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1.
Front Psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2199429

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of screen time on mental health, including depression, has attracted increasing attention from not only children and adolescents but also the elderly. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of cohort studies to evaluate the association between screen time and depression risk. Methods: The PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for cohort studies up to May 2022, and the reference lists of the included studies were also retrieved. A random-effect model was used to estimate the combined effect size. Heterogeneity was assessed with the I2 statistic. Potential publication bias was evaluated using a funnel plot and Begg's and Egger's tests. Results: The final analysis included 18 cohort studies with a combined total of 241,398 participants. The pooled risk ratio (RR) was 1.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.05–1.14), with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 82.7%, P < 0.001). The results of subgroup analyses showed that the pooled RRs varied according to geographic locations, gender, age group, screen time in the control group, depression at the baseline, and whether the study was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. No obvious evidence of publication bias was found. Conclusion: This study indicates that screen time is a predictor of depressive symptoms. The effects of screen time on depression risk may vary based on the participant's age, gender, location, and screen time duration. The findings could have important implications for the prevention of depression.

2.
JMIR Human Factors ; 12:12, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198170

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is affecting the mental and emotional well-being of patients, family members, and healthcare workers. Patients in the isolation ward may have psychological problems due to long-term hospitalization, the development of the epidemic, and the inability to meet their families. The medical assistive robot (MAR), acting as an intermediary of communication, can be deployed to address mental pressures.

3.
International Journal of Clinical Practice ; 2022 (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2194227

ABSTRACT

Objectives. The clinical and imaging features of asymptomatic carriers of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and symptomatic COVID-19 patients. Methods. The clinical and chest computed tomography imaging data of 47 asymptomatic carriers and 36 symptomatic COVID-19 patients were derived. All patients underwent 4-6 CT scans over a period of 2-5 days. Results. The bulk of asymptomatic carriers who developed symptoms and most of the COVID-19 patients were older than 18 years of age with a decreased lymphocyte count, abnormal hepatic and renal function, and increased D-dimer and C-reactive protein. In the early stage, the pulmonary lesion involved mostly 1-2 lobes at the peripheral area in asymptomatic carriers but more than three lobes at both the central and peripheral areas in COVID-19 patients. In the progression stage, the lesion of asymptomatic carriers extended from the peripheral to the central area, and no significant difference was found in the lesion range compared with the symptomatic control group. In early improvement stage, the lesion was rapidly absorbed, and lesions were located primarily at the peripheral area in asymptomatic carriers;contrastingly, lesions were primarily located at both the central and peripheral areas in symptomatic patients. Asymptomatic carriers reflected a significantly shorter duration from disease onset to peak progression stage compared with the symptomatic. Conclusions. Asymptomatic carriers are a potential source of transmission and may become symptomatic COVID-19 patients despite indicating less severe pulmonary damage, earlier improvement, and better prognosis. Early isolation and intervention can eliminate such carriers as potential sources of transmission and improve their prognosis. Copyright © 2022 Xi Ma et al.

4.
International Journal of Biomathematics ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2194046

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the epidemic model with anomalous diffusion has gained popularity in the literature. However, when introducing anomalous diffusion into epidemic models, they frequently lack physical explanation, in contrast to the traditional reaction-diffusion epidemic models. The point of this paper is to guarantee that anomalous diffusion systems on infectious disease spreading remain physically reasonable. Specifically, based on the continuous-time random walk (CTRW), starting from two stochastic processes of the waiting time and the step length, time-fractional space-fractional diffusion, time-fractional reaction-diffusion and fractional-order diffusion can all be naturally introduced into the SIR (S: susceptible, I: infectious and R: recovered) epidemic models, respectively. The three models mentioned above can also be applied to create SIR epidemic models with generalized distributed time delays. Distributed time delay systems can also be reduced to existing models, such as the standard SIR model, the fractional infectivity model and others, within the proper bounds. Meanwhile, as an application of the above stochastic modeling method, the physical meaning of anomalous diffusion is also considered by taking the SEIR (E: exposed) epidemic model as an example. Similar methods can be used to build other types of epidemic models, including SIVRS (V: vaccine), SIQRS (Q: quarantined) and others. Finally, this paper describes the transmission of infectious disease in space using the real data of COVID-19.

