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1.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-337942

ABSTRACT

Background: Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) targeting SARS-CoV-2 are predominantly less effective against Omicron variants. Immunocompromised patients often experience prolonged viral shedding and are therefore at increased risk for viral escape mutations, when mAbs are used as monotherapy. Methods: In an observational, prospective cohort, 57 patients infected with Omicron variants receiving sotrovimab alone or in combination with remdesivir were followed. The study endpoints were a decrease in SARS-CoV-2-RNA <10 6 copies/ml in nasopharyngeal swabs at day 21 and the emergence of resistance mutations at days 7, 14, and 21 after Sotrovimab administration. All SARS-CoV-2 samples were analyzed by whole-genome sequencing, individual variants within the quasispecies were subsequently quantified and further characterized by a pseudovirus neutralization assay. Findings: 47/57 patients (82·5%) were infected with Omicron/BA.1 and 10/57 (17·5%) with Omicron/BA.2. The vast majority of patients (43/57, 75·4%) were immunodeficient, predominantly due to immunosuppression after organ transplantation or hematologic malignancies. 21 days after sotrovimab administration, 12/43 (27·9%) of immunodeficient patients had prolonged viral shedding compared to 1/14 (7·1%) immunocompetent patients (p=0·010). Longitudinal sequencing revealed that 14/43 (32·6%) immunodeficient patients had in part Omicron-specific viral spike protein mutations (e.g., P337S and/or E340D/V) that substantially reduced susceptibility to sotrovimab in a pseudovirus neutralization assay. Combination therapy with remdesivir significantly reduced the selection of escape variants. Interpretation: Immunocompromised patients face a considerable risk of prolonged viral shedding and emergence of escape mutations after early therapy with sotrovimab. These findings underscore the importance of careful monitoring and the need to conduct dedicated clinical trials for this patient population. Funding Information: The study was funded by COVIM (FKZ: 01KX2021), a joint project funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the EuCARE project "European cohorts of patients and schools to advance response to epidemics", which is funded by the European Commission as part of the HORIZON HLTH 2021 CORONA 01 Grant No. 101046016, and the joint project Beyond COVID-19 funded by the Ministry of Culture and Science of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia. Declaration of Interests: NL received honoraria for presentations from Gilead, MSD, Abbvie, ViiV (outside the submitted work) and served on advisory boards for ViiV and Theratechnologies (outside the submitted work). BJ received honoraria for presentations from Gilead (remdesivir) and GSK (sotrovimab) as well as Falk, JanssenCilag, ViiV, Gilead, Fresenius Medical Care (outside the submitted work), received travel support from Gilead and served on advisory boards for ViiV, Gilead, Theratechnologies (outside the submitted work). TF was PI for a Gilead clinical trial (remdesivir) and served on Gilead advisory boards (outside the submitted work). TL received honoraria for lectures from Abbvie, BMS, Gilead and travel support von Gilead und Abbvie and served on advisory boards for Gilead. TL was involved in the development of the national recommendation on COVID-19 treatment. TL received honoraria for presentations for Abbvie, BMS and Gilead and received travel support from Gilead and Abbvie. HG and FK are listed as inventors on patent applications on SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies filed by the University of Cologne. AK received lecture fees from Gilead and participated on Advisory Boards for Gilead. AK was supported for attending meetings from Abbvie. All other authors declare no competing interest regarding this work. Ethics Approval Statement: The investigations were performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, our study on COVID-19-associated risk factors, clinical course, and viral genomes was approved via the ethics vote of the local ethics committee of the medical faculty of Heinrich Heine University (study number 5350). All patients gave written informed consent.

2.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 80, 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has been the main tool to contain the pandemic. The rush development of the 3 vaccines and their expedited approval have led to inoculation of millions of patients around the world, leading to a containment of the disease. Despite continuous viral mutations and the identification of weaker variants, the severity of the infections has been mild, with many patients being either asymptomatic or recovering at home. Currently the focus has shifted from the host of organ damage related to the infection to potential side effects of the vaccine. Myocarditis has been reported as one of the potential side effects from the mRNA vaccine, affecting young healthy individuals. Up to September 30, 2021, 1.243 cases of myocarditis after vaccination with BNT162b2 Comirnaty© were registered in young adults by the Paul-Ehrlich-Institute in Germany alone. The exact pathophysiology and the risk factors for myocarditis following vaccination remain unclear. We present a case series of eight patients with cardiac symptom shortly after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination (BNT162b6, Biontech, Comirnaty© or mRNA-1237 Moderna, Spikevax©). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eight patients between 13 and 56 years of age, vaccinated with either BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 mRNA vaccine between January and August 2021 developed cardiac side effects shortly after either their first or second dose of the vaccine. Clinical data were retrieved from the clinical information system and analyzed. To support diagnosis of myocarditis or pericarditis, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed shortly after the onset of symptoms, with further investigations in severe cases. Symptoms were defined as dyspnea, chest pain and cardiac arrhythmia as determined by electrocardiography. RESULTS: Eight patients (5 males and 3 females) developed cardiac symptoms compatible with myocarditis, according to the CDC criteria, shortly after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. Three patients (2 males, 1 female) required hospitalization due to severe chest pain and elevated troponin levels. All patients recovered fully within 7 days from the symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that cardiac adverse events such as myocarditis or pericarditis shortly after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination are rare but possible and occur particularly in male patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chest Pain , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Pericarditis/chemically induced , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Young Adult , /adverse effects
3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335374

ABSTRACT

Background: Since development and approval of the world´s first mRNA vaccines, created under pressure of the global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, potential side effects have naturally been a much-debated topic. Vaccination may be one, if not the only way out of the pandemic claiming more than 4 million deaths worldwide to date. Potential side effects from vaccination have long been controversial, and case reports of fatal side effects have been published. Therefore, data are needed to identify persons being at high risk for potential side effects. Until September 30, 2021, 1.243 cases of myocarditis after vaccination with BNT162b2 Comirnaty © in young adults were registered by the Paul-Ehrlich-Institute in Germany alone. The exact pathophysiology and the risk factors for myocarditis following vaccination remain unclear. We present a case series of eight patients with cardiac symptom shortly after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination (BNT162b6, Biontech, Comirnaty © or mRNA-1237 Moderna, Spikevax © ). Patients and Methods Eight patients between 13-56 years of age, vaccinated with mRNA vaccine either BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 between January and August 2021 developed cardiac side effects shortly after either their first or second vaccination. Clinical data were retrieved from the clinical information system and analyzed. To support diagnosis of myocarditis or pericarditis, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed shortly after onset of symptoms and investigated further in severe cases. Symptoms were defined as dyspnea, chest pain, cardiac arrhythmia as determined by electrocardiography. Results: Eight patients (five males and three females) developed cardiac symptoms compatible with myocarditis according to CDC criteria shortly after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. Three patients (two males, one female) required hospitalization due to severe chest pain and elevated troponin levels. All patients recovered fully within seven days after symptom onset Conclusion: Our data suggest that cardiac adverse events such as myocarditis or pericarditis shortly after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination are rare but possible and occur particularly in male patients.

