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1.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-10, 2022 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982354

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic could be a threat for the health status of children with a chronic condition. The present study aimed to explore parents' and children's psychological adjustment during the current pandemic, pursuing a triple objective: to compare the psychological adjustment of parents of children with pediatric rheumatic diseases (PRDs) and parents of healthy children; to analyze children's psychological symptoms (emotional problems and hyperactivity) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and with or without a PRDs diagnosis; to explore the associations of children's emotional problems and hyperactivity with parents' psychological adjustment, parent-child interactions and belonging or not to families with PRDs. This cross-sectional study involved 56 parents of children with PRDs and 53 parents of healthy children. Self-report questionnaires about parents' depression, anxiety, parenting stress, and children's emotional symptoms and hyperactivity-inattention were administered. No differences were detected on psychological adjustment between parents of children with PRDs and parents of healthy children. Parents of children with PRDs reported statistically significant higher levels of children's emotional problems and hyperactivity before the pandemic, compared to parents of healthy children; during COVID-19 pandemic, emotional symptoms increased for both groups, while hyperactivity-inattention symptoms increased only in the group of healthy children. Children's emotional difficulties were associated with higher levels of parental anxiety, worse parent-child interaction and having PRDs; children's hyperactivity symptoms were related to parent-child difficult interaction and higher levels of parental depression. Findings suggest the importance to target the children in relation to their parents, when approaching the psychological aspects of PRDs.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969539

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the safety of COVID-19 vaccine in children resident in the Latina Local Health Authority. METHODS: We conducted a telephone survey among children aged 5-11 years receiving BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine between December 15 and 21. The main outcomes included the presence of allergic reactions or anaphylaxis, adverse events after 24-48 h, 7 and 20 days of taking the first and second doses of medications, and documented SARS-CoV-2 infection after vaccination. The information obtained was automatically linked to a spreadsheet and analyzed. RESULTS: 569 children were enrolled. The mean age was 114 ± 4.24 months; there were 251 males in the study. The vaccine showed a favorable safety profile; no anaphylaxis or serious adverse events were reported. The most common symptoms both after the first and second dose were injection site reactions, asthenia, and headache. Injection site reactions were more frequent after the first dose (p = 0.01), while systemic symptoms were more frequent after the second dose (p = 0.022). These symptoms were more frequent in patients with comorbidities (p = 0.0159). CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm the safety of COVID-19 vaccine in children younger 11 years and could be useful to promote its diffusion in pediatric ages in order to achieve "herd immunity" and prevent the virus's circulation.

3.
Children (Basel) ; 9(7)2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938707

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the use of a surgical and N95 mask for overweight and obese children was associated with respiratory distress. METHODS: We enrolled 15 healthy and 14 overweight or obese children. We performed two sessions: one wearing a surgical, the other an N95 mask. We tracked changes in partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2), oxygen saturation (SaO2), pulse rate (PR), and respiratory rate (RR) during a 72 min test: 30 min without a mask, 30 min wearing a mask, and then during a 12 min walking test. RESULTS: In healthy children, there was no significant change in SaO2 and PETCO2 during the study; there was a significant increase in PR and RR after the walking test with both the masks. In overweight or obese children, there was no significant change in SaO2 during the study period; there was a significant increase in PETCO2 as fast as wearing the mask and an increase in PETCO2, PR, and RR after walking test. After the walking test, we showed a significant correlation between PETCO2 and body mass index. CONCLUSION: Overweight or Obese children who wear a mask are more prone to developing respiratory distress, which causes them to remove it frequently. In a crowded environment, they are at greater risk of infection. For this reason, it is desirable that they attend environments where everyone uses a mask.

4.
Children (Basel) ; 9(7)2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917316

ABSTRACT

At present, the vaccine authorized in children aged 5 years and older is the BNT162b2 messenger RNA COVID-19 vaccine. Unlike adults, there is limited data available in the pediatric age describing adverse events after vaccine. We report a case of adenomesenteritis in a young girl following the first dose of vaccine.