5.
Innov Aging ; 6(Suppl 1):463, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2188960

ABSTRACT

Residential care communities (RCC) and adult day services centers (ADSC) were greatly impacted by COVID-19. As state-regulated home- and community-based care settings (HCBSs), they experienced changing regulations, outbreaks among care recipients and staff, and new challenges to safely provide services. Using a nationally representative sample of over 11,600 RCCs and census of nearly 5,500 ADSCs from the 2020 National Post-acute and Long-term Care Study, this study examined the prevalence and regional variation (p<.05) of practices to mitigate COVID-19. Preliminary data show that most RCCs (87%) and ADSCs (72%) screened for symptoms. Most RCCs limited communal activities (83%) and ADSCs reduced hours or temporarily closed (73%). More RCCs used video telemedicine than audio-only (40% vs 34%) to assess, diagnose, or treat users. However, more ADSCs used audio-only than video telemedicine (25% vs 17%). Over 80% of all providers always or sometimes imposed in-person restrictions on family, visitors, volunteers, and non-essential services providers. More ADSCs in the Midwest (82%) and South (80%) screened symptoms than Northeast (68%) and more ADSCs in the Midwest (85%) limited hours/temporarily closed than Northeast (72%). More RCCs in the Midwest (43%) and South (41%) used video telemedicine than Northeast (36%);however, a lower percentage of ADSCs in the Midwest (9%) and South (12%) used video telemedicine than Northeast (25%). Results show a variety of experiences in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic among these two HCBSs. Practices to mitigate COVID-19 while continuing to provide needed services were common, with some differences across settings and US regions.

6.
2nd International Conference on New Energy Technology and Industrial Development, NETID 2021 ; 292, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2186210

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which can lead to the development severe pneumonia. While some hospital data shows a positive correlation between smoking and severe pneumonia, more molecular-level mechanisms need to be determined. The previous study investigates the mechanism of the negative effect of smoking on anti-viral infection on Type I interferons (IFNs). Research has shown that Type I IFNs play an important role in defending against SARS-Cov-2. Here, we want to investigate smoking components' effects on SARS-CoV-2 at the molecular level in vitro and give some ideas on the correlation between smoking and syndrome. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences.

7.
Pharmaceutical Research ; 04:04, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2174696

ABSTRACT

Hereditary genetic diseases, cancer, and infectious diseases are affecting global health and become major health issues, but the treatment development remains challenging. Gene therapies using DNA plasmid, RNAi, miRNA, mRNA, and gene editing hold great promise. Lipid nanoparticle (LNP) delivery technology has been a revolutionary development, which has been granted for clinical applications, including mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infections. Due to the success of LNP systems, understanding the structure, formulation, and function relationship of the lipid components in LNP systems is crucial for design more effective LNP. Here, we highlight the key considerations for developing an LNP system. The evolution of structure and function of lipids as well as their LNP formulation from the early-stage simple formulations to multi-components LNP and multifunctional ionizable lipids have been discussed. The flexibility and platform nature of LNP enable efficient intracellular delivery of a variety of therapeutic nucleic acids and provide many novel treatment options for the diseases that are previously untreatable.

8.
Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Medical Science) ; 42(9):1188-1196, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2099972

