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Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e630-e644, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886372


BACKGROUND: We studied humoral responses after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination across varying causes of immunodeficiency. METHODS: Prospective study of fully vaccinated immunocompromised adults (solid organ transplant [SOT], hematologic malignancy, solid cancers, autoimmune conditions, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) versus nonimmunocompromised healthcare workers (HCWs). The primary outcome was the proportion with a reactive test (seropositive) for immunoglobulin G to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) receptor-binding domain. Secondary outcomes were comparisons of antibody levels and their correlation with pseudovirus neutralization titers. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with seropositivity. RESULTS: A total of 1271 participants enrolled: 1099 immunocompromised and 172 HCW. Compared with HCW (92.4% seropositive), seropositivity was lower among participants with SOT (30.7%), hematological malignancies (50.0%), autoimmune conditions (79.1%), solid tumors (78.7%), and HIV (79.8%) (P < .01). Factors associated with poor seropositivity included age, greater immunosuppression, time since vaccination, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, and vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer) or adenovirus vector vaccines versus messenger RNA (mRNA)-1273 (Moderna). mRNA-1273 was associated with higher antibody levels than BNT162b2 or adenovirus vector vaccines after adjusting for time since vaccination, age, and underlying condition. Antibody levels were strongly correlated with pseudovirus neutralization titers (Spearman r = 0.89, P < .0001), but in seropositive participants with intermediate antibody levels, neutralization titers were significantly lower in immunocompromised individuals versus HCW. CONCLUSIONS: Antibody responses to COVID-19 vaccines were lowest among SOT and anti-CD20 monoclonal recipients, and recipients of vaccines other than mRNA-1273. Among those with intermediate antibody levels, pseudovirus neutralization titers were lower in immunocompromised patients than HCWs. Additional SARS-CoV-2 preventive approaches are needed for immunocompromised persons, which may need to be tailored to the cause of immunodeficiency.

COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
JTCVS Open ; 5: 169-170, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003138
J Card Surg ; 35(12): 3443-3448, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717315


OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has altered how the current generation of thoracic surgery residents are being trained. The aim of this survey was to determine how thoracic surgery program directors (PDs) are adapting to educating residents during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Thoracic surgery PDs of integrated, traditional (2 or 3 year), and combined 4 + 3 general/thoracic surgery training programs in the United States were surveyed between 17th April and 1st May 2020 during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in much of the United States. The 15-question electronic survey queried program status, changes to the baseline surgical practice, changes to didactic education, deployment/scheduling of residents, and effect of the pandemic on case logs and preparedness for resident graduation. RESULTS: All 23 institutions responding had ceased elective procedures, and most had switched to telemedicine clinic visits. Online virtual didactic sessions were implemented by 91% of programs, with most (69.6%) observing same or increased attendance. PDs reported that 82.7% of residents were on a non-standard schedule, with most being deployed in a 1 to 2 week on, 1 to 2 week off block schedule. Case volumes were affected for both junior and graduating trainees, but a majority of PDs report that graduating residents will graduate on time without perceived negative effect on first career/fellowship position. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has radically changed the educational approach of thoracic surgery programs. PDs are adapting educational delivery to optimize training and safety during the pandemic. Long-term effects remain uncertain and require additional study.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Medical, Graduate/methods , Internship and Residency/methods , Pandemics , Thoracic Surgery/education , Thoracic Surgical Procedures/education , Female , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States