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1.
Virology ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2034495

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants have posed significant challenges to the hopes of using ancestral strain-based vaccines to address the risk of breakthrough infection by variants. We designed and developed a bivalent vaccine based on SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Beta variants (named SCTV01C). SCTV01C antigens were stable at 25 oC for at least 6 months. In the presence of a squalene-based oil-in-water adjuvant SCT-VA02B, SCTV01C showed significant protection efficacy against antigen-matched Beta variant, with favorable safety profiles in rodents. Notably, SCTV01C exhibited cross-neutralization capacity against Omicron subvariants (BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2, BA.3, and BA.4/5) in mice, superior to a WT (D614G)-based vaccine, which reinforced our previously published findings that SCTV01C exhibited broad-spectrum neutralizing potencies against over a dozen pre-Omicron variants and the Omicron BA.1 variant. In summary, variant-based multivalent protein vaccine could be a platform approach to address the challenging issues of emerging variants, vaccine hesitancy and the needs of affordable and thermal stable vaccines.

2.
Dermatologic Therapy ; n/a(n/a):e15746, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1968085

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) vaccination is now an essential strategy for controlling the COVID-19 epidemic. This study included 132 cases of adverse skin reactions after the injection of COVID-19 vaccination from January 2021 to January 2022. The rate of adverse skin reactions after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd doses of the COVID-19 vaccine were 52%, 40%, and 8% of total adverse skin reactions, respectively. The Urticaria-like rash was the most common manifestation of all adverse skin reactions, accounting for 40.15% of all adverse reactions. The Eczema-like rash was 27.27%. The rates of adverse skin reactions after vaccination with the COVID-19 vaccine in patients with a previous skin disease was 12.12%. Other rare skin adverse reactions after COVID-19 vaccination included herpes zoster, pityriasis rosea, erythema multiforme, chickenpox, herpes simplex, psoriasis, erythrodermatitis, arthus reaction, lichen planus recurrence, measles-like rash, frostbite rash, seborrhea, and vitiligo. There were 23 cases of adverse skin reactions in the same individual after two doses of COVID-19 vaccine. There were 3 cases of adverse skin reactions in the same person after three doses of the vaccine. Treatment measures are mostly mild regimens, such as oral antihistamines, compounded glycopyrrolate and topical weak to moderately potent corticosteroid creams. The total duration of these skin adverse reactions ranged from two weeks to one month. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 84, 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960375

ABSTRACT

As the world continues to experience the COVID-19 pandemic, seasonal influenza remain a cause of severe morbidity and mortality globally. Worse yet, coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus (IAV) leads to more severe clinical outcomes. The development of a combined vaccine against both COVID-19 and influenza is thus of high priority. Based on our established lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-encapsulated mRNA vaccine platform, we developed and characterized a novel mRNA vaccine encoding the HA antigen of influenza A (H1N1) virus, termed ARIAV. Then, ARIAV was combined with our COVID-19 mRNA vaccine ARCoV, which encodes the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein, to formulate the final combined vaccine, AR-CoV/IAV. Further characterization demonstrated that immunization with two doses of AR-CoV/IAV elicited robust protective antibodies as well as antigen-specific cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 and IAV. More importantly, AR-CoV/IAV immunization protected mice from coinfection with IAV and the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Delta variants. Our results highlight the potential of the LNP-mRNA vaccine platform in preventing COVID-19 and influenza, as well as other respiratory diseases.

4.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 830334, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952707

ABSTRACT

Background: Strict quarantines can prevent the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, but also increase the risk of mental illness. This study examined whether the people who have experienced repeated home quarantine performance more negative emotions such as anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a Chinese population. Methods: We collected data from 2,514 participants in Pi County, Chengdu City, and stratified them into two groups. Group 1 comprised 1,214 individuals who were quarantined only once in early 2020, while Group 2 comprised 1,300 individuals who were quarantined in early 2020 and again in late 2020. Both groups were from the same community. The GAD-7, PHQ-9, and PCL-C scales were used to assess symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD between the two groups. Results: Analyses showed that total PHQ-9 scores were significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p < 0.001) and the quarantine times and age are independent predictors of symptoms of depression (p < 0.001). The two groups did not differ significantly in total GAD-7 or PCL-C scores. Conclusion: Increasing quarantine times was associated with moderate to severe depression symptoms, but not with an increase in symptoms of anxiety or PTSD.

5.
Integrative Medicine in Nephrology and Andrology ; 8(1):1-8, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1871777

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI) increase the risk of serious disease and mortality in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients. This study evaluated the occurrence and outcome of AKI in CKD and non-CKD patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Subjects and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 845 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection regarding the occurrence and outcome of AKI in a coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-designated hospital in Wuhan, China, from December 31, 2019, to March 20, 2020. Results: Of the 845 COVID-19 patients, 91 had CKD and 754 had no CKD (non-CKD), of whom 22 and 14 developed AKI, respectively. Finally, 36 patients were included in the analysis. Older patients and those with cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases were more likely to develop AKI. More CKD patients progressed to critical illness (72.73%) than non-CKD patients (57.14%), but the degree of AKI in CKD patients was lesser than that in non-CKD patients. Higher urea nitrogen, creatinine, and proteinuria levels were observed in CKD patients. More non-CKD patients were treated with human albumin than CKD patients. The survival probability of CKD patients was lower than that of non-CKD patients, but it was not statistically significant. Conclusion: There were significant differences in the incidence rate of AKI after SARS-CoV-2 infection between CKD and non-CKD patients, and the clinical manifestations and treatments of AKI also differed. These results highlight the necessity of variable treatment methods for optimal clinical management.

6.
Advanced Materials ; 34(21):2270160, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1866500

ABSTRACT

Nanoparticle Vaccines In article number 2200443, Liangzhi Xie, Chengfeng Qin, and co-workers develop a novel bivalent nanoparticle vaccine that confers protection against infection of multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants and Streptococcus pneumoniae. This universal polysaccharide?protein-conjugated vaccine platform provides a powerful tool to fight against cocirculating viral and bacterial pathogens worldwide.

7.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 876995, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847225

ABSTRACT

Background: The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19)-related depression symptoms of healthcare workers have received worldwide recognition. Although many studies identified risk exposures associated with depression symptoms among healthcare workers, few have focused on a predictive model using machine learning methods. As a society, governments, and organizations are concerned about the need for immediate interventions and alert systems for healthcare workers who are mentally at-risk. This study aims to develop and validate machine learning-based models for predicting depression symptoms using survey data collected during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Method: Surveys were conducted of 2,574 healthcare workers in hospitals designated to care for COVID-19 patients between 20 January and 11 February 2020. The patient health questionnaire (PHQ)-9 was used to measure the depression symptoms and quantify the severity, a score of ≥5 on the PHQ-9 represented depression symptoms positive, respectively. Four machine learning approaches were trained (75% of data) and tested (25% of data). Cross-validation with 100 repetitions was applied to the training dataset for hyperparameter tuning. Finally, all models were compared to evaluate their predictive performances and screening utility: decision tree, logistics regression with least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), random forest, and gradient-boosting tree. Results: Important risk predictors identified and ranked by the machine learning models were highly consistent: self-perceived health status factors always occupied the top five most important predictors, followed by worried about infection, working on the frontline, a very high level of uncertainty, having received any form of psychological support material and having COVID-19-like symptoms. The area under the curve [95% CI] of machine learning models were as follows: LASSO model, 0.824 [0.792-0.856]; random forest, 0.828 [0.797-0.859]; gradient-boosting tree, 0.829 [0.798-0.861]; and decision tree, 0.785 [0.752-0.819]. The calibration plot indicated that the LASSO model, random forest, and gradient-boosting tree fit the data well. Decision curve analysis showed that all models obtained net benefits for predicting depression symptoms. Conclusions: This study shows that machine learning prediction models are suitable for making predictions about mentally at-risk healthcