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1.
Arthritis & Rheumatology ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1819338

ABSTRACT

Objective Immunogenicity and safety following standard SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) are poorly characterized, and data on third dose vaccination are lacking. Study aim was to evaluate serological response and adverse events following standard and third dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in IMID-patients on immunosuppressive therapy. Methods Adult patients on immunosuppressive therapy for rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, Crohn?s disease, ulcerative colitis, and healthy controls receiving standard two dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, were included in this prospective observational study. Analyses of antibodies to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-COV-2 spike protein were performed prior to, and 2-4?weeks after vaccination. Poorly responding patients were allotted a third vaccine dose. Results 1505 (91%) patients and 1096 (98%) healthy controls (p<0.001) responded to standard SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Anti-RBD levels were lower in patients (median 619 AU/ml [IQR 192?4191]) than controls (median 3355 AU/ml [896 ?7849]), p<0.001. The proportion of responders was lowest in patients receiving tumor necrosis factor inhibitor combination therapy, janus kinase inhibitors, or abatacept. Lower age and receiving mRNA-1273 vaccine were predictors of response. Of 153 patients with a weak response receiving a third dose, 129 (84%) became responders. Patients and controls had a comparable safety profile. Conclusions IMID-patients had an attenuated response to standard vaccination as compared to healthy controls. A third vaccine dose was safe and resulted in serological response in most patients. These data facilitate identification of patient groups at risk of attenuated vaccine response, and support administering a third vaccine dose to poorly-responding IMID-patients.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332687

ABSTRACT

Diagnostic assays currently used to monitor the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines measure levels of antibodies to the receptor-binding domain of ancestral SARS-CoV-2 (RBDwt). However, the predictive value for protection against new variants of concern (VOCs) has not been firmly established. Here, we used bead-based arrays and flow cytometry to measure binding of antibodies to spike proteins and receptor-binding domains (RBDs) from VOCs in 12,000 sera. Effects of sera on RBD-ACE2 interactions were measured as a proxy for neutralizing antibodies. The samples were obtained from healthy individuals or patients on immunosuppressive therapy who had received two to four doses of COVID-19 vaccines and from COVID-19 convalescents. The results show that anti-RBDwt titers correlate with the levels of binding- and neutralizing antibodies against the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon and Omicron variants. The benefit of multiplexed analysis lies in the ability to measure a wide range of anti-RBD titers using a single dilution of serum for each assay. The reactivity patterns also yield an internal reference for neutralizing activity and binding antibody units per milliliter (BAU/ml). Results obtained with sera from vaccinated healthy individuals and patients confirmed and extended results from previous studies on time-dependent waning of antibody levels and effects of immunosuppressive agents. We conclude that anti-RBDwt titers correlate with levels of neutralizing antibodies against VOCs and propose that our method may be implemented to enhance the precision and throughput of immunomonitoring.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331822

ABSTRACT

Diagnostic assays currently used to monitor the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines measure levels of antibodies to the receptor-binding domain of ancestral SARS-CoV-2 (RBDwt). However, the predictive value for protection against new variants of concern (VOCs) has not been firmly established. Here, we used bead-based arrays and flow cytometry to measure binding of antibodies to spike proteins and receptor-binding domains (RBDs) from VOCs in 12,000 sera. Effects of sera on RBD-ACE2 interactions were measured as a proxy for neutralizing antibodies. The samples were obtained from healthy individuals or patients on immunosuppressive therapy who had received two to four doses of COVID-19 vaccines and from COVID-19 convalescents. The results show that anti-RBDwt titers correlate with the levels of binding- and neutralizing antibodies against the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon and Omicron variants. The benefit of multiplexed analysis lies in the ability to measure a wide range of anti-RBD titers using a single dilution of serum for each assay. The reactivity patterns also yield an internal reference for neutralizing activity and binding antibody units per milliliter (BAU/ml). Results obtained with sera from vaccinated healthy individuals and patients confirmed and extended results from previous studies on time-dependent waning of antibody levels and effects of immunosuppressive agents. We conclude that anti-RBDwt titers correlate with levels of neutralizing antibodies against VOCs and propose that our method may be implemented to enhance the precision and throughput of immunomonitoring.

4.
Br J Haematol ; 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731105

ABSTRACT

B-cell depletion induced by anti-cluster of differentiation 20 (CD20) monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy of patients with lymphoma is expected to impair humoral responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination, but effects on CD8 T-cell responses are unknown. Here, we investigated humoral and CD8 T-cell responses following two vaccinations in patients with lymphoma undergoing anti-CD20-mAb therapy as single agent or in combination with chemotherapy or other anti-neoplastic agents during the last 9 months prior to inclusion, and in healthy age-matched blood donors. Antibody measurements showed that seven of 110 patients had antibodies to the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein 3-6 weeks after the second dose of vaccination. Peripheral blood CD8 T-cell responses against prevalent human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I SARS-CoV-2 epitopes were determined by peptide-HLA multimer analysis. Strong CD8 T-cell responses were observed in samples from 20/29 patients (69%) and 12/16 (75%) controls, with similar median response magnitudes in the groups and some of the strongest responses observed in patients. We conclude that despite the absence of humoral immune responses in fully SARS-CoV-2-vaccinated, anti-CD20-treated patients with lymphoma, their CD8 T-cell responses reach similar frequencies and magnitudes as for controls. Patients with lymphoma on B-cell depleting therapies are thus likely to benefit from current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, and development of vaccines aimed at eliciting T-cell responses to non-Spike epitopes might provide improved protection.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317660

ABSTRACT

Most SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals develop symptoms that do not require medical management. We hypothesized that pre-existing cross-reactive T cell responses could protect the majority from severe disease. Here we found that CTL and Th cells specific for seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoV) were significantly expanded in recovered COVID-19 donors and that CTL responses were significantly higher than responses to private SARS-CoV-2 peptides not shared with seasonal HCoV. A third of the SARS-CoV-2 peptide:HLA ligandome was matched by highly similar peptide mimics from seasonal HCoV, constituting a common HCoV peptide pool. CTL immunity was significantly skewed to the common HCoV peptide pool in age groups 20-70y, but not >70y-old donors. Over 40% of recovered donors lacked neutralizing antibodies, highlighting the role of T cell immunity in COVID-19. Results suggest a protective pre-acquired T cell immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and identify epitopes that may help boost vaccine responses and ensure broad protection against this family of viruses.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04320732.Funding: This study was funded by The Health-South East Health Authority (Project 29286), the Research Council of Norway (Project 312693), the Oslo University Hospital, the KG Jebsen Foundation (grant 19), the University of Oslo, The Norwegian Cancer Society.Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that we have no competing interests.

6.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327209

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 is now overtaking the Delta variant in many countries. Results showing that sera from double vaccinated individuals have minimal neutralizing activity against Omicron may indicate that the higher rate of transmission is due to evasion from vaccine-induced immunity. However, there is little information about activation of recall responses to Omicron in vaccinated individuals. Methods We measured inflammatory mediators, antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins, and spike peptide-induced release of interferon gamma in whole blood in 51 vaccinated individuals infected with Omicron, in 14 infected with Delta, and in 18 healthy controls. The median time points for the first and second samples were 7 and 14 days after symptom onset, respectively. Findings Infection with Omicron or Delta led to a rapid and similar increase in antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins and spike peptide-induced interferon gamma in whole blood. Both the Omicron and the Delta infected patients had a mild and transient increase in inflammatory parameters. Interpretation The results suggest that vaccine-induced immunological memory yields similar coverage for the Omicron and Delta variants.

8.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 4(3): e177-e187, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605659

ABSTRACT

Background: In rituximab-treated patients with rheumatoid arthritis, humoral and cellular immune responses after two or three doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are not well characterised. We aimed to address this knowledge gap. Methods: This prospective, cohort study (Nor-vaC) was done at two hospitals in Norway. For this sub-study, we enrolled patients with rheumatoid arthritis on rituximab treatment and healthy controls who received SARS-CoV-2 vaccines according to the Norwegian national vaccination programme. Patients with insufficient serological responses to two doses (antibody to the receptor-binding domain [RBD] of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein concentration <100 arbitrary units [AU]/mL) were allotted a third vaccine dose. Antibodies to the RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were measured in serum 2-4 weeks after the second and third doses. Vaccine-elicited T-cell responses were assessed in vitro using blood samples taken before and 7-10 days after the second dose and 3 weeks after the third dose from a subset of patients by stimulating cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells with spike protein peptides. The main outcomes were the proportions of participants with serological responses (anti-RBD antibody concentrations of ≥70 AU/mL) and T-cell responses to spike peptides following two and three doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04798625, and is ongoing. Findings: Between Feb 9, 2021, and May 27, 2021, 90 patients were enrolled, 87 of whom donated serum and were included in our analyses (69 [79·3%] women and 18 [20·7%] men). 1114 healthy controls were included (854 [76·7%] women and 260 [23·3%] men). 49 patients were allotted a third vaccine dose. 19 (21·8%) of 87 patients, compared with 1096 (98·4%) of 1114 healthy controls, had a serological response after two doses (p<0·0001). Time since last rituximab infusion (median 267 days [IQR 222-324] in responders vs 107 days [80-152] in non-responders) and vaccine type (mRNA-1273 vs BNT162b2) were significantly associated with serological response (adjusting for age and sex). After two doses, 10 (53%) of 19 patients had CD4+ T-cell responses and 14 (74%) had CD8+ T-cell responses. A third vaccine dose induced serological responses in eight (16·3%) of 49 patients, but induced CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses in all patients assessed (n=12), including responses to the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant (B.1.617.2). Adverse events were reported in 32 (48%) of 67 patients and in 191 (78%) of 244 healthy controls after two doses, with the frequency not increasing after the third dose. There were no serious adverse events or deaths. Interpretation: This study provides important insight into the divergent humoral and cellular responses to two and three doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in rituximab-treated patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A third vaccine dose given 6-9 months after a rituximab infusion might not induce a serological response, but could be considered to boost the cellular immune response. Funding: The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, Research Council of Norway Covid, the KG Jebsen Foundation, Oslo University Hospital, the University of Oslo, the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority, Dr Trygve Gythfeldt og frues forskningsfond, the Karin Fossum Foundation, and the Research Foundation at Diakonhjemmet Hospital.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295479

ABSTRACT

T-cell epitopes with broad population coverage may form the basis for a new generation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. However, published studies on immunoprevalence are limited by small test cohorts, low frequencies of antigen-specific cells and lack of data correlating eluted HLA ligands with T-cell responsiveness. As the protective role of pre-existing cross-reactivity to homologous peptides is unclear, we aimed to identify SARS-CoV-2-specific minimal epitopes recognized by CD8 T-cells among 48 peptides eluted from prevalent HLA alleles, and an additional 84 predicted binders, in a large cohort of convalescents (n=83) and pre-pandemic control samples (n=19). We identified nine conserved SARS-CoV-2-specific epitopes restricted by four of the most prevalent HLA class I alleles in the Norwegian study cohort, to which responding CD8 T cells were detected in 70-100% of convalescents expressing the relevant HLA allele. Only two of these were derived from the Spike protein, included in current vaccines. We found a strong correlation between immunoprevalence and immunodominance. Thus, the CD8 T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2 is more focused than previously believed. Using a new algorithm, we predict that a vaccine including these epitopes could induce a T-cell response in 83% of Caucasians.

10.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(9): 1261-1269, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New treatment modalities are urgently needed for patients with COVID-19. The World Health Organization (WHO) Solidarity trial showed no effect of remdesivir or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on mortality, but the antiviral effects of these drugs are not known. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of remdesivir and HCQ on all-cause, in-hospital mortality; the degree of respiratory failure and inflammation; and viral clearance in the oropharynx. DESIGN: NOR-Solidarity is an independent, add-on, randomized controlled trial to the WHO Solidarity trial that included biobanking and 3 months of clinical follow-up (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04321616). SETTING: 23 hospitals in Norway. PATIENTS: Eligible patients were adults hospitalized with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. INTERVENTION: Between 28 March and 4 October 2020, a total of 185 patients were randomly assigned and 181 were included in the full analysis set. Patients received remdesivir (n = 42), HCQ (n = 52), or standard of care (SoC) (n = 87). MEASUREMENTS: In addition to the primary end point of WHO Solidarity, study-specific outcomes were viral clearance in oropharyngeal specimens, the degree of respiratory failure, and inflammatory variables. RESULTS: No significant differences were seen between treatment groups in mortality during hospitalization. There was a marked decrease in SARS-CoV-2 load in the oropharynx during the first week overall, with similar decreases and 10-day viral loads among the remdesivir, HCQ, and SoC groups. Remdesivir and HCQ did not affect the degree of respiratory failure or inflammatory variables in plasma or serum. The lack of antiviral effect was not associated with symptom duration, level of viral load, degree of inflammation, or presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at hospital admittance. LIMITATION: The trial had no placebo group. CONCLUSION: Neither remdesivir nor HCQ affected viral clearance in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Clinical Therapy Research in the Specialist Health Services, Norway.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Viral Load/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Norway/epidemiology , Oropharynx/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Standard of Care , Treatment Outcome
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23205, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545647

ABSTRACT

The association between pulmonary sequelae and markers of disease severity, as well as pro-fibrotic mediators, were studied in 108 patients 3 months after hospital admission for COVID-19. The COPD assessment test (CAT-score), spirometry, diffusion capacity of the lungs (DLCO), and chest-CT were performed at 23 Norwegian hospitals included in the NOR-SOLIDARITY trial, an open-labelled, randomised clinical trial, investigating the efficacy of remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). Thirty-eight percent had a CAT-score ≥ 10. DLCO was below the lower limit of normal in 29.6%. Ground-glass opacities were present in 39.8% on chest-CT, parenchymal bands were found in 41.7%. At admission, low pO2/FiO2 ratio, ICU treatment, high viral load, and low antibody levels, were predictors of a poorer pulmonary outcome after 3 months. High levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 during hospitalisation and at 3 months were associated with persistent CT-findings. Except for a negative effect of remdesivir on CAT-score, we found no effect of remdesivir or HCQ on long-term pulmonary outcomes. Three months after hospital admission for COVID-19, a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms, reduced DLCO, and persistent CT-findings was observed. Low pO2/FiO2 ratio, ICU-admission, high viral load, low antibody levels, and high levels of MMP-9 were associated with a worse pulmonary outcome.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Lung Diseases/pathology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Load , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Aged , Alanine/adverse effects , Antibody Formation , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung Diseases/chemically induced , Lung Diseases/enzymology , Lung Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2103, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Closed fitness centers during the Covid-19 pandemic may negatively impact health and wellbeing. We assessed whether training at fitness centers increases the risk of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. METHODS: In a two-group parallel randomized controlled trial, fitness center members aged 18 to 64 without Covid-19-relevant comorbidities, were randomized to access to training at a fitness center or no-access. Fitness centers applied physical distancing (1 m for floor exercise, 2 m for high-intensity classes) and enhanced hand and surface hygiene. Primary outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 RNA status by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after 14 days, hospital admission after 21 days. The secondary endpoint was SARS-CoV-2 antibody status after 1 month. RESULTS: 3764 individuals were randomized; 1896 to the training arm and 1868 to the no-training arm. In the training arm, 81.8% trained at least once, and 38.5% trained ≥six times. Of 3016 individuals who returned the SARS-CoV-2 RNA tests (80.5%), there was one positive test in the training arm, and none in the no-training arm (risk difference 0.053%; 95% CI - 0.050 to 0.156%; p = 0.32). Eleven individuals in the training arm (0.8% of tested) and 27 in the no-training arm (2.4% of tested) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (risk difference - 0.87%; 95%CI - 1.52% to - 0.23%; p = 0.001). No outpatient visits or hospital admissions due to Covid-19 occurred in either arm. CONCLUSION: Provided good hygiene and physical distancing measures and low population prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, there was no increased infection risk of SARS-CoV-2 in fitness centers in Oslo, Norway for individuals without Covid-19-relevant comorbidities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was prospectively registered in ClinicalTrials.gov on May 13, 2020. Due to administrative issues it was first posted on the register website on May 29, 2020: NCT04406909 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fitness Centers , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
13.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 16(2): 204-212, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 induces antibodies that can be used as a proxy for COVID-19. We present a repeated nationwide cross-sectional study assessing the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2, the infection fatality rate (IFR), and infection hospitalization rate (IHR) during the first year of the pandemic in Norway. METHODS: Residual serum samples were solicited in April/May 2020 (Round 1), in July/August 2020 (Round 2) and in January 2021 (Round 3). Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were measured using a flow cytometer-based assay. Aggregate data on confirmed cases, COVID-19-associated deaths and hospitalizations were obtained from the Emergency preparedness registry for COVID-19 (Beredt C19), and the seroprevalence estimates were used to estimate IFR and IHR. RESULTS: Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were measured in 4840 samples. The estimated seroprevalence increased from 0.8% (95% credible interval [CrI] 0.4%-1.3%) after the first wave of the pandemic (Rounds 1 and 2 combined) to 3.2% (95% CrI 2.3%-4.2%) (Round 3). The IFR and IHR were higher in the first wave than in the second wave and increased with age. The IFR was 0.2% (95% CrI 0.1%-0.3%), and IHR was 0.9% (95% CrI 0.6%-1.5%) for the second wave. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence estimates show a cumulative increase of SARS-CoV-2 infections over time in the Norwegian population and suggest some under-recording of confirmed cases. The IFR and IHR were low, corresponding to the relatively low number of COVID-19-associated deaths and hospitalizations in Norway. Most of the Norwegian population was still susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection after the first year of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Norway/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
14.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 2021 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476743