5.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 79, 2022 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902400

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection in the pediatric age group has a milder course than in adults, but in some cases even children may present with severe forms or develop long-term consequences. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical features, long-term effects, lifestyle changes and psychological effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a pediatric sample of the Italian population. METHODS: We conducted a telephone survey among 3075 children infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the Latina Local Health Authority. Outcomes included: clinical features of infection, long-term symptoms, lifestyle changes and emotional symptoms during the illness. The information obtained was automatically linked to a spreadsheet and analyzed. RESULTS: One thousand four hundred thirteen children agreed to participate in the study; the mean age was 112.8 ± 21.9 months. Children were infected mainly inside familial clusters (59.6%; n = 842); 99% (n = 1399) of children were asymptomatic or exhibited mild symptoms. 20% (n = 259) of children experienced long-term symptoms; risk factors were: older age, higher body mass index and longer duration of infection. Throughout the period of infection, children spent most of the time on devices like tv-video, social media and mobile phone for non-educational activities. 58.8% (n = 620) of parents expressed a negative opinion about distance learning. Finally, we observed that 49,6% (n = 532) of children experienced psychological symptoms during quarantine period. CONCLUSION: Despite a lower susceptibility to COVID-19 in children, it is important to keep the focus high in children, both because of the possible long symptoms after infection and the impact on a children's mental and physical health due to pandemic. We believe that the return to school or other extracurricular activities are important to correct some of the risk factors for the long COVID syndrome, as obesity, and to limit the cultural damage generated by distance learning and psychological effects related to restrictive measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e052115, 2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752874

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Evidence showed that, even in high-income countries, children and adolescents may not receive high quality of care (QOC). We describe the development and initial validation, in Italy, of two WHO standards-based questionnaires to conduct an assessment of QOC for children and young adolescents at inpatient level, based on the provider and user perspectives. DESIGN: Multiphase, mixed-methods study. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: The two questionnaires were developed in four phases equally conducted for each tool. Phase 1 which included the prioritisation of the WHO Quality Measures according to predefined criteria and the development of the draft questionnaires. In phase 2 content face validation of the draft questionnaires was assessed among both experts and end-users. In phase 3 the optimised questionnaires were field tested to assess acceptability, perceived utility and comprehensiveness (N=163 end-users). In phase 4 intrarater reliability and internal consistency were evaluated (N=170 and N=301 end-users, respectively). RESULTS: The final questionnaires included 150 WHO Quality Measures. Observed face validity was excellent (kappa value of 1). The field test resulted in response rates of 98% and 76% for service users and health providers, respectively. Among respondents, 96.9% service users and 90.4% providers rated the questionnaires as useful, and 86.9% and 93.9%, respectively rated them as comprehensive. Intrarater reliability was good, with Cohen's kappa values exceeding 0.70. Cronbach alpha values ranged from 0.83 to 0.95, indicating excellent internal consistency. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings suggest these tools developed have good content and face validity, high acceptability and perceived utility, and good intrarater reliability and internal consistency, and therefore could be used in health facilities in Italy and similar contexts. Priority areas for future research include how tools measuring paediatric QOC can be more effectively used to help health professionals provide the best possible care.


Subject(s)
Child Care , Quality of Health Care , Adolescent , Child , Hospitals , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , World Health Organization
7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a pandemic emergency, distressing health systems in each affected country. Preparation strategies for managing this pandemic have been keys to face the COVID-19 surge all over the world and all levels of care. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During the epidemic, the Italian society of pediatric emergency-urgency (SIMEUP) promoted a national survey aiming to evaluate preparedness and response of pediatric emergency departments (PED) critical in ensuring optimal management of COVID-19 cases. RESULTS: Our results suggest that Italian PED have promptly set a proactive approach to the present emergency. 98.9% of the hospitals have defined special pathways and assistive protocols concerning the management of pediatric COVID-19 cases. The highest percentage of application of the measures for preventive and protective for COVID-19 concerned the use of personal protective equipments. CONCLUSIONS: Results show that the following measures for pediatric patients, admitted in PED, have been promptly implemented throughout the whole country: eg. use of protective devices, pre-triage of patients accessing the hospital. Despite COVID-19 being a new threat, we have shown that by developing an easy-to-follow decision algorithm and clear plans for the interventional platform teams, we can ensure optimal health care workers and patients’ safety.

