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Biomedicines ; 10(10)2022 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065698


COVID-19 has attracted worldwide attention ever since the first case was identified in Wuhan (China) in December 2019 and was classified, at a later time, as a public health emergency of international concern in January 2020 and as a pandemic in March 2020. The interstitial pneumonia caused by COVID-19 often requires mechanical ventilation, which can lead to pulmonary barotrauma. We assessed the relationship between pneumonia severity and the development of barotrauma in COVID-19-positive patients mechanically ventilated in an intensive care unit; we therefore analyzed the prevalence of iatrogenic barotrauma and its trends over time during the pandemic in COVID-19-positive patients undergoing mechanical ventilation compared to COVID-19-negative patients, making a distinction between different types of ventilation (invasive mechanical ventilation vs. noninvasive mechanical ventilation). We compared CT findings of pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax in 104 COVID-19-positive patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit and 101 COVID-19-negative patients undergoing mechanical ventilation in the period between October 2020 and December 2021. The severity of pneumonia was not directly correlated with the development of barotrauma. Furthermore, a higher prevalence of complications due to barotrauma was observed in the group of mechanically ventilated COVID-19-postive patients vs. COVID-19-negative patients. A higher rate of barotrauma was observed in subgroups of COVID-19-positive patients undergoing mechanical ventilation compared to those treated with invasive mechanical ventilation. The prevalence of barotrauma in COVID 19-positive patients showed a decreasing trend over the period under review. CT remains an essential tool in the early detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of the clinical course of SARS-CoV2 pneumonia; in evaluating the disease severity; and in the assessment of iatrogenic complications such as barotrauma pathology.

Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8851736, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140379


PURPOSE: This study is aimed at assessing the prevalence of pulmonary artery filling defects (PAFDs) consistent with pulmonary artery embolism (PAE) in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and at investigating possible radiological or clinical predictors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiographies (CTPAs) from 43 consecutive patients with a confirmed COVID-19 infection were retrospectively reviewed, taking into consideration the revised Geneva score and the D-dimer value for each patient. Filling defects within the pulmonary arteries were recorded along with pleural and parenchymal findings such as ground glass opacities, consolidation, crazy paving, linear consolidation, and pleural effusion. All these variables were compared between patients with and without PAFD. The predictive performance of statistically different parameters was investigated using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC). RESULTS: Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed in 15/43 patients (35%), whereas CTPA and parenchymal changes related to pulmonary COVID-19 disease were evident in 39/43 patients (91%). The revised Geneva score and the mean D-dimer value obtained using two consecutive measurements were significantly higher in patients with PAFD. The ROC analysis demonstrated that a mean D-dimer value is the parameter with the higher predictivity (AUC 0.831) that is a cut-off value > 1800 µg/l which predicts the probability of PAFD with a sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 78%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This single centre retrospective report shows a high prevalence of pulmonary artery filling defects revealed using CTPA in COVID-19 patients and demonstrates that the mean value of multiple D-dimer measurements may represent a predicting factor of this complication.

COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Pulmonary Artery/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity