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1.
Brain Commun ; 3(3): fcab135, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360337

ABSTRACT

A variety of neuropsychiatric complications has been described in association with COVID-19 infection. Large scale studies presenting a wider picture of these complications and their relative frequency are lacking. The objective of our study was to describe the spectrum of neurological and psychiatric complications in patients with COVID-19 seen in a multidisciplinary hospital centre over 6 months. We conducted a retrospective, observational study of all patients showing neurological or psychiatric symptoms in the context of COVID-19 seen in the medical and university neuroscience department of Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris-Sorbonne University. We collected demographic data, comorbidities, symptoms and severity of COVID-19 infection, neurological and psychiatric symptoms, neurological and psychiatric examination data and, when available, results from CSF analysis, MRI, EEG and EMG. A total of 249 COVID-19 patients with a de novo neurological or psychiatric manifestation were included in the database and 245 were included in the final analyses. One-hundred fourteen patients (47%) were admitted to the intensive care unit and 10 (4%) died. The most frequent neuropsychiatric complications diagnosed were encephalopathy (43%), critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy (26%), isolated psychiatric disturbance (18%) and cerebrovascular disorders (16%). No patients showed CSF evidence of SARS-CoV-2. Encephalopathy was associated with older age and higher risk of death. Critical illness neuromyopathy was associated with an extended stay in the intensive care unit. The majority of these neuropsychiatric complications could be imputed to critical illness, intensive care and systemic inflammation, which contrasts with the paucity of more direct SARS-CoV-2-related complications or post-infection disorders.

2.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 93(1): 24-31, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338876

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion rate after COVID-19 may be influenced by disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) or neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMO-SD). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the seroprevalence and the quantity of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in a cohort of patients with MS or NMO-SD. METHODS: Blood samples were collected in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between 19 February 2020 and 26 February 2021. SARS-CoV-2 antibody positivity rates and Ig levels (anti-S IgG titre, anti-S IgA index, anti-N IgG index) were compared between DMTs groups. Multivariate logistic and linear regression models were used to estimate the influence of DMTs and other confounding variables on SARS-CoV-2 serological outcomes. RESULTS: 119 patients (115 MS, 4 NMO, mean age: 43.0 years) were analysed. Overall, seroconversion rate was 80.6% within 5.0 (SD 3.4) months after infection. 20/21 (95.2%) patients without DMT and 66/77 (85.7%) patients on DMTs other than anti-CD20 had at least one SARS-CoV-2 Ig positivity, while this rate decreased to only 10/21 (47.6%) for patients on anti-CD20 (p<0.001). Being on anti-CD20 was associated with a decreased odd of positive serology (OR, 0.07 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.69), p=0.02) independently from time to COVID-19, total IgG level, age, sex and COVID-19 severity. Time between last anti-CD20 infusion and COVID-19 was longer (mean (SD), 3.7 (2.0) months) in seropositive patients compared with seronegative patients (mean (SD), 1.9 (1.5) months, p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 antibody response was decreased in patients with MS or NMO-SD treated with anti-CD20 therapies. Monitoring long-term risk of reinfection and specific vaccination strategies in this population may be warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04568707.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Neuromyelitis Optica/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paris , Seroepidemiologic Studies
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e211489, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130417

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is evidence of central nervous system impairments associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, including encephalopathy. Multimodal monitoring of patients with COVID-19 may delineate the specific features of COVID-19-related encephalopathy and guide clinical management. Objectives: To investigate clinical, biological, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in association with electroencephalographic (EEG) features for patients with COVID-19, and to better refine the features of COVID-19-related encephalopathy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study conducted in Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France, enrolled 78 hospitalized adults who received a diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov2) and underwent EEG between March 30 and June 11, 2020. Exposures: Detection of SARS-CoV-2 from a nasopharyngeal specimen using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay or, in the case of associated pneumonia, on a computed tomography scan of the chest. Main Outcomes and Measures: Data on the clinical and paraclinical features of the 78 patients with COVID-19 were retrieved from electronic patient records. Results: Of 644 patients who were hospitalized for COVID-19, 78 (57 men [73%]; mean [SD] age, 61 [12] years) underwent EEG. The main indications for EEG were delirium, seizure-like events, and delayed awakening in the intensive care unit after stopping treatment with sedatives. Sixty-nine patients showed pathologic EEG findings, including metabolic-toxic encephalopathy features, frontal abnormalities, periodic discharges, and epileptic activities. Of 57 patients who underwent brain MRI, 41 showed abnormalities, including perfusion abnormalities, acute ischemic lesions, multiple microhemorrhages, and white matter-enhancing lesions. Fifty-five patients showed biological abnormalities, including dysnatremia, kidney failure, and liver dysfunction, the same day as the EEG. The results of cerebrospinal fluid analysis were negative for SARS-Cov-2 for all tested patients. Nine patients who had no identifiable cause of brain injury outside COVID-19 were further isolated; their brain injury was defined as COVID-19-related encephalopathy. They represented 1% (9 of 644) of patients with COVID-19 requiring hospitalization. Six of these 9 patients had movement disorders, 7 had frontal syndrome, 4 had brainstem impairment, 4 had periodic EEG discharges, and 3 had MRI white matter-enhancing lesions. Conclusions and Relevance: The results from this cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 suggest there are clinical, EEG, and MRI patterns that could delineate specific COVID-19-related encephalopathy and guide treatment strategy.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Electroencephalography , Electronic Health Records , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged
6.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 46: 102482, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741441

