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JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2136246, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540039

ABSTRACT

Importance: Convalescent plasma (CP) has been generally unsuccessful in preventing worsening of respiratory failure or death in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of CP plus standard therapy (ST) vs ST alone in preventing worsening respiratory failure or death in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial enrolled (1:1 ratio) hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia to receive CP plus ST or ST alone between July 15 and December 8, 2020, at 27 clinical sites in Italy. Hospitalized adults with COVID-19 pneumonia and a partial pressure of oxygen-to-fraction of inspired oxygen (Pao2/Fio2) ratio between 350 and 200 mm Hg were eligible. Interventions: Patients in the experimental group received intravenous high-titer CP (≥1:160, by microneutralization test) plus ST. The volume of infused CP was 200 mL given from 1 to a maximum of 3 infusions. Patients in the control group received ST, represented by remdesivir, glucocorticoids, and low-molecular weight heparin, according to the Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco recommendations. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of worsening respiratory failure (Pao2/Fio2 ratio <150 mm Hg) or death within 30 days from randomization. Results: Of the 487 randomized patients (241 to CP plus ST; 246 to ST alone), 312 (64.1%) were men; the median (IQR) age was 64 (54.0-74.0) years. The modified intention-to-treat population included 473 patients. The primary end point occurred in 59 of 231 patients (25.5%) treated with CP and ST and in 67 of 239 patients (28.0%) who received ST (odds ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.59-1.33; P = .54). Adverse events occurred more frequently in the CP group (12 of 241 [5.0%]) compared with the control group (4 of 246 [1.6%]; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia, high-titer anti-SARS-CoV-2 CP did not reduce the progression to severe respiratory failure or death within 30 days. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04716556.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Immunization, Passive , Plasma , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Standard of Care
2.
J Infect ; 83(4): 467-472, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The emergence of new variants of concern (VOCs) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) around the world significantly complicated the exit from Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum neutralizing activity of three cohorts. METHODS: BNT162b2-elicited serum (N = 103), candidates as hyper-immune plasma donors (N = 90) and patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 P1 variant (N = 22) were enrolled. Three strains of SARS-CoV-2 have been tested: 20A.EU1, B.1.1.7 (alpha) and P.1 (gamma). Neutralizing antibodies (NT-Abs) titers against SARS-CoV-2 were evaluated. RESULTS: B.1.1.7 and P.1 are less efficiently neutralized by convalescent wild-type infected serums if compared to 20A.EU1 strain (mean titer 1.6 and 6.7-fold lower respectively). BNT162b2 vaccine-elicited human sera show an equivalent neutralization potency on the B.1.1.7 but it is significantly lower for the P.1 variant (mean titer 3.3-fold lower). Convalescent P.1 patients are less protected from other SARS-CoV-2 strains with an important reduction of neutralizing antibodies against 20A.EU1 and B.1.1.7, about 12.2 and 10.9-fold, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: BNT162b2 vaccine confers immunity against all the tested VOCs, while previous SARS-CoV-2 infection may be less protective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans
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