8.
Children (Basel) ; 8(12)2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572382

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how the restrictive measures implemented during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic have influenced the incidence of the most common children's diseases and the consumption of medications in 2020 compared to 2019. METHODS: We involved all family pediatricians of the local health authority of Latina, from which we requested data of monthly visits in 2019 and 2020 for six common diseases disseminated through droplets and contact, and the territorial and integrative pharmaceutical unit of the area, from which we requested data of the net expenditure regarding the most commonly used drugs at pediatric age. RESULTS: There was significant reduction in the incidence of the evaluated diseases and in the consumption of investigated drugs between 2019 and 2020 in the months when the restrictive measures were in place, with an attenuation of this effect during the months of the gradual loosening of those measures. CONCLUSION: Nonpharmaceutical intervention measures have caused changes in the diffusion of common pediatric diseases. We believe that the implementation of a reasonable containment strategy, even outside of the pandemic, could positively influence the epidemiology of infectious and allergic diseases in children, and healthcare system spending.

9.
Data Brief ; 39: 107550, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499778

ABSTRACT

In response to the current COVID-19 pandemic, universal face masking represents one of the most important strategies to limit the spread of infection. However, their use in children is still highly debated (Esposito and Principi, 2020; Esposito et al., 2020) and there are few data (Lubrano et al., 2021a, 2021b) describing their possible effects on respiratory function in children. A dataset in this paper presents a comparison of the data related to the effects on respiratory function of children wearing a filtering facepiece 2 (N95 mask) with or without exhalation valve. 22 healthy children were randomly assigned to two groups, both groups wearing an N95 mask: one without an exhalation valve (group A), another with an exhalation valve (group B). Children were subjected to a 72 min test: the first 30 min without mask, then 30 min wearing face mask while practiced their usual play activity; finally, 12 min, with face mask in place, while they walked as in a walking test. They were monitored through to microstream capnography system (Rad-97TM with Nomo-Line Capnography, Masimo, Irvine, CA, USA) to log oxygen saturation (SpO2) and respiratory rate (RR). We use the Wilcoxon test to analyzed the differences between the parameters recorded during the study in group A and B. Data analysis was performed using JMP14.3.0 program for Mac by SAS Institute inc.

10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409573

ABSTRACT

Previously, we demonstrated an 81% reduction in pediatric Emergency Room (ER) visits in Italy during the strict lockdown due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Since May 2020, lockdown measures were relaxed until 6 November 2020, when a strict lockdown was patchily reintroduced. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of the relaxed lockdown on pediatric ER visits in Italy. We performed a retrospective multicenter study involving 14 Italian pediatric ERs. We compared total ER visits from 24 September 2020 to 6 November 2020 with those during the corresponding timeframe in 2019. We evaluated 17 ER specific diagnoses grouped in air communicable and non-air communicable diseases. We recognized four different triage categories: white, green, yellow and red. In 2020 total ER visits were reduced by 51% compared to 2019 (16,088 vs. 32,568, respectively). The decrease in air communicable diseases was significantly higher if compared to non-air communicable diseases (-64% vs. -42%, respectively). ER visits in each triage category decreased in 2020 compared to 2019, but in percentage, white and red codes remained stable, while yellow codes slightly increased and green codes slightly decreased. Our results suggest that preventive measures drastically reduced the circulation of air communicable diseases even during the reopening of social activities but to a lesser extent with regard to the strict lockdown period (March-May 2020).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
11.
Virol J ; 18(1): 130, 2021 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since last year, COVID-19, the disease caused by the novel Sars-Cov-2 virus, has been globally spread to all the world. COVID-19 infection among pregnant women has been described. However, transplacental transmission of Sars-Cov-2 virus from infected mother to the newborn is not yet established. The appropriate management of infants born to mothers with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 and the start of early breastfeeding are being debated. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of the joint management of a healthy neonate with his mother tested positive for Covid-19 before the delivery and throughout neonatal follow-up. The infection transmission from the mother to her baby is not described, even after a long period of contact between them and breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: It may consider an appropriate practice to keep mother and her newborn infant together in order to facilitate their contact and to encourage breastfeeding, although integration with infection prevention measures is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Adult , Breast Feeding , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Milk, Human/virology , Mothers , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
J Pediatr ; 237: 143-147, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242546

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether use of an N95 mask by children is associated with episodes of desaturation or respiratory distress. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-two healthy children were assigned at random to 1 of 2 groups: one group wearing N95 masks without an exhalation valve and the other group wearing N95 masks with an exhalation valve. We tracked changes in partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2), oxygen saturation, pulse rate, and respiratory rate over 72 minutes of mask use. All subjects were monitored every 15 minutes, the first 30 minutes while not wearing a mask and the next 30 minutes while wearing a mask. They then performed a 12-minute walking test. RESULTS: The children did not experience a statistically significant change in oxygen saturation or pulse rate during the study. There were significant increases in respiratory rate and PETCO2 in the children wearing an N95 mask without an exhalation valve, whereas these increases were seen in the children wearing a mask with an exhalation valve only after the walking test. CONCLUSIONS: The use of an N95 mask could potentially cause breathing difficulties in children if the mask does not have an exhalation valve, particularly during a physical activity. We believe that wearing a surgical mask may be more appropriate for children.


