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3.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772691

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is an important and cost-effective disease prevention and control strategy. Over the years, milestone discoveries in vaccine research and development as well as vaccine delivery systems, have contributed to expanded immunisation coverage and reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with vaccine-preventable diseases. While this outstanding development in vaccine delivery continues, there are considerable gaps in access to vaccines among populations living in fragile and conflict-affected zones which appeared to be the fault line of limited vaccine coverage. Despite progress in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine development, there are concerns about the feasibility of African countries affected by armed conflict and violence to effectively deliver COVID-19 vaccines at the unprecedented level required to fight against the virus. In this article we discuss the feasibility of access to COVID-19 vaccine among populations in conflict affected areas in Nigeria including methods that can be applied to reach and vaccinate populations in these settings.

4.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-7, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768722

ABSTRACT

Northern Nigeria is currently facing a twin crisis of both COVID-19 and insecurity. They have made it difficult for the people to follow government containment efforts to control the pandemic and also have impacted on the socioeconomic and health aspects of the society. We have discussed on the impact of insecurity amid COVID-19 in Northern Nigeria. It is opined that if the insecurity in Northern Nigeria is not tackled, it will expose the region to more escalation of cases and deaths. Thus, it is recommended that proactive steps should be implemented by all stakeholders concerned to tackle insecurity, particularly the government to revive the security architecture, provide an environment for training and retraining of all security personnel and enhancing intelligence gathering to pave the way for resolving this issue.

5.
Trop Med Health ; 50(1): 22, 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736446

ABSTRACT

Due to the high transmission rate and mortality index of the current coronavirus pandemic, many settings in Africa instituted lockdowns to reduce its rate of spread and avert exponential growth rate. At the early stage, this measure seemed to heighten awareness of the virus and subsequently minimized exponential growth of cases. However, these lockdowns have had great consequences on the weak health systems and frail economy in place in many African countries. In this paper, we examine the impact of lockdown measures in these countries and provides key recommendations in dealing with present and future pandemics.

6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708624

ABSTRACT

Oxygen support remains essential for treatment of acute and severe manifestations of COVID-19. In Nepal, like many other low-resource settings, medical oxygen availability was inadequate before the pandemic. The mid-2021 wave of COVID-19 transmission starkly exposed the supply-demand imbalance of medical oxygen across the country. Pre-pandemic, more complex cases were typically referred to hospitals with better resources; however, during the pandemic, these hospitals were overrun. Therefore, resource-poor health facilities have been attempting to provide greater levels of care. However, we are faced with numerous challenges to provide a proper oxygen supply in these health settings. At a logistical level, complex geographies, sparse infrastructure, and inadequate electricity supply pose challenges. On a provider level, a shortage of trained staff and equipment necessary to administer and monitor medical oxygen creates additional pressures. Recognizing the end of the pandemic is still a long way off in many parts of the world, it is imperative that scalable, sustainable approaches to provisioning oxygen to those in greatest need are considered at a policy level.

7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(1): 17-20, 2021 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703423

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic has affected the ability of health systems to provide essential services globally. The Darfur region, located in the western part of Sudan, has been largely devastated by the war that began in 2003 and has been drawing considerable attention from the international community. The war, which erupted as a result of environmental, political, and economic factors, has led to tragic outcomes. Collapsing health-care infrastructures, health workforce shortages, lack of storage facilities for medicines and medical products, and inadequate access to health services are some of the effects of the war. After Sudan received the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine through the COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access facility, significant challenges have been implicated in the delivery, storage, and use of the vaccine in the Darfur region. Lack of vaccine storage and transportation facilities, vaccination hesitancy, inequity in the distribution to health facilities, and shortage of health-care professionals resulting from insecurity and instability have added an extra layer of burden on local authorities and their ability to manage COVID-19 vaccinations in the region adequately. Addressing the impact of COVID-19 requires an effectively managed vaccination program. In the face of current challenges in Darfur, ensuring a fully vaccinated population might remain far-fetched and improbable if meaningful efforts are not put in place by all stakeholders and actors to address some of the challenges identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Drug Storage/methods , Drug Storage/standards , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Refrigeration/standards , Sudan , Transportation/standards , Vaccination/trends , /trends
8.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328418

ABSTRACT

This article was migrated. The article was marked as recommended. COVID-19 and the resulting lockdown policies have far ranging effects on health professions education (HPEd), with an impact in all its aspects, including curricula, teaching methods, student selection processes, educational outcomes, HPEd research, and student, teacher, and school welfare. Adaptations to the pandemic and lockdown measures have leaned heavily on technology. The effects may have differences across various health professions particularly those with an emphasis on psychomotor skills. There may also be differences among populations of students, teachers and schools related to the availability, accessibility and cost of technology. The rapid, forced change in the paradigms of health professions education across the globe may persist as long as lockdown measures and threat of resurgence remains, even as COVID-19 still sweeps across different countries.

10.
J Affect Disord Rep ; 8: 100323, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670646

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We compared depression of people who smoke and those who do not, depending on whether they have an underlying disease making them at risk for COVID-19. Moreover, we analyzed the factors associated with their depression. METHODS: We recruited 948 Lebanese residents, ages 18 and above. Our survey included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depression. We divided participants, based on smoking and having a disease making one at risk for a COVID19 infection into four groups: non-smokers not at risk (NSNR), non-smokers at risk (NSR), smokers not at risk (SNR), and smokers at risk (SR). RESULTS: SR had PHQ-9 scores higher than other groups. The diet was not changed during the pandemic, whereas weight increased in all groups but SR. Those not at risk slept longer, while sports were decreased in NSR and SNR. Hobbies were decreased in all groups except SNR. Depending on the group, factors such as age, sex, residency, diet, exercise, sleep duration, and hobbies were associated with PHQ-9 scores. LIMITATIONS: we cannot draw causal relationships. Participation required internet access, and participants might not represent the actual population due to the snowball effect. Also, recall bias might skew results. We did not inquire about sexual activity, which could be an essential coping mechanism. CONCLUSION: Factors associated with depression for one group did not necessarily do so for another. Controlling the underlying risk or smoking cessation could move a patient to a group with more options associated with depression, thereby additional methods to decrease depression.

11.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 13: 100961, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635787
12.
Arch Public Health ; 80(1): 8, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605259

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in late 2019, with the first case identified in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, on 12 December 2019. In order to perceive the comprehensive impact of this pandemic, we have to know that misinformation and denials about COVID-19 have surely exacerbated its diffusion and hindered the response against it. Turkmenistan remains one of the very few countries in the world that lacks reports about emerging cases of the novel coronavirus. Turkmen authorities claim that they have adopted all attainable measures required in order to combat the virus, asserting that COVID-19 has yet to reach their country. Despite the government's reported absence of COVID-19 in the country, rumors, media reports and independent sources suggest the spread of the pandemic in Turkmenistan. By mid-June 2020, the outbreak was referred to as being serious with patients suffering extreme health risks, and following its state of disrepair and unethical practices, many of those anticipated to be COVID-19 infected tend to suffer at home, discouraging any interaction with the healthcare system. The civil society in Turkmenistan, for the time being, takes full part of the government's duty in the process of informing and educating the public regarding the COVID-19 pandemic, and endeavors to keep the government and WHO accountable for behaving in such repressive ways that could lead to rather preventable loss of human life in Turkmenistan. Yet, efforts hang fire before unveiling the real situation, and Turkmenistan's government owning up to the negations and roaming speculations, not only regarding the coronavirus crisis, but every public-related issue itself.

14.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294651

ABSTRACT

Background Willingness of healthcare workers to be vaccinated is an important factor to be consider for successful COVID-19 vaccination programme. Our study aimed to understand the willingness of health workers to receive COVID-19 vaccine and associated concerns across 10 countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMRO). Method A cross-sectional study was conducted in January 2021 among healthcare workers using an online survey. A total of 2806 health workers (Physicians, Nurses and Pharmacists) completed and returned the informed consent along with the questionnaire electronically. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS software package version 20.0. S Results More than half of the respondents (58.0%) were willing to receive COVID-19 vaccine, even if the vaccination is not mandatory for them. On the other hand, 25.7% of respondents were not willing to undertake COVID-19 vaccination while 16.3 % answered undecided. The top three reasons for not intending to be vaccinated were unreliability of COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials (62.0%), fear of the side effects of the vaccine (45.3%), and that COVID-19 vaccine will not give immunity for a long period of time (23.1%). Conclusion Overall, our study revealed suboptimal acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine among our respondents in the EMRO region. Significant refusal of COVID-19 vaccine among healthcare professionals can reverse hard-won progress in building public trust in COVID-19 vaccination program. Our findings suggest the need to develop tailored strategies to address concerns identified in the study in order to ensure optimal vaccine acceptance among healthcare workers in the EMRO.

15.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 37(2): 650-656, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549199

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic struck the world unawares. The virus is now spreading as never before, despite the initial progress recorded by several countries towards kerbing the pandemic. As the pandemic continues to spread across Africa, there is a need for countries in the continent to re-evaluate, re-strategise, and re-invigorate their COVID-19 responses and efforts based on lessons from the first wave, and Nigeria is no exception. Before the second wave was officially announced by the health authorities on 17 December 2020, there were 78,434 confirmed cases and 1221 deaths reported with a case fatality rate (CFR) of 1.6%. To ensure that Nigeria achieves total pandemic control and reacts better given the possibility of a second wave, we propose workable recommendations to strengthen our preparedness and readiness efforts. Here, we argue that lessons learnt from the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic can help Nigeria better react to the second wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 6(1): 46, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546804

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization described herd immunity, also known as population immunity, as the indirect fortification from an infectious disease that happens when a population is immune either through vaccination or immunity developed through previous exposure to infection. The emergence of COVID-19 vaccine is a step towards the achievement of herd immunity. Over one billion people across the globe have been vaccinated and Africa recorded only 2%. The objective of this article was to develop a forecast of the number of people to be vaccinated to achieve herd immunity in the 13 WHO-identified priority African countries for COVID-19. Herd immunity is achieved when one infected person in a population causes less than one secondary case on average, corresponding to the effective basic reproduction number (R0). Vaccine delivery and distribution infrastructure including the cold chain remains weak. Vaccine hesitancy is also one of the limiting factors that may hinder herd immunity in Africa. In order to achieve herd immunity globally, African countries should not be excluded in fair and equal distribution of vaccines. Relevant stakeholders should foster commitment as well as community sensitization on COVID-19 vaccines and integration of COVID-19 vaccines in existing healthcare services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Herd , Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(1): 17-20, 2021 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512902

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic has affected the ability of health systems to provide essential services globally. The Darfur region, located in the western part of Sudan, has been largely devastated by the war that began in 2003 and has been drawing considerable attention from the international community. The war, which erupted as a result of environmental, political, and economic factors, has led to tragic outcomes. Collapsing health-care infrastructures, health workforce shortages, lack of storage facilities for medicines and medical products, and inadequate access to health services are some of the effects of the war. After Sudan received the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine through the COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access facility, significant challenges have been implicated in the delivery, storage, and use of the vaccine in the Darfur region. Lack of vaccine storage and transportation facilities, vaccination hesitancy, inequity in the distribution to health facilities, and shortage of health-care professionals resulting from insecurity and instability have added an extra layer of burden on local authorities and their ability to manage COVID-19 vaccinations in the region adequately. Addressing the impact of COVID-19 requires an effectively managed vaccination program. In the face of current challenges in Darfur, ensuring a fully vaccinated population might remain far-fetched and improbable if meaningful efforts are not put in place by all stakeholders and actors to address some of the challenges identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Drug Storage/methods , Drug Storage/standards , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Refrigeration/standards , Sudan , Transportation/standards , Vaccination/trends , /trends
19.
Vaccine ; 39(43): 6341-6345, 2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510385

ABSTRACT

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is leading globally in many indicators for tackling the COVID-19 pandemic. This ranges from taking adequate preventive measures to the free vaccination drive and viable public health strategy. As of 18 August 2021, the UAE has significantly reduced the number of cases and successfully administered 17,454,250 doses. Furthermore, efforts and plans are underway to provide the third dose to high-risk people three months after completing the second dose and six months later to others. The UAE is considered one of the leaders globally for vaccinating "medically eligible" residents against COVID-19, with over 70% of the population currently fully vaccinated in the drive towards achieving herd immunity. The UAE's vaccination program is on track, covering a significant part of the population. The massive efforts of the National Vaccination Program's roll-out made by the UAE government and the various health authorities and stakeholders were vital for the general public's active participation in its success.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United Arab Emirates , Vaccination
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(6): 1460-1462, 2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485310

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic takes its toll on citizens across the globe, more people turn to sex work for survival. Because sex work is inherently physical and intimate, sex workers become defenseless against the virus and act as a bridge for transmitting the virus to their clients and society. Often, sex workers are the victims of violence and homelessness, and are devoid of health-care facilities, including HIV treatment, and are frequently exposed to a large number of individuals as dictated by the nature of their work. Their survival instincts would drive them to take part in their usual job to earn money, despite added health risks, to survive and feed their families. Worldwide, sex workers do not fully benefit from the COVID-19 responses, particularly in health, social, and economic aid assistance and services. Hence, it is essential to include this vulnerable population in the COVID-19 vaccination programs to halt the further spread of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Workers , Vaccination , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Global Health , Homeless Persons , Humans , Violence , Vulnerable Populations
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