ultraviolet light, and chlorine doses of 2 mg/L, 20.5 mJ/cm2, and 2-3 mg/L, respectively. The main disinfection byproduct produced at a chlorine dose of 2 mg/L and a residence time of 1 h was chloroform (at concentrations <15 µg/L). The results indicated that the water reclamation processes with modified conditions gave high pathogen and trace organic compound removal rates and reasonably well-controlled disinfection byproduct concentrations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Chlorine , Disinfection , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Water , Water , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
9.
J Infect Dis ; 223(6): 945-956, 2021 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155781

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current study was performed to evaluate risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries during the pandemic's early phase. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study covering Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries, we separated out elderly residents in nursing homes (NHs) and those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from the primary study population of individuals age ≥65 years. Outcomes included COVID-19 hospital encounters and COVID-19-associated deaths. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) using logistic regression. RESULTS: We analyzed 25 333 329 elderly non-NH beneficiaries without ESRD, 653 966 elderly NH residents, and 292 302 patients with ESRD. COVID-related death rates (per 10 000) were much higher among elderly NH residents (275.7) and patients with ESRD (60.8) than in the primary study population (5.0). Regression-adjusted clinical predictors of death among the primary population included immunocompromised status (OR, 1.43), frailty index conditions such as cognitive impairment (3.16), and other comorbid conditions, including congestive heart failure (1.30). Demographic-related risk factors included male sex (OR, 1.77), older age (3.09 for 80- vs 65-year-olds), Medicaid dual-eligibility status (2.17), and racial/ethnic minority. Compared with whites, ORs were higher for blacks (2.47), Hispanics (3.11), and Native Americans (5.82). Results for COVID-19 hospital encounters were consistent. CONCLUSIONS: Frailty, comorbid conditions, and race/ethnicity were strong risk factors for COVID-19 hospitalization and death among the US elderly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Medicare/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Minority Groups , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology
10.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(4): 306, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134639

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has lasted for nearly 4 months by this study was conducted. We aimed to describe drug utilization, disease progression, and adverse drug events of COVID-19. Methods: A retrospective, single-center case series study enrolled 165 consecutive hospitalized COVID-19 patients who were followed up until March 25, 2020, from a designated hospital in Wuhan. Patients were grouped by a baseline degree of severity: non-severe and severe. An analytical study of drug utilization, disease progression, and adverse events (AEs) of COVID-19 was conducted. Results: Of the 165 COVID-19 cases, antivirals, antibacterials, glucocorticoids, and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) were administered to 92.7%, 98.8%, 68.5%, and 55.2% of patients, respectively. The total kinds of drugs administered to the severe subgroup [26, interquartile range (IQR) 18-39] were 11 more than the non-severe subgroup (15, IQR 10-24), regardless of comorbidities. The 2 most common combinations of medications in the 165 cases were 'antiviral therapy + glucocorticoids + TCM' (81, 49.1%) and 'antiviral therapy + glucocorticoids' (23, 13.9%). Compared with non-severe cases, severe cases received more glucocorticoids (88.5% vs. 66.2%, P=0.02), but less TCM (50.0% vs. 63.3%, P=0.20), and suffered a higher percentage of death (34.6% vs. 7.2%, P=0.001). At the end of the follow-up, 130 (78.8%) patients had been discharged, and 24 (14.5%) died. There were 13 patients (7.9%) who had elevated liver enzymes, and 49 patients (29.7%) presented with worsening kidney function during the follow-up. Conclusions: Of the 165 COVID-19 patients, the fatality rate remained high (14.5%). Drug utilization for COVID-19 was diverse and generally complied with the existing guidelines. Combination regimens containing antiviral drugs might be beneficial to assist COVID-19 recovery. Additionally, liver and kidney AEs should not be ignored.

11.
J Integr Med ; 19(3): 226-231, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1026228

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the early interventions of traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) on the conversion time of nucleic acid in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and find possible underlying mechanisms of action. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 300 confirmed COVID-19 patients who were treated with TCM, at a designated hospital in China. The patients were categorized into three groups: TCM1, TCM2 and TCM3, who respectively received TCM interventions within 7, 8-14, and greater than 15 days of hospitalization. Different indicators such as the conversion time of pharyngeal swab nucleic acid, the conversion time of fecal nucleic acid, length of hospital stay, and inflammatory markers (leukocyte count, and lymphocyte count and percentage) were analyzed to observe the impact of early TCM interventions on these groups. RESULTS: The median conversion times of pharyngeal swab nucleic acid in the three groups were 5.5, 7 and 16 d (P < 0.001), with TCM1 and TCM2 being statistically different from TCM3 (P < 0.01). TCM1 (P < 0.05) and TCM3 (P < 0.01) were statistically different from TCM2. The median conversion times of fecal nucleic acid in the three groups were 7, 9 and 17 d (P < 0.001). Conversion times of fecal nucleic acid in TCM1 were statistically different from TCM3 and TCM2 (P < 0.01). The median lengths of hospital stay in the three groups were 13, 16 and 21 d (P < 0.001). TCM1 and TCM2 were statistically different from TCM3 (P < 0.01); TCM1 and TCM3 were statistically different from TCM2 (P < 0.01). Both leucocyte and lymphocyte counts increased gradually with an increase in the length of hospital stay in TCM1 group patients, with a statistically significant difference observed at each time point in the group (P < 0.001). Statistically significant differences in lymphocyte count and percentage in TCM2 (P < 0.001), and in leucocyte count (P = 0.043) and lymphocyte count (P = 0.038) in TCM3 were observed. The comparison among the three groups showed a statistically significant difference in lymphocyte percentage on the third day of admission (P = 0.044). CONCLUSION: In this study, it was observed that in COVID-19 patients treated with a combination of Chinese and Western medicines, TCM intervention earlier in the hospital stay correlated with faster conversion time of pharyngeal swab and fecal nucleic acid, as well as shorter length of hospital stay, thus helping promote faster recovery of the patient. The underlying mechanism of action may be related to improving inflammation in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
12.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 2021 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009476