Subject(s)
N95 Respirators/adverse effects , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Biomarkers/metabolism , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Child , Child, Preschool , Exercise/physiology , Female , Heart Rate , Humans , Male , Oxygen/metabolism , Respiratory Function Tests , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/metabolism , Respiratory Rate , Risk Factors , Walk Test
13.
Eur J Pediatr ; 180(11): 3335-3342, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237499

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 among the population has occurred quite recently, there is a lack of evidence on the long-term duration of antibody response, especially in children. It is therefore crucial to clarify this aspect, considering its implications in the development of successful surveillance strategies, therapies, and vaccinations. The aim of this study was to assess the antibody response in a children group after SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to compare it with that of their parents affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection. We enrolled 12 children and their parents, both groups being affected by COVID-19 in April 2020. In the children's group, we collected real-time RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values and gene characterization of first nasal-throat swab at the time of diagnosis (T0); 30 days after the diagnosis (T30), we performed blood tests to detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG. Finally, 180 days after the diagnosis (T180), we measured anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in both children and parents. In children, antibody levels declined significantly at 180 days (T180) after first measurement (T30). There were no significant differences in IgG level related to age, sex, and clinical manifestations. We found a significant correlation between IgG titers at T30 and Ct value of gene N. Children showed a lower level of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at T180 compared to their parents.Conclusion: Antibody responses in children waned 180 days after SARS-CoV-2 infection, and at the same time, their parents showed a different antibody response to the virus. These results highlight that serological tests should be used with caution in surveillance strategies among the general population. What is known: • Currently is not known how long antibody response will be maintained or if it protects from reinfection. • Recent reports in adults suggest that antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 declined several months after infection, but data are missing in pediatric age. What is new: • We showed that antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 wane several months after infection also in children with quantitative differences in antibody levels between children and adults. • In this context, serological tests should be used with caution in surveillance strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 3122-3132, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196541

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To perform a comprehensive clinic, laboratory, and instrumental evaluation of children affected by coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS: Children with a positive result of nasopharyngeal swab for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) underwent laboratory tests, anal and conjunctival swab, electrocardiography, lung, abdomen, and cardiac ultrasound. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed if abnormal basal blood pressure. Patients were followed-up for 6 months. RESULTS: Three hundred and sixteen children were evaluated; 15 were finally included. Confirmed family member SARS-CoV-2 infection was present in all. Twenty-seven percent were asymptomatic. Anal and conjunctival swabs tests resulted negative in all. Patients with lower body mass index (BMI) presented significantly higher viral loads. Main laboratory abnormalities were: lactate dehydrogenase increasing (73%), low vitamin D levels (87%), hematuria (33%), proteinuria (26%), renal hyperfiltration (33%), and hypofiltration (13%). Two of the patients with hyperfiltration exhibited high blood pressure levels at diagnosis, and persistence of prehypertension at 6-month follow-up. No abnormalities were seen at ultrasound, excepting for one patient who exhibited B-lines at lung sonography. Immunoglobulin G seroconversion was observed in all at 1-month. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirm that intra-family transmission is important. The significant higher viral loads recorded among patients with lower BMI, together with low vitamin D levels, support the impact of nutritional status on immune system. Renal involvement is frequent even among children with mild COVID-19, therefore prompt evaluation and identification of patients with reduced renal function reserve would allow a better stratification and management of patients. Seroconversion occurs also in asymptomatic children, with no differences in antibodies titer according to age, sex and clinical manifestations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Anal Canal/virology , Body Mass Index , Child , Child, Preschool , Conjunctiva/virology , Contact Tracing , Family , Female , Humans , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , Prospective Studies , Viral Load
15.
Euro Surveill ; 26(14)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175519