4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 significantly reduces the transmissibility of the virus and the likelihood of a severe course of COVID-19, and is thus a critical component in overcoming the current pandemic. The factors associated with adverse reactions after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 have not yet been sufficiently evaluated. METHODS: We used the Disease Analyzer database (IQVIA) to identify 531,468 individuals who received a total of 908,869 SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations in 827 general practices in Germany between April and September 2021. Cox regression models were used to analyze the frequency of vaccination-related side effects reported within 14 days after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, as well as subjects' demographic characteristics and comorbidities. RESULTS: The total number of side effects documented was 28,287 (3.1% of all vaccinations). Pain in the limb (24.3%), fatigue (21.0%), dizziness (17.9%), joint pain (15.7%), fever (9.5%), nausea (7.5%), and myalgia (6.4%) were the most common side effects documented among the 12,575 vaccinations with definite side effects. In the multivariate regression analysis, young age was associated with much higher odds of reported side effects (OR18-30 years: 4.45, OR31-40 years: 3.50, OR41-50 years: 2.89). In addition, pre-existing comorbidities such as dementia (OR: 1.54), somatoform disorder (OR: 1.53), anxiety disorder (OR: 1.43), depression (OR: 1.37), chronic respiratory tract disease (OR: 1.27), hypertension (OR: 1.20), and obesity (1.14) significantly increased the odds of side effects. Finally, the male sex was associated with increased odds of reported side effects (OR: 1.17). CONCLUSION: Our study, based on a large outpatient database from Germany, identified young age, male sex, and pre-existing comorbidities such as dementia, somatoform disorders, anxiety disorders, and depression as factors associated with vaccine-related adverse events diagnosed in GP practices. These data could help to identify subgroups needing particular advice and care in the context of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations.

5.
Infection ; 2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767726

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Metabolic disorders have been identified as major risk factors for severe acute courses of COVID-19. With decreasing numbers of infections in many countries, the long COVID syndrome (LCS) represents the next major challenge in pandemic management, warranting the precise definition of risk factors for LCS development. METHODS: We identified 50,402 COVID-19 patients in the Disease Analyzer database (IQVIA) featuring data from 1056 general practices in Germany. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for the development of LCS. RESULTS: Of the 50,402 COVID-19 patients included into this analysis, 1,708 (3.4%) were diagnosed with LCS. In a multivariate regression analysis, we identified lipid metabolism disorders (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.28-1.65, p < 0.001) and obesity (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08-1.44, p = 0.003) as strong risk factors for the development of LCS. Besides these metabolic factors, patients' age between 46 and 60 years (compared to age ≤ 30, (OR 1.81 95% CI 1.54-2.13, p < 0.001), female sex (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.20-1.47, p < 0.001) as well as pre-existing asthma (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.39-2.00, p < 0.001) and depression (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.09-1.47, p = < 0.002) in women, and cancer (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.09-1.95, p = < 0.012) in men were associated with an increased likelihood of developing LCS. CONCLUSION: Lipid metabolism disorders and obesity represent age-independent risk factors for the development of LCS, suggesting that metabolic alterations determine the risk for unfavorable disease courses along all phases of COVID-19.

6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329901

ABSTRACT

Background: Establishing the optimal treatment for COVID-19 patients remains challenging. Specifically, immunocompromised and pre-diseased patients are at high risk for severe disease course and face limited therapeutic options. Convalescent plasma has been considered as therapeutic approach, but reliable data are lacking, especially for high-risk patients. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 55 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with high risk for disease progression, primarily due to immunosuppression from cancer, solid organ transplantation, autoimmune disease, dialysis. A matched-pairs analysis (1:4) was performed with 220 patients from the Lean European Open Survey on SARS-CoV-2-infected Patients (LEOSS) who were treated or not treated with convalescent plasma. Results: Both cohorts, had high mortality (UKD 41.8%, LEOSS 34.1%). A matched-pairs analysis showed no significant effect on mortality. CP administration before the formation of pulmonary infiltrates showed the lowest mortality in both cohorts (10%), whereas mortality in the complicated phase was 27.8%. CP administration during the critical phase revealed the highest mortality;UKD 60.9%, LEOSS 48.3%. Conclusion: In our cohort of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients with severe comorbidities CP did not significantly reduce mortality in a retrospective matched pairs analysis. However, our data supports the concept that a reduction in mortality is achievable when CP is administered early.