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and concerns about several other pandemics in the 21st century have attracted extensive global attention. These emerging infectious diseases threaten global public health and raise urgent studies on unraveling the underlying mechanisms of their transmission from animals to humans. Although numerous works have intensively discussed the cross-species and endemic barriers to the occurrence and spread of emerging infectious diseases, both types of barriers play synergistic roles in wildlife habitats. Thus far, there is still a lack of a complete understanding of viral diffusion, migration, and transmission in ecosystems from a macro perspective. In this review, we conceptualize the ecological barrier that represents the combined effects of cross-species and endemic barriers for either the natural or intermediate hosts of viruses. We comprehensively discuss the key influential factors affecting the ecological barrier against viral transmission from virus hosts in their natural habitats into human society, including transmission routes, contact probability, contact frequency, and viral characteristics. Considering the significant impacts of human activities and global industrialization on the strength of the ecological barrier, ecological barrier deterioration driven by human activities is critically analyzed for potential mechanisms. Global climate change can trigger and expand the range of emerging infectious diseases, and human disturbances promote higher contact frequency and greater transmission possibility. In addition, globalization drives more transmission routes and produces new high-risk regions in city areas. This review aims to provide a new concept for and comprehensive evidence of the ecological barrier blocking the transmission and spread of emerging infectious diseases. It also offers new insights into potential strategies to protect the ecological barrier and reduce the wide-ranging risks of emerging infectious diseases to public health.

13.
J Integr Med ; 19(1): 36-41, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813702

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Traditional Chinese medicine plays a significant role in the treatment of the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Tanreqing Capsule (TRQC) was used in the treatment of COVID-19 patients in the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. This study aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy of TRQC in the treatment of COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 82 patients who had laboratory-confirmed mild and moderate COVID-19; patients were treated with TRQC in one designated hospital. The treatment and control groups consisted of 25 and 57 cases, respectively. The treatment group was given TRQC orally three times a day, three pills each time, in addition to conventional Western medicine treatments which were also administered to the control group. The clinical efficacy indicators, such as the negative conversion time of pharyngeal swab nucleic acid, the negative conversion time of fecal nucleic acid, the duration of negative conversion of pharyngeal-fecal nucleic acid, and the improvement in the level of immune indicators such as T-cell subsets (CD3, CD4 and CD45) were monitored. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients in the treatment group, compared to the control group, had a shorter negative conversion time of fecal nucleic acid (4 vs. 9 days, P = 0.047) and a shorter interval of negative conversion of pharyngeal-fecal nucleic acid (0 vs. 2 days, P = 0.042). The level of CD3+ T cells increased in the treatment group compared to the control group ([317.09 ± 274.39] vs. [175.02 ± 239.95] counts/µL, P = 0.030). No statistically significant differences were detected in the median improvement in levels of CD4+ T cells (173 vs. 107 counts/µL, P = 0.208) and CD45+ T cells (366 vs. 141 counts/µL, P = 0.117) between the treatment and control groups. CONCLUSION: Significant reductions in the negative conversion time of fecal nucleic acid and the duration of negative conversion of pharyngeal-fecal nucleic acid were identified in the treatment group as compared to the control group, illustrating the potential therapeutic benefits of using TRQC as a complement to conventional medicine in patients with mild and moderate COVID-19. The underlying mechanism may be related to the improved levels of the immune indicator CD3+ T cells.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , DNA, Viral/analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/pathology , Capsules , Feces/virology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
15.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 6(10): 1085-1098, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-747429

ABSTRACT

Identifying the first infected case (patient zero) is key in tracing the origin of a virus; however, doing so is extremely challenging. Patient zero for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is likely to be permanently unknown. Here, we propose a new viral transmission route by focusing on the environmental media containing viruses of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or RaTG3-related bat-borne coronavirus (Bat-CoV), which we term the "environmental quasi-host." We reason that the environmental quasi-host is likely to be a key node in helping recognize the origin of SARS-CoV-2; thus, SARS-CoV-2 might be transmitted along the route of natural host-environmental media-human. Reflecting upon viral outbreaks in the history of humanity, we realize that many epidemic events are caused by direct contact between humans and environmental media containing infectious viruses. Indeed, contacts between humans and environmental quasi-hosts are greatly increasing as the space of human activity incrementally overlaps with animals' living spaces, due to the rapid development and population growth of human society. Moreover, viruses can survive for a long time in environmental media. Therefore, we propose a new potential mechanism to trace the origin of the COVID-19 outbreak.

16.
International Journal of Mental Health Promotion ; 22(3):149-157, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-740644

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to investigate the mental status and psychological needs of police officers during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. The Anti-Pandemic Public Mental Status Scale and self-administered Psychological Needs Scale were administered online to police officers in Y city, a significant sub-central city of Hubei Province, where was affected by the pandemic the most seriously. A total of 5,467 valid questionnaires were collected, of which female police accounted for 17.7%. Compared with the national public and Y city public data previously measured using the Anti-Pandemic Public Mental Status Scale, this study found that 24.6% of the Y city police suffered maladaptive problems. The mental status of the national public was the best, followed by the Y city police. The mental status of the Y city public was the worst. Moreover, there was a significant interaction between gender and unit type of Y city police (p = 0.02). The mental status of female police working in prisons was worse than their male counterparts (p = 0.01). Furthermore, psychological needs survey results showed that the police most wanted to learn the topics of self-adjustment and family relations. The most desired psychological assistances were relaxation and stress reduction, while the percentage of willingness to choose psychological counseling was low. During the pandemic, some police officers showed obvious psychological symptoms and the mental health services could be provided according to their psychological needs.

17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(13): 2993-3000, 2020 Jul.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679286

ABSTRACT

To scientifically evaluate the intervention effect of Chinese medicine preventive administration(combined use of Huo-xiang Zhengqi Oral Liquid and Jinhao Jiere Granules) on community population in the case of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19), a large cohort, prospective, randomized, and parallel-controlled clinical study was conducted. Total 22 065 subjects were included and randomly divided into 2 groups. The non-intervention group was given health guidance only, while the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) intervention group was given two coordinated TCM in addition to health guidance. The medical instructions were as follows. Huoxiang Zhengqi Oral Liquid: oral before meals, 10 mL/time, 2 times/day, a course of 5 days. Jinhao Jiere Granules: dissolve in boiling water and take after meals, 8 g/time, 2 times/day, a course of 5 days, followed up for 14 days, respectively. The study found that with the intake of medication, the incidence rate of TCM intervention group was basically maintained at a low and continuous stable level(0.01%-0.02%), while the non-intervention group showed an overall trend of continuous growth(0.02%-0.18%) from 3 to 14 days. No suspected or confirmed COVID-19 case occurred in either group. There were 2 cases of colds in the TCM intervention group and 26 cases in the non-intervention group. The incidence of colds in the TCM intervention group was significantly lower(P<0.05) than that in the non-intervention group. In the population of 16-60 years old, the incidence rate of non-intervention and intervention groups were 0.01% and 0.25%, respectively. The difference of colds incidence between the two groups was statistically significant(P<0.05). In the population older than 60 years old, they were 0.04% and 0.21%, respectively. The incidence of colds in the non-intervention group was higher than that in the intervention group, but not reaching statistical difference. The protection rate of TCM for the whole population was 91.8%, especially for the population of age 16-60(95.0%). It was suggested that TCM intervention(combined use of Huoxiang Zhengqi Oral Liquid and Jinhao Jiere Granules) could effectively protect community residents against respiratory diseases, such as colds, which was worthy of promotion in the community. In addition, in terms of safety, the incidence of adverse events and adverse reactions in the TCM intervention group was relatively low, which was basically consistent with the drug instructions.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
18.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 56(2): 106080, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-678228

ABSTRACT

Currently, there is no approved therapy for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The World Health Organization (WHO) therefore endorses supportive care only. However, frontline clinicians and researchers have been experimenting with several virus-based and host-based therapeutics since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China. China's National Health Commission has issued the first COVID-19 treatment guidelines with therapy suggestions, which has inspired clinical studies worldwide. This review evaluates the major therapeutics. Key evidence from in vitro research, animal models and clinical research in emerging coronaviruses is examined. The antiviral therapies remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and umifenovir, if considered, should be initiated before the peak of viral replication for an optimal outcome. Ribavirin may be beneficial as an add-on therapy but is ineffective as monotherapy. Corticosteroid use should be limited to specific co-morbidities. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is not recommended owing to lack of data in COVID-19. The traditional Chinese medicine Xuebijing may benefit patients with complications of bacterial pneumonia or sepsis. The efficacy of interferon is unclear owing to conflicting outcomes in coronavirus studies. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have shown in vitro inhibition of SARS-CoV-2, but studies on their clinical efficacy and whether the benefits outweigh the risk of dysrhythmias remain inconclusive. For patients who develop cytokine release syndrome, interleukin-6 inhibitors may be beneficial.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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