ABSTRACT

BackgroundVery few studies describe factors associated with COVID-19 diagnosis in children.AimWe here describe characteristics and risk factors for COVID-19 diagnosis in children tested in 20 paediatric centres across Italy.MethodsWe included cases aged 0-18 years tested between 23 February and 24 May 2020. Our primary analysis focused on children tested because of symptoms/signs suggestive of COVID-19.ResultsAmong 2,494 children tested, 2,148 (86.1%) had symptoms suggestive of COVID-19. Clinical presentation of confirmed COVID-19 cases included besides fever (82.4%) and respiratory signs or symptoms (60.4%) also gastrointestinal (18.2%), neurological (18.9%), cutaneous (3.8%) and other unspecific influenza-like presentations (17.8%). In multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity were: exposure history (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 39.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 17.52-90.55; p < 0.0001), cardiac disease (AOR: 3.10; 95% CI: 1.19-5.02; p < 0.0001), fever (AOR: 3.05%; 95% CI: 1.67-5.58; p = 0.0003) and anosmia/ageusia (AOR: 4.08; 95% CI: 1.69-9.84; p = 0.002). Among 190 (7.6%) children positive for SARS-CoV-2, only four (2.1%) required respiratory support and two (1.1%) were admitted to intensive care; all recovered.ConclusionRecommendations for SARS-CoV-2 testing in children should consider the evidence of broader clinical features. Exposure history, fever and anosmia/ageusia are strong risk factors in children for positive SARS-CoV-2 testing, while other symptoms did not help discriminate positive from negative individuals. This study confirms that COVID-19 was a mild disease in the general paediatric population in Italy. Further studies are needed to understand risk, clinical spectrum and outcomes of COVID-19 in children with pre-existing conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Risk Factors
16.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 47, 2021 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115239

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a pandemic emergency, distressing health systems in each affected country. Preparation strategies for managing this pandemic have been keys to face the COVID-19 surge all over the world and all levels of care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During the epidemic, the Italian society of pediatric emergency-urgency (SIMEUP) promoted a national survey aiming to evaluate preparedness and response of pediatric emergency departments (PED) critical in ensuring optimal management of COVID-19 cases. RESULTS: Our results suggest that Italian PED have promptly set a proactive approach to the present emergency. 98.9% of the hospitals have defined special pathways and assistive protocols concerning the management of pediatric COVID-19 cases. The highest percentage of application of the measures for preventive and protective for COVID-19 concerned the use of personal protective equipments. CONCLUSIONS: Results show that the following measures for pediatric patients, admitted in PED, have been promptly implemented throughout the whole country: eg. use of protective devices, pre-triage of patients accessing the hospital. Despite COVID-19 being a new threat, we have shown that by developing an easy-to-follow decision algorithm and clear plans for the interventional platform teams, we can ensure optimal health care workers and patients' safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Infection Control/organization & administration , Pediatric Emergency Medicine/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Clinical Protocols , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Personal Protective Equipment , Surveys and Questionnaires , Triage/organization & administration
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e210414, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111150

ABSTRACT

Importance: Face masks have been associated with effective prevention of diffusion of viruses via droplets. However, the use of face masks among children, especially those aged younger than 3 years, is debated, and the US Centers for Disease Control and American Academy of Physicians recommend the use of face mask only among individuals aged 3 years or older. Objective: To examine whether the use of surgical facial masks among children is associated with episodes of oxygen desaturation or respiratory distress. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted from May through June 2020 in a secondary-level hospital pediatric unit in Italy. Included participants were 47 healthy children divided by age (ie, group A, aged ≤24 months, and group B, aged >24 months to ≤144 months). Data were analyzed from May through June 2020. Interventions: All participants were monitored every 15 minutes for changes in respiratory parameters for the first 30 minutes while not wearing a surgical face mask and for the next 30 minutes while wearing a face mask. Children aged 24 months and older then participated in a walking test for 12 minutes. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes in respiratory parameters during the use of surgical masks were evaluated. Results: Among 47 children, 22 children (46.8%) were aged 24 months or younger (ie, group A), with 11 boys (50.0%) and median (interquartile range [IQR]) age 12.5 (10.0-17.5) months, and 25 children (53.2%) were aged older than 24 months to 144 months or younger, with 13 boys (52.0%) and median (IQR) age 100.0 (72.0-120.0) months. During the first 60 minutes of evaluation in the 2 groups, there was no significant change in group A in median (IQR) partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (Petco2; 33.0 [32.0-34.0] mm Hg; P for Kruskal Wallis = .59), oxygen saturation (Sao2; 98.0% [97.0%-99.0%]; P for Kruskal Wallis = .61), pulse rate (PR; 130.0 [115.0-140.0] pulsations/min; P for Kruskal Wallis = .99), or respiratory rate (RR; 30.0 [28.0-33.0] breaths/min; P for Kruskal Wallis = .69) or for group B in median (IQR) Petco2 (36.0 [34.0-38.0] mm Hg; P for Kruskal Wallis = .97), Sao2 (98.0% [97.0%-98.0%]; P for Kruskal Wallis = .52), PR (96.0 [84.0-104.5] pulsations/min; P for Kruskal Wallis test = .48), or RR (22.0 [20.0-25.0] breaths/min; P for Kruskal Wallis = .55). After the group B walking test, compared with before the walking test, there was a significant increase in median (IQR) PR (96.0 [84.0-104.5] pulsations/min vs 105.0 [100.0-115.0] pulsations/min; P < .02) and RR (22.0 [20.0-25.0] breaths/min vs 26.0 [24.0-29.0] breaths/min; P < .05). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study among infants and young children in Italy found that the use of facial masks was not associated with significant changes in Sao2 or Petco2, including among children aged 24 months and younger.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks/adverse effects , Pandemics , Respiration , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Carbon Dioxide/physiology , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Italy , Male , Oxygen/blood , Oxygen/physiology , Partial Pressure , Respiratory Function Tests , Respiratory Rate , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Children (Basel) ; 8(1)2020 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006986

ABSTRACT

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a frequent cause of childhood disability often associated with a complex group of disorders, including epilepsy, which is reported to impact approximately 40% of affected individuals. This retrospective study involved a group of children affected by CP, some of whom also had comorbid epilepsy. The aim of this study was to report our experience of analyzing, in particular, (a) some of the clinical aspects of the different type of CP, and (b) the relationship between the clinical data of children affected by CP plus epilepsy and each type of CP. METHODS: This retrospective single-center study was performed with 93 children admitted to the Pediatric Department of the University of Catania, Italy, affected by CP and distinguished according to the type of motor clinical presentation, with 46 showing epileptic seizures, compared to a control group of 136 children affected by epilepsy without other neurologic disorders. RESULTS: Among the 93 CP children, 25 (27%) had spastic quadriplegia (plus one patient with dystonic quadriplegia), 39 (42%) had spastic hemiplegia, 11 (12%) had spastic diplegia (plus two with ataxia and one with dyskinetic CP), and 14 (15%) did not have a well-defined type of CP. The frequency of epilepsy was higher in affected CP children who showed major motor dysfunction (GMFCS IV-V types). As regards the 46 children with CP plus epilepsy, compared to the group of the control, the age of epilepsy onset was found to be statistically significant: 21 ± 35.1 months vs. 67 ± 39.7. CONCLUSIONS: Epilepsy represents one of the most frequent comorbidities of cerebral palsy. In children with CP, particular attention should be paid to the early identification and treatment of comorbid epilepsy.

20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(23)2020 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945819

ABSTRACT

From 9 March to 3 May 2020, lockdown was declared in Italy due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Our aim was to evaluate how the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and related preventive strategies affected pediatric emergency rooms (ERs) during this period. We performed a retrospective cohort multicenter study, comparing the lockdown period to the corresponding period in 2019. We examined 15 Italian pediatric ERs in terms of visit rates, specific diagnoses (grouped as air communicable diseases and non-air communicable diseases), and triage categories. During the lockdown period, ER admissions decreased by 81% compared to 2019 (52,364 vs. 10,112). All ER specific diagnoses decreased in 2020 and this reduction was significantly higher for air communicable diseases (25,462 vs. 2934, p < 0.001). Considering the triage category, red codes remained similar (1% vs. 1%), yellow codes increased (11.2% vs. 22.3%), and green codes decreased (80.3% vs. 69.5%). We can speculate that social distancing and simple hygiene measures drastically reduced the spread of air communicable diseases. The increase in yellow codes may have been related to a delay in primary care and, consequently, in ER admissions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Triage/statistics & numerical data , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
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