7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2670, 2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704157

ABSTRACT

The prognosis of heart failure (HF) patients is determined to a decisive extent by comorbidities. The present study investigates the association between a broad spectrum of diseases and the occurrence of HF in a large collective of outpatients. This retrospective case control study assessed the prevalence of 37 cardiac and extracardiac diseases in patients with an initial diagnosis of heart failure (ICD-10: I50) in 1,274 general practices in Germany between January 2005 and December 2019. The study is based on the Disease Analyzer database (IQVIA), which contains drug prescriptions, diagnoses, and basic medical and demographic data. Patients with and without heart failure were matched by sex, age, and index year. Hazard regression models were conducted to evaluate the association between different disease entities and heart failure. The present study included 162,246 patients with heart failure and 162,246 patients without heart failure. Mean age [SD] was 73.7 [12.1] years; 52.6% were women. Out of 37 predefined diagnoses, 36 were more prevalent in HF patients. The highest prevalence was primary hypertension (63.4% in HF patients vs. 53.3% in controls, p < 0.001) followed by lipid metabolism disorders (34.6% in HF patients vs. 29.1% in HF patients p < 0.001) and diabetes mellitus type II (32.2% in HF patients vs. 25.2% in controls, p < 0.001). In the regression analysis, 19 diseases were significantly associated with heart failure. Non-cardiovascular diagnoses strongly associated with HF were obesity (HR = 1.46), chronic bronchitis and COPD (HR = 1.41), gout (HR: 1.41), and chronic kidney disease (HR = 1.27). In the present study, we identified a variety of cardiac and extracardiac diseases associated with heart failure. Our data underscore the immense importance of comorbidities, even as early as at the stage of initial diagnosis of heart failure.


Subject(s)
Comorbidity , Heart Failure , Models, Cardiovascular , Registries , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Germany , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
8.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327067

ABSTRACT

Background Modification of vaccination strategies is needed to improve the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Methods This multicenter observational study aimed to determine antibody kinetics among 60 seropositive KTRs and analyzed the effects of the third vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in 174 previously seronegative KTRs. We investigated whether mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) dose reduction by 25-50% prior the third vaccination influences vaccination success. Results 18 of 60 (30%) seropositive KTRs became seronegative in the serological assay within six months. Loss of antibodies was predicted by low initial antibody levels (≤206.8 BAU/ml), older age, and impaired graft function. A third vaccination in previously seronegative KTRs induced seroconversion in 56 of 174 (32.1%) KTRs with median antibody levels 119 (76–353) BAU/ml and median neutralizing capacity titer of 1:10 (0– 1:40). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that initial antibody levels (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.09–1.76), graft function (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01–0.39), time after transplantation (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02–1.07) and MMF trough levels (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.21–0.88) correlated with seroconversion, p<0.05. After controlling for these confounders, the effect of MMF dose reduction was calculated using propensity score matching. KTRs in the MMF reduction group had significantly lower MMF serum concentrations prior to the third vaccination and were more likely to develop antibody levels ≥35.2 BAU/ml than their matched KTRs (p=0.02). Conclusions Temporary reduction in MMF dose might be a promising approach to improve the immune response in KTRs.

9.
Am J Transplant ; 22(2): 634-639, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434623

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) are extremely vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection and show an impaired immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. We analyzed factors related to vaccination efficiency in KTRs. In a multicenter prospective observational study (NCT04743947), IgG antibodies levels against SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 subunit and their neutralization capacity after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were analyzed in 225 KTRs and compared to 176 controls. After the vaccination, 56 (24.9%) KTRs became seropositive of whom 68% had neutralizing antibodies. This immune response was significantly lower compared to controls (239 [78-519] BAU/ml versus 1826 [560-3180] BAU/ml for KTRs and controls, p < .0001). The strongest predictor for an impaired response was mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) treatment. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that MMF-free regimen was highly associated with seroconversion (OR 13.25, 95% CI 3.22-54.6; p < .001). In contrast, other immunosuppressive drugs had no significant influence. 187 out of 225 KTRs were treated with MMF of whom 26 (13.9%) developed antibodies. 23 of these seropositive KTRs had a daily MMF dose ≤1 g. Furthermore, higher trough MMF concentrations correlated with lower antibody titers (R -0.354, p < .001) supporting a dose-dependent unfavorable effect of MMF. Our data indicate that MMF dose modification could lead to an improved immune response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Vaccination
10.
J Clin Med ; 10(17)2021 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the result of a hyper-inflammatory reaction to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The biomarkers of inflammation have been used to risk-stratify patients with COVID-19. Osteopontin (OPN) is an integrin-binding glyco-phosphoprotein involved in the modulation of leukocyte activation; its levels are associated with worse outcomes in patients with sepsis. Whether OPN levels predict outcomes in COVID-19 is unknown. METHODS: We measured OPN levels in serum of 341 hospitalized COVID-19 patients collected within 48 h from admission. We characterized the determinants of OPN levels and examined their association with in-hospital outcomes; notably death, need for mechanical ventilation, and need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) and as a composite outcome. The risk discrimination ability of OPN was compared with other inflammatory biomarkers. RESULTS: Patients with COVID-19 (mean age 60, 61.9% male, 27.0% blacks) had significantly higher levels of serum OPN compared to healthy volunteers (96.63 vs. 16.56 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Overall, 104 patients required mechanical ventilation, 35 needed dialysis, and 53 died during their hospitalization. In multivariable analyses, OPN levels ≥140.66 ng/mL (third tertile) were associated with a 3.5 × (95%CI 1.44-8.27) increase in the odds of death, and 4.9 × (95%CI 2.48-9.80) increase in the odds of requiring mechanical ventilation. There was no association between OPN and need for RRT. Finally, OPN levels in the upper tertile turned out as an independent prognostic factor of event-free survival with respect to the composite endpoint. CONCLUSION: Higher OPN levels are associated with increased odds of death and mechanical ventilation in patients with COVID-19, however, their utility in triage is questionable.

11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 645989, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389177

ABSTRACT

We describe the unique disease course and cure of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a patient with SCID and graft failure. In absence of a humoral immune response, viral clearance was only achieved after transfusion of convalescent plasma. This observation underscores the necessity of the humoral immune response for SARS-CoV-2 clearance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/complications , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Graft Rejection/complications , Graft Rejection/immunology , Graft Rejection/virology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/immunology , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/virology , Sustained Virologic Response , Viral Load , Virus Replication
12.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 98, 2021 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371980

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a wide clinical spectrum of skin manifestations, including urticarial, vesicular, vasculitic and chilblain-like lesions. Recently, delayed skin reactions have been reported in 1% individuals following mRNA vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The exact pathophysiology and the risk factors still remain unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 6821 employees and patients were vaccinated at our institutions between February and June 2021. Every patient received two doses of the mRNA-1273 vaccine in our hospitals, and reported back in case of any side effects which were collected in our hospital managed database. RESULTS: Eleven of 6821 vaccinated patients (0.16%) developed delayed skin reactions after either the first or second dose of the mRNA-1273 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Eight of 11 patients (73%) developed a rash after the first dose, while in 3/11 (27%), the rash occurred after the second dose. More females (9/11) were affected. Four of 11 patients required antihistamines, with two needing additional topical steroids. All the cutaneous manifestations resolved within 14 days. None of the skin reactions after the first dose of the vaccine prevented the administration of the second dose. There were no long-term cutaneous sequelae in any of the affected individuals. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that skin reactions after the use of mRNA-1273 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 are possible, but rare. Further studies need to be done to understand the pathophysiology of these lesions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dermatitis/etiology , Erythema/etiology , Adult , Aged , Dermatitis/drug therapy , Dermatitis/epidemiology , Erythema/drug therapy , Erythema/epidemiology , Female , Histamine Antagonists/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Steroids/therapeutic use , Vaccination/adverse effects
13.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 8: 100164, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have been introduced as a promising new therapeutic approach against SARS-CoV-2. At present, there is little experience regarding their clinical effects in patient populations underrepresented in clinical trials, e.g. immunocompromised patients. Additionally, it is not well known to what extent SARS-CoV-2 treatment with monoclonal antibodies could trigger the selection of immune escape viral variants. METHODS: After identifying immunocompromised patients with viral rebound under treatment with bamlanivimab, we characterized the SARS-CoV-2-isolates by whole genome sequencing. Viral load measurements and sequence analysis were performed consecutively before and after bamlanivimab administration. FINDINGS: After initial decrease of viral load, viral clearance was not achieved in five of six immunocompromised patients treated with bamlanivimab. Instead, viral replication increased again over the course of the following one to two weeks. In these five patients, the E484K substitution - known to confer immune escape - was detected at the time of viral rebound but not before bamlanivimab treatment. INTERPRETATION: Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 with bamlanivimab in immunocompromised patients results in the rapid development of immune escape variants in a significant proportion of cases. Given that the E484K mutation can hamper natural immunity, the effectiveness of vaccination as well as antibody-based therapies, these findings may have important implications not only for individual treatment decisions but may also pose a risk to general prevention and treatment strategies. FUNDING: All authors are employed and all expenses covered by governmental, federal state, or other publicly funded institutions.

14.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 684032, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273343

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been a major burden for healthcare systems worldwide and has caused multiple changes and problems in outpatient care. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on consultations and diagnoses in gastroenterology practices in Germany. To this end, we retrospectively analyzed data from the Disease Analyzer database (IQVIA) using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10). We included all patients aged ≥18 years with at least one visit to one of 48 gastroenterology practices in Germany between April and September 2019 and April and September 2020. A total of 63,914 patients in the 2nd quarter of 2019, 63,701 in the 3rd quarter of 2019, 55,769 in the 2nd quarter of 2020, and 60,446 in the 3rd quarter of 2020 were included. Overall, a clear downward trend in the number of visits to gastroenterologists was observed in the 2nd quarter of 2020 compared to 2019 (-13%, p = 0.228). The decrease in consultations was particularly pronounced in patients >70 years of age (-17%, p = 0.096). This trend was evident for all gastrointestinal diagnoses except for tumors. Most notably, rates of gastrointestinal infections (-19%) or ulcers (-43%) were significantly lower in this period than in the same quarter of 2019. Reflecting the course of the pandemic, the differences between the 3rd quarter of 2020 and that of 2019 were less pronounced (-5%, p = 0.560). Our data show that the pandemic changed patients' behavior with respect to the health care system. Using the example of German gastroenterology practices, we show that the number of consultations as well as the number and range of diagnoses have changed compared to the same period in 2019.

15.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(5): e04068, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242709

ABSTRACT

This case of secondary sclerosing cholangitis (SSC-CIP) emphasizes the need to provide follow-up care for patients that have recovered from COVID-19 in order to understand the complexity of SARS-CoV-2 associated sequela.