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The effect of disease-modifying therapies (DMT) on vaccine responses is largely unknown. Understanding the development of protective immunity is of paramount importance to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To characterise humoral immunity after mRNA-COVID-19 vaccination of people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). METHODS: All pwMS in Norway fully vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 were invited to a national screening study. Humoral immunity was assessed by measuring anti-SARS-CoV-2 SPIKE RBD IgG response 3-12 weeks after full vaccination, and compared with healthy subjects. RESULTS: 528 pwMS and 627 healthy subjects were included. Reduced humoral immunity (anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG <70 arbitrary units) was present in 82% and 80% of all pwMS treated with fingolimod and rituximab, respectively, while patients treated with other DMT showed similar rates as healthy subjects and untreated pwMS. We found a significant correlation between time since the last rituximab dose and the development of humoral immunity. Revaccination in two seronegative patients induced a weak antibody response. CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated with fingolimod or rituximab should be informed about the risk of reduced humoral immunity and vaccinations should be timed carefully in rituximab patients. Our results identify the need for studies regarding the durability of vaccine responses, the role of cellular immunity and revaccinations.

18.
N Engl J Med ; 384(22): 2124-2130, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174740

ABSTRACT

We report findings in five patients who presented with venous thrombosis and thrombocytopenia 7 to 10 days after receiving the first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 adenoviral vector vaccine against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). The patients were health care workers who were 32 to 54 years of age. All the patients had high levels of antibodies to platelet factor 4-polyanion complexes; however, they had had no previous exposure to heparin. Because the five cases occurred in a population of more than 130,000 vaccinated persons, we propose that they represent a rare vaccine-related variant of spontaneous heparin-induced thrombocytopenia that we refer to as vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Blood Chemical Analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation , Platelet Count
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(40): 25018-25025, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780138

ABSTRACT

Respiratory failure in the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is hypothesized to be driven by an overreacting innate immune response, where the complement system is a key player. In this prospective cohort study of 39 hospitalized coronavirus disease COVID-19 patients, we describe systemic complement activation and its association with development of respiratory failure. Clinical data and biological samples were obtained at admission, days 3 to 5, and days 7 to 10. Respiratory failure was defined as PO2/FiO2 ratio of ≤40 kPa. Complement activation products covering the classical/lectin (C4d), alternative (C3bBbP) and common pathway (C3bc, C5a, and sC5b-9), the lectin pathway recognition molecule MBL, and antibody serology were analyzed by enzyme-immunoassays; viral load by PCR. Controls comprised healthy blood donors. Consistently increased systemic complement activation was observed in the majority of COVID-19 patients during hospital stay. At admission, sC5b-9 and C4d were significantly higher in patients with than without respiratory failure (P = 0.008 and P = 0.034). Logistic regression showed increasing odds of respiratory failure with sC5b-9 (odds ratio 31.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 746, P = 0.03) and need for oxygen therapy with C4d (11.7, 1.1 to 130, P = 0.045). Admission sC5b-9 and C4d correlated significantly to ferritin (r = 0.64, P < 0.001; r = 0.69, P < 0.001). C4d, sC5b-9, and C5a correlated with antiviral antibodies, but not with viral load. Systemic complement activation is associated with respiratory failure in COVID-19 patients and provides a rationale for investigating complement inhibitors in future clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Complement Activation , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Male , Mannose-Binding Lectin/blood , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
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