ABSTRACT

Objective·To explore the possible roles of immune inhibitory receptor leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily B member 2 (LILRB2) in the immune inflammation after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and provide a potential therapeutic way for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods·The supernatants containing the extracellular domain of spike protein (S-ECD) were collected, and the detection of the protein expression and activity in the conditional medium by Western blotting and flow cytometric analysis was followed by. The binding of S-ECD with LILRB2 was measured by co-immunoprecipitation and flow cytometric analysis. The mRNA expression levels of several inflammation genes in a human mononuclear cell line (THP1) or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were measured after spike protein stimulation for 24 h by quantitative RT-PCR. The protein levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the conditional medium were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The siLILRB2 was transferred into CD33+ myeloid cells purified from human peripheral blood with Lipofectamine 3000 reagents. The knockdown efficiency was detected 24 h after transfection by flow cytometric analysis. The difference in the protein levels of IL-6 between the control cells and LILRB2-knocked-down cells after spike protein treatment was evaluated by ELISA. Results·The study established a transfection system with 293T cells by which the SARSCoV-2 S-ECD could be secreted to supernatants with normal biological activities. The interaction and the binding of spike protein with LILRB2 were evaluated by a co-immunoprecipitation assay and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. The mRNA expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, arginase 1 and IL-2 in THP1 cells were significantly up-regulated 24 h after spike protein treatment compared to the control cells (all P<0.05). Consistently, the mRNA levels of IL-6, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), IL-8, IL-10 and IL-β in PBMC were notably increased after spike protein stimulation (all P<0.05). In addition, spike protein could also induce the release of IL-6 and IL-1β in PBMC as measured by ELISA (all P<0.05). More importantly, spike protein was able to increase the secretion of IL-1β and IL-6 by CD33+ myeloid cells 24 h after treatment (both P<0.05). LILRB2-overexpressing THP1 cells produced more IL-6 24 h after treatment with spike protein than the control cells (P<0.05). Two siRNAs could efficiently down-regulate the expression of LILRB2 in CD33+ cells as evaluated by flow cytometric analysis. Consistently, spike protein had no effect on the IL-6 secretion to supernatant from LILRB2-knockdown CD33+ myeloid cells. Conclusion·SARS-CoV-2 can induce cytokine release syndrome by inflammatory factors, such as IL-6 and IL-1β, released by myeloid cells through spike protein binding to LILRB2. © 2022 Editorial Department of Journal of Shanghai Second Medical University. All rights reserved.

9.
10th IEEE Joint International Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence Conference, ITAIC 2022 ; 2022-June:469-473, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2018922

ABSTRACT

Topological data analysis (TDA) has emerged as a method for understanding data clouds by extracting and comparing the structure of datasets. This paper applies one of the TDA instruments available which is called the Mapper algorithm to analyze the COVID-19 data in China. The Mapper graphs generated by the algorithm successfully reflect the development of COVID-19 across China and provide a relatively complete visualization of the pandemic. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method may have the potential to become a robust predictive tool for the spread of the coronavirus. © 2022 IEEE.

10.
Supportive Care in Cancer ; 30:S23, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1935795

ABSTRACT

Introduction The urgency of the COVID-19 pandemic brought forth an increased emphasis on palliative care referrals and advance care planning discussions;however, few outcomes have been reported to date. The primary objective of this study was to compare the timing of DNR order for patients with advanced cancer during their terminal admission before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods A random sample of 250 inpatient deaths from April 1, 2019 to July 31, 2019 was compared to another 250 inpatient deaths from April 1, 2020 to July 31, 2020. Clinical characteristics, timing and frequency of DNR orders, palliative care referral patterns, and location of death were included. Results Timing of DNR orders occurred earlier (2.9 days vs. 1.7 days prior to death, p=0.024), while the frequency of DNR orders before death did not change (94% vs 90%, p=0.25). Palliative care referrals increased (68% vs. 60%, p=0.062) and occurred earlier (3.5 days vs. 2.5 days prior to death, p=0.037). Overall length of stay increased (9.4 days vs. 7 days, p=0.048). Significantly fewer deaths occurred in the ICU (36% vs. 48%) and more deaths occurred in the Palliative Care Unit (36% vs. 29%). Conclusions During the COVID-19 pandemic, we observed a trend of earlier DNR orders, increased timely palliative care referrals, and fewer ICU deaths, indicating an improvement in quality end-of-life care. These findings may have implications for integration of palliative care. More research is needed to expand on such progress.

11.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S333, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746535

ABSTRACT

Background. The initial response of immune cells against respiratory viruses often determines the severity and duration of disease. The early trajectory of the immune response during infection with SARS-CoV-2 remains poorly understood. Dysregulation of innate immune factors that facilitate viral clearance and the adaptive response, such as type I interferons, have been implicated in severe COVID-19. However, collection of biological samples during the first seven days post-symptom onset has posed a logistical challenge, limiting our knowledge surrounding the immune responses that drive protection versus immunopathology. Methods. From March 2020, Military Health System beneficiaries presenting with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, a COVID-19 like illness, or a high-risk SARS-CoV-2 exposure at nine military medical treatment facilities across the United States were eligible for enrollment in our longitudinal cohort study, which included collection of respiratory sample, sera, plasma, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Twenty-five SARS-CoV-2 infected study participants provided samples with in the first seven days of symptom onset, fifteen of whom were hospitalized with COVID-19. We employed multiparameter spectral flow cytometry to comprehensively analyze the early trajectory of the innate and adaptive immune responses. Results. We discovered that early activation of critical antigen presenting cell subsets was impaired upon comparing inpatients with outpatients, correlating with decreased antigen-experienced T cell responses. Specifically, we noted reduced expression of key costimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD86, on conventional dendritic cells that are required for viral antigen-specific T cell priming. Reduction in CD38, a marker of activation was also observed on inpatient dendritic cell subsets. Conclusion. Reduced antigen presenting cell activation and expression of ligands that facilitate T cell engagement may impede the efficient clearance of SARS-CoV-2, coinciding with more severe disease in our cohort. Further analysis of the functional activation of early innate immune responses triggered by SARS-CoV-2 may unveil new immune biomarkers and therapeutic targets to predict and prevent severe disease associated with inadequate T cell immunity.