16.
Trials ; 22(1): 343, 2021 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232435

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Currently, there are no approved treatments for early disease stages of COVID-19 and few strategies to prevent disease progression after infection with SARS-CoV-2. The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma (CP) or camostat mesylate administered within 72 h of diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in adult individuals with pre-existing risk factors at higher risk of getting seriously ill with COVID-19. Camostat mesylate acts as an inhibitor of the host cell serine protease TMPRSS2 and prevents the virus from entering the cell. CP represents another antiviral strategy in terms of passive immunization. The working hypothesis to be tested in the RES-Q-HR study is that the early use of CP or camostat mesylate reduces the likelihood of disease progression to (modified) WHO stages 4b-8 in SARS-CoV-2-positive adult patients at high risk of moderate or severe COVID-19 progression. TRIAL DESIGN: This study is a 4-arm (parallel group), multicenter, randomized (2:2:1:1 ratio), partly double-blind, controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma (CP) or camostat mesylate with control or placebo in adult patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection and high risk for progression to moderate/severe COVID-19. Superiority of the intervention arms will be tested. PARTICIPANTS: The trial is conducted at 10-15 tertiary care centers in Germany. Individuals aged 18 years or above with ability to provide written informed consent with SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed by PCR within 3 days or less before enrolment and the presence of at least one SARS-CoV-2 symptom (such as fever, cough, shortness of breath, sore throat, headache, fatigue, smell/and or taste disorder, diarrhea, abdominal symptoms, exanthema) and symptom duration of not more than 3 days. Further inclusion criteria comprise: Presence of at least one of the following criteria indicating increased risk for severe COVID-19: Age > 75 years Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and/or pulmonary fibrosis BMI > 40 kg/m2 Age > 65 years with at least one other risk factor (BMI > 35 kg/m2, coronary artery disease (CAD), chronic kidney disease (CKD) with GFR < 60 ml/min but ≥ 30 ml/min, diabetes mellitus, active tumor disease) BMI > 35 kg/m2 with at least one other risk factor (CAD, CKD with GFR < 60 ml/min but ≥ 30 ml/min, diabetes mellitus, active tumor disease) Exclusion criteria: 1. Age < 18 years 2. Unable to give informed consent 3. Pregnant women or breastfeeding mothers 4. Previous transfusion reaction or other contraindication to a plasma transfusion 5. Known hypersensitivity to camostat mesylate and/or severe pancreatitis 6. Volume stress due to CP administration would be intolerable 7. Known IgA deficiency 8. Life expectancy < 6 months 9. Duration SARS-CoV-2 typical symptoms > 3 days 10. SARS-CoV-2 PCR detection older than 3 days 11. SARS-CoV-2 associated clinical condition ≥ WHO stage 3 (patients hospitalized for other reasons than COVID-19 may be included if they fulfill all inclusion and none of the exclusion criteria) 12. Previously or currently hospitalized due to SARS-CoV-2 13. Previous antiviral therapy for SARS-CoV-2 14. ALT or AST > 5 x ULN at screening 15. Liver cirrhosis > Child A (patients with Child B/C cirrhosis are excluded from the trial) 16. Chronic kidney disease with GFR < 30 ml/min 17. Concurrent or planned anticancer treatment during trial period 18. Accommodation in an institution due to legal orders (§40(4) AMG). 19. Any psycho-social condition hampering compliance with the study protocol. 20. Evidence of current drug or alcohol abuse 21. Use of other investigational treatment within 5 half-lives of enrolment is prohibited 22. Previous use of convalescent plasma for COVID-19 23. Concomitant proven influenza A infection 24. Patients with organ or bone marrow transplant in the three months prior to screening visit INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Participants will be randomized to the following 4 groups: 1) Convalescent plasma (CP), 2 units at screening/baseline visit (day 0) or day 1; CP is defined by the presence of neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with titers ≥ 1:160; individuals with body weight ≥ 150 kg will receive a third unit of plasma on day 3 2) Camostat mesylate (200 mg per capsule, one capsule taken each in the morning, afternoon and evening on days 1-7) 3) Standard of care (SOC, control for CP) 4) Placebo (identical in appearance to camostat mesylate capsules, one capsule taken each morning, afternoon and evening on days 1-7; for camostat mesylate control group) Participants will be monitored after screening/baseline on day 3, day 5, day 8, and day 14. On day 28 and day 56, telephone visits and on day 90, another outpatient visit are scheduled. Adverse events and serious adverse events will be monitored and reported until the end of the study. An independent data safety monitoring committee will review trial progression and safety. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary endpoint of the study is the cumulative number of individuals who progress to or beyond category 4b on the modified WHO COVID-19 ordinal scale (defined as hospitalization with COVID-19 pneumonia and additional oxygen demand via nasal cannula or mask) within 28 days after randomization. RANDOMIZATION: Participants will be randomized using the Alea-Tool ( aleaclinical.com ) in a 2:2:1:1 ratio to the treatment arms (1) CP, (2) camostat mesylate, (3) standard of care (SoC), and (4) placebo matching camostat mesylate. Randomization will be stratified by study center. BLINDING (MASKING): The camostat mesylate treatment arm and the respective placebo will be blinded for participants, caregivers, and those assessing outcomes. The treatment arms convalescent plasma and standard of care will not be blinded and thus are open-labeled, unblinded. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): Overall, n = 994 participants will be randomized to the following groups: n = 331 to convalescent plasma (CP), n = 331 to camostat mesylate, n = 166 to standard of care (SoC), and n = 166 to placebo matching camostat mesylate. TRIAL STATUS: The RES-Q-HR protocol (V04F) was approved on the 18 December 2020 by the local ethics committee and by the regulatory institutions PEI/BfARM on the 2 December 2020. The trial was opened for recruitment on 26 December 2020; the first patient was enrolled on 7 January 2021 and randomized on 8 January 2021. Recruitment shall be completed by June 2021. The current protocol version RES-Q HR V05F is from 4 January 2021, which was approved on the 18 January 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT Number 2020-004695-18 . Registered on September 29, 2020. ClinicalTrial.gov NCT04681430 . Registered on December 23, 2020, prior to the start of the enrollment (which was opened on December 26, 2020). FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol (V05F) is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Esters , Female , Germany , Guanidines , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mesylates , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Plasma , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
17.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(3)2021 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045461