ABSTRACT

Since 2019, a new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) due to an agent called SARS-CoV-2 spread rapidly worldwide. Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMO-SD) are often treated with immunosuppressants. Beyond their effect on the risk of COVID-19 infection, the consequences on the long-term immune response against the coronavirus remain unknown. Among 13 MS or NMOSD patients with confirmed COVID-19 included, all 5 patients treated with anti-CD20 therapies had a negative SARS-CoV-2 serology. To date, maximal precautions to prevent coronavirus infection should be maintained in MS/NMOSD patients already exposed to COVID-19 during anti-CD20 therapy.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD20/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Neuromyelitis Optica/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Male , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/virology , Neuromyelitis Optica/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
7.
JAMA Neurol ; 77(9): 1079-1088, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616243

ABSTRACT

Importance: Risk factors associated with the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are unknown. Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) may modify the risk of developing a severe COVID-19 infection, beside identified risk factors such as age and comorbidities. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with MS and COVID-19 and identify factors associated with COVID-19 severity. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Covisep registry is a multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort study conducted in MS expert centers and general hospitals and with neurologists collaborating with MS expert centers and members of the Société Francophone de la Sclérose en Plaques. The study included patients with MS presenting with a confirmed or highly suspected diagnosis of COVID-19 between March 1, 2020, and May 21, 2020. Exposures: COVID-19 diagnosed with a polymerase chain reaction test on a nasopharyngeal swab, thoracic computed tomography, or typical symptoms. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was COVID-19 severity assessed on a 7-point ordinal scale (ranging from 1 [not hospitalized with no limitations on activities] to 7 [death]) with a cutoff at 3 (hospitalized and not requiring supplemental oxygen). We collected demographics, neurological history, Expanded Disability Severity Scale score (EDSS; ranging from 0 to 10, with cutoffs at 3 and 6), comorbidities, COVID-19 characteristics, and outcomes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the association of collected variables with COVID-19 outcomes. Results: A total of 347 patients (mean [SD] age, 44.6 [12.8] years, 249 women; mean [SD] disease duration, 13.5 [10.0] years) were analyzed. Seventy-three patients (21.0%) had a COVID-19 severity score of 3 or more, and 12 patients (3.5%) died of COVID-19. The median EDSS was 2.0 (range, 0-9.5), and 284 patients (81.8%) were receiving DMT. There was a higher proportion of patients with a COVID-19 severity score of 3 or more among patients with no DMT relative to patients receiving DMTs (46.0% vs 15.5%; P < .001). Multivariate logistic regression models determined that age (odds ratio per 10 years: 1.9 [95% CI, 1.4-2.5]), EDSS (OR for EDSS ≥6, 6.3 [95% CI. 2.8-14.4]), and obesity (OR, 3.0 [95% CI, 1.0-8.7]) were independent risk factors for a COVID-19 severity score of 3 or more (indicating hospitalization or higher severity). The EDSS was associated with the highest variability of COVID-19 severe outcome (R2, 0.2), followed by age (R2, 0.06) and obesity (R2, 0.01). Conclusions and Relevance: In this registry-based cohort study of patients with MS, age, EDSS, and obesity were independent risk factors for severe COVID-19; there was no association found between DMTs exposure and COVID-19 severity. The identification of these risk factors should provide the rationale for an individual strategy regarding clinical management of patients with MS during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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