12.
Blood ; 138:4004, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1736297

ABSTRACT

Dysregulated inflammatory responses are characterized by inappropriate levels of inflammatory markers, speed of generation, degree, and major site of production, such as a vital organ. COVID-19 severity and mortality are strongly associated with interleukin (IL)-6 levels. High IL-6 levels are also observed in idiopathic Multicentric Castleman Disease (iMCD). Previously, we developed the first anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatments and showed that C-reactive protein (CRP) production could be fully controlled by IL-6 in humans. Using mathematical modeling, with CRP as an IL-6 surrogate marker, we predicted the ability of an anti-IL-6 mAb to block plasma IL-6 activity and showed IL-6 inhibition was dependent on the extent of whole-body IL-6 production. We postulate that in patients (pts) in whom IL-6 concentration at the site of inflammation is higher than in the plasma, full blockade of plasma IL-6 activity, shown by complete CRP inhibition, is the minimum requirement to achieve clinical efficacy. CRP inhibition with tocilizumab (TCZ) in pts with COVID-19. We identified 35 published studies evaluating the efficacy or potential role of anti-IL-6 therapy in pts with severe COVID-19. Surprisingly, only one (Luo et al. J Med Virol 2020;92:814) reported dynamics of CRP reduction for individual patients throughout treatment. We fitted a hypothetical curve of CRP reduction required to completely block IL-6, based on the half-life of CRP, and added data points of CRP serum levels from pts treated with anti-IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) therapy, TCZ, in this study. Complete reduction of CRP was not achieved in all patients: 3 pts who died had CRP levels ≥12.8 mg/l. Of 2 pts whose disease worsened, CRP levels were 93.5 mg/l and 6.3 mg/l. However, pts whose condition stabilized (n=9), or whose symptoms improved (n=1), had CRP levels close to the theoretical curve that is likely required to fully block IL-6 (CRP levels ≤5.0 mg/l). Half of these pts had been given repeated doses of TCZ. Siltuximab (SIL) treatment (NCT01024036 trial) for pts with iMCD. To assess the impact of baseline CRP levels on response to anti-IL-6 therapy, SIL, patients were divided into low and high CRP groups based on a baseline CRP level threshold of 40 mg/l (corresponding to ~40 pg/ml of IL-6;Fig 1). In patients with low baseline CRP levels (<40 mg/l;n=35), CRP levels were significantly reduced with SIL treatment on day 8 (n=26;P=0.0003) and day 15 (n=22;P=0.0043) post-dosing. In patients with high baseline CRP levels (>40 mg/l;n=17), CRP levels were significantly reduced on day 8 (n=17;P<0.0001) and day 15 (n=15;P<0.0001) post-dosing (Fig 1). A significant increase in CRP levels from day 8 to day 15 was observed in these patients (P=0.0120);this increase was not observed in patients with low baseline CRP levels (P=0.243;Fig 1). There was a negative correlation between maximum CRP and hemoglobin change (P<0.001). Inhibition of IL-6 activity by anti-IL-6 (SIL 700 mg) and anti-IL-6R (TCZ 800 mg) as monotherapy, intensified, or combined therapy. To evaluate the effect of therapy on IL-6 activity, our algorithm modeled inhibition of IL-6-(IL-6R/soluble IL-6R)-gp130 transducer complexes. This serves as a proxy for IL-6 bioactivity and accounts for the buffering capacity of gp130, which can be overwhelmed in inflammatory situations with high IL-6 concentrations. Due to uncertainty over the concentration of mAbs in alveoli relative to plasma, we modeled the effects of SIL and TCZ at local concentrations of 100%, 10%, and 1% (Fig 2) of those in plasma. Our model demonstrated that anti-IL-6 was associated with stronger inhibition of CRP than anti-IL-6R. However, only the association of both anti-IL-6 and anti-IL-6R mAbs was associated with a total blockade of CRP, which is probably necessary when IL-6 levels are associated with high risk to the patient. Different administration schedules to intensify anti-IL-6 therapy were modeled, including the repeated or combined use of anti-IL-6 and anti-IL-6R mAbs. The results form a basis to optimize treatment trategies to avoid the cytokine storm in several diseases, including cancer, iMCD, and autoimmune disorders. The feasibility of the theoretically defined approaches needs to be evaluated, particularly the potential side-effect profile for a combined treatment approach. In conclusion, in clinical practice, IL-6 inhibition should be individualized based on pathophysiology and regular CRP monitoring. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Rossi: E-SANA Inc: Other: Co-founder of E-SANA Inc;EUSA Pharma: Consultancy;LEO Pharma: Consultancy;NPO Petrovax Pharm: Consultancy. Levon: E-SANA Inc: Other: Co-founder of E-SANA Inc. Kanhai: EUSA Pharma: Current Employment. Fajgenbaum: EUSA Pharma: Research Funding;N/A: Other: Holds pending provisional patents for ‘Methods of treating idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease with JAK1/2 inhibition’ and ‘Discovery and validation of a novel subgroup and therapeutic target in idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease’;Pfizer: Other: Study drug for clinical trial of sirolimus. OffLabel Disclosure: Siltuximab is approved for the treatment of iMCD. Tocilizumab is approved for the treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis, Giant cell arteritis, Cytokine release syndrome, Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis and Polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Combination therapy using Siltuximab and Tocilizumab has not yet been approved.

13.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism ; 132:S215, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1735096

ABSTRACT

Recent emergence of SARS-Cov-2 has resulted in unprecedented spread of COVID-19 exhibiting wide variability in individuals’ symptoms. Despite rapid progress in characterizing the role of host genetics in SARS-Cov-2 infection, there is limited understanding of the role of host genetic variation and the molecular mechanisms including the knowledge of genes and pathways that contribute to COVID-19. Previous research to understand the mechanisms underlying severe COVID-19 outcomes have focused on lung- and brain-related pathologies. Here, we integrated a genome-wide association study of COVID-19 hospitalization (7,885 cases and 961,804 controls from COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative) with mRNA expression, splicing, and protein levels (n = 18,502). We identified 27 genes related to inflammation and coagulation pathways whose genetically predicted expression was associated with COVID-19 hospitalization. These genes converge on cytokine-cytokine and the JAK-STAT signaling pathways. We functionally characterized the 27 genes using phenome- and laboratory-wide association scans in Vanderbilt Biobank (BioVU;n = 85,460) and identified coagulation-related clinical symptoms, immunologic, and blood-cell-related biomarkers. We replicated these findings in the African-American cohort here in BioVU and found concordant results. This study highlights putative causal genes impacting COVID-19 severity and symptomology through the host inflammatory response.