ABSTRACT

The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on cancer diagnosis in general and specialized practices in Germany. This study included a total of 102,009 patients aged ≥18 years newly diagnosed with cancer in 1660 practices in Germany from January to May 2019 and from January to May 2020. Practices included general, gynecology, ear, nose, and throat (ENT), dermatology, and urology practices. New cancer diagnoses included all types of cancer and corresponded to cancers not previously documented in the database for a given patient. The number of new cancer diagnoses per general practice decreased significantly between March and May 2020 compared with the same period in 2019 (March: -12.0%, April: -27.6%, and May: -23.4%). A similar trend was observed in specialized practices, and this trend was more pronounced in April 2020 (dermatology: -44.4%, gynecology: -32.0%, and ENT: -28.2%). In addition, there was a significant decrease in almost all sex and age groups in April and May 2020 compared with the same period in 2019. Finally, the decrease in the number of new cancer diagnoses was particularly pronounced among cancers of the skin and the respiratory and intrathoracic organs. Together, these data show that the COVID-19 pandemic had a significant negative impact on cancer diagnosis in Germany, highlighting the need for public health measures improving the management of cancer in this country during this ongoing pandemic.

18.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1590-1599, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611842

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented global challenge and implicates a wide range of burden on medical professionals. Here, we evaluated the perception of the COVID-19 pandemic among medical professionals in Germany. Methods: A total of n = 2827 medical professionals participated in an online survey between 27 March and 11 April. Results: While most participants stated that Germany was well prepared and rated the measures taken by their employer as positive, subgroup analyses revealed decisive differences. The preventive measures were rated significantly worse by nurses compared to doctors (p < 0.001) and by participants from ambulatory healthcare centres compared to participants from maximum-care hospitals (p < 0.001). Importantly, shortage of protective medical equipment was reported more commonly in the ambulatory sector (p < 0.001) and in East German federal states (p = 0.004). Moreover, the majority of health care professionals (72.4%) reported significant restrictions of daily work routine. Finally, over 60% of medical professionals had concerns regarding their own health, which were more pronounced among female participants (p = 0.024). Conclusion: This survey may indicate starting points on how medical professionals could be supported in carrying out their important activities during the ongoing and future healthcare challenges.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Perception , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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