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EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331784


Introduction:  In the early parts of the COVID-19 pandemic, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) were implemented worldwide, including in sub-Saharan Africa, to prevent and control SARS-CoV-2 transmission. This mixed-methods study examines adherence to and enforcement of NPIs implemented to curb COVID-19 in Nigeria, Rwanda, and Zambia, leading up to the 10,000 th  case of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in each country. Additionally, we aim to evaluate the relationship between levels and changes of NPIs over time and changes in COVID-19 cases and deaths. Methods:   This mixed-methods analysis utilized semi-structured interviews and a quantitative dataset constructed using multiple open data sources, including the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker. To understand potential barriers and facilitators in implementing and enforcing NPIs qualitative data were collected from those involved in the COVID-19 response and analyzed using NVivo. Quantitative results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, plots, ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey. Results:   Individual indicator scores varied with the COVID-19 response in all three countries. Nigeria had sustained levels of strict measures for containment and closure NPIs, while in Rwanda there was substantial variation in NPI score as it transitioned through the different case windows for the same measures. Zambia implemented moderate stringency throughout the pandemic using gathering restrictions and business/school closure measures but maintained low levels of strictness for other containment and closure measures. Rwanda had far more consistent and stringent measures compared to Nigeria and Zambia. Rwanda’s success in implementing COVID-related measures was partly due to strong enforcement and having a population that generally obeys its government.  Conclusion:  Various forces either facilitated or hindered adherence and compliance to COVID-19 control measures. This research highlights important lessons, including the need to engage communities early and create buy-in, as well as the need for preparation to ensure that response efforts are proactive rather than reactive when faced with an emergency.

EXCLI J ; 21: 93-103, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667813


The aim of this study was to investigate the COVID-19 vaccination acceptance rate and its determinants among healthcare workers in a multicenter study. This was a cross-sectional multi-center survey conducted from February 5 to April 29, 2021. The questionnaire consisted of 26 items in 6 subscales. The English version of the questionnaire was translated into seven languages and distributed through Google Forms using snowball sampling; a colleague in each country was responsible for the forward and backward translation, and also the distribution of the questionnaire. A forward stepwise logistic regression was utilized to explore the variables and questionnaire factors tied to the intention to COVID-19 vaccination. 4630 participants from 91 countries completed the questionnaire. According to the United Nations Development Program 2020, 43.6 % of participants were from low Human Development Index (HDI) regions, 48.3 % high and very high, and 8.1 % from medium. The overall vaccination hesitancy rate was 37 %. Three out of six factors of the questionnaire were significantly related to intention to the vaccination. While 'Perceived benefits of the COVID-19 vaccination' (OR: 3.82, p-value<0.001) and 'Prosocial norms' (OR: 5.18, p-value<0.001) were associated with vaccination acceptance, 'The vaccine safety/cost concerns' with OR: 3.52, p-value<0.001 was tied to vaccination hesitancy. Medical doctors and pharmacists were more willing to take the vaccine in comparison to others. Importantly, HDI with OR: 12.28, 95 % CI: 6.10-24.72 was a strong positive determinant of COVID-19 vaccination acceptance. This study highlighted the vaccination hesitancy rate of 37 % in our sample among HCWs. Increasing awareness regarding vaccination benefits, confronting the misinformation, and strengthening the prosocial norms would be the primary domains for maximizing the vaccination coverage. The study also showed that the HDI is strongly associated with the vaccination acceptance/hesitancy, in a way that those living in low HDI contexts are more hesitant to receive the vaccine.

Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 670, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055582