14.
Value in Health ; 25(1):S161-S162, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1650272

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aimed to assess telemedicine utilization patterns offered by health providers and used by older Medicare beneficiaries during the coronavirus pandemic. Methods: The Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) supplemental COVID-19 survey -for Fall 2020 was used to identify Medicare beneficiaries (≥ 65 years) with a regular place for medical care and offered telemedicine during the pandemic. Major outcomes: prevalence for whether telemedicine was offered before and during the pandemic, telemedicine use, and digital access to telemedicine. Demographic factors associated with telemedicine use were identified using logistic regression. Results: The study sample included 4380 eligible older individuals (weighted sample: approximates 26.8 million US Medicare beneficiaries (≥ 65 years). Of those 42.9% made telemedicine visits during the pandemic. Approximately 60% of the telemedicine visits were made via telephone call only. Telemedicine was offered to 18% of Medicare beneficiaries before the pandemic vs. 64% during year 2020 of the pandemic. Both voice and video calls were offered to 45% of the respondents before the pandemic vs. 60.2% during the pandemic. Among telemedicine users, 57.2%, 28.3%, and 14.5% used voice calls, video calls, and both voice and video calls for appointments, respectively. Variations in overall telemedicine use were observed by sex, race, region. Beneficiaries with chronic condition numbering 2 to 3 or ≥ 4 were 38% or 119% more likely to use telemedicine. Individuals 65-74 years, female, in a metropolitan area, with higher income were more likely to make video visits. Experience of telecommunication via internet influenced telemedicine use significantly. Conclusions: Telemedicine offered to older Medicare beneficiaries increased dramatically during the coronavirus pandemic. Less than half of the beneficiaries made telemedicine visits. Demographic disparities were different in overall telemedicine use and type of telemedicine use.

15.
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology ; 14(11):1069-+, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1558239

ABSTRACT

Aim: To report pathologic findings in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Material and Methods: we evaluated clinical and GI tract histologic findings in six COVID-19 patients that presented with GI symptoms like diarrhea, and abdominal pain. This study includes surgical resection specimens from five patients and two sets of biopsy specimens from one patient. Results: Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease was considered in three of six cases based on clinical, radiologic, and endoscopic presentation. Histologically, the enteric mucosa had a spectrum of histologic changes, including active enteritis, chronic active enteritis, and transmural necrosis. Extensive thrombi in vessels and/or vasculitis were identified in three out of the six cases. The presence of extensive vascular thrombi is associated with poor prognosis, and the three patients deceased in a short period of time (ranges from 7-67 days, median 14 days) after admission for GI symptoms. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) RNA was detected in bowel tissue of one case. The other three patients recovered and were discharged and free of GI symptoms (follow-up period ranges from 235 days to 270 days, median 237 days). Conclusion: COVID-19 associated enteritis may mimic Crohn's disease clinically, radiologically and endoscopically, and these two entities can be differentiated by pathologic findings. COVID-19 patients with GI symptoms may warrant a workup to evaluate for pathologic changes, as the presence of vasculitis and microthrombi may predict poor clinical outcome.

16.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; 44(5):388-393, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1526869

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the impact of sample pooling strategy on 2019-nCoV RNA detection results. Methods: Ten negative swabs were stored in 6 ml virus transport medium, mixed thoroughly and diluted 1:2 and 1:10. Inactivated 2019-nCoV culture medium was added to simulate pooling samples: 10 pooling samples, 5 pooling samples and 1 swab sample. Extraction and amplification were made using three nucleic acid extraction reagents a, b, and c with different extraction methods and systems, as well as five 2019-nCoV detection reagents A-E with various template loading volumes and sensitivities respectively. Results: For the same sample, the Ct values of extracted templates a were 2.10±0.47 and 3.46±0.62 earlier than extracted templates b and c. For samples with identical amplifying, the Ct valves of N and ORF1ab gene of A reagent were 1.16±0.48 and 2.36±0.54 earlier than that of reagent B. Adding nucleic acid of 10 negative swabs to the amplification system lagged the Ct values of reagent A by about 1.36±0.32 Ct, while Ct values of reagent B were not affected. Extracted by regent a, a lag of 1.66±0.39 Ct on average was observed in C, D, and E reagents in detecting pooling samples of ten swabs as compared with one swab sample. When extracting 400 copies/ml pooling samples of ten swabs by reagent a, N gene could be detected by reagents C and E, but not by reagent D. Conclusion: Large amount of extraneous DNA is introduced by sample pooling, which could interfere the effiency of extraction and amplification. Strategies of using extraction reagents with large loading volume and high effiency, together with amplification reagents with large template volume and low limit of detection are helpful for ensuring detection sensitivity of pooling samples, and greatly reducing the risk of false negative results.

17.
Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction ; 5(CHIPLAY), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1480311

ABSTRACT

Animal Crossing is an online multiplayer game that supports social communication and collaboration. Its recent version, New Horizons, is immensely popular having sold over 32 million copies worldwide, with many players attracted to the opportunities it provides to remotely socialize during the COVID-19 pandemic. To understand players' increased positive emotions and social interactions, we surveyed 119 of them betweenMay and December 2020 and conducted remote interviews with 25 respondents. We identified the social dynamics among players and with non-player characters (NPCs), and analyzed how positive social interactions were facilitated under player-generated narratives and game-determined narratives. Based on our empirical analyses, we have extended our understanding of how to create positive, safe, and friendly interactions: (1)the design of mood-improving game worlds with flexible game tasks, (2) implementation of game-determined activities with social implications, (3) provision of player rewards to reinforce their social interactions, and (4)creation of opportunities to integrate NPCs' game-determined narratives into player-generated narratives. © 2021 ACM.

18.
Journal of the Association for Consumer Research ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1470094

ABSTRACT

Across four studies, we document a novel and unexpected effect such that COVID-19 data gathered by artificial intelligence (AI vs. humans) reduces consumers’ intentions to take preventive measures. This effect is driven by greater perceived dehumanization, such that consumers view AI-generated data as numbers, rather than as human lives. We find that this effect is mitigated when humanness is primed, is moderated by AI type (narrow AI leads to greater dehumanization than general AI), and is attenuated by task type (perceived vaccine effectiveness is similar for AI and humans when the vaccine development process highlights AI-advantageous attributes). © 2021 Association for Consumer Research. All rights reserved.

19.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 95:311-315, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1409680

ABSTRACT

Objectives: As a global pandemic is inevitable, real-time monitoring of transmission is vital for containing the spread of COVID-19. The main objective of this study was to report the real-time effective reproduction numbers (R(t)) and case fatality rates (CFR) in Europe.

20.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 700014, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344274

ABSTRACT

Background: Two coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have received emergency use authorizations in the U.S. However, the safety of these vaccines in the real-world remains unknown. Methods: We reviewed adverse events (AEs) following COVID-19 vaccination among adults in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) from December 14, 2020, through January 22, 2021. We compared the top 10 AEs, serious AEs, along with office and emergency room (ER) visits by age (18-64 years, ≥65 years) and gender (female, male). Results: There were age and gender disparities among adults with AEs following COVID-19 vaccination. Compared to younger adults aged between 18 and 64 years, older adults were more likely to report serious AEs, death, permanent disability, and hospitalization. Males were more likely to report serious AEs, death, and hospitalization compared to females. Conclusions: COVID-19 vaccines are generally safe but possible age and gender disparities in reported AEs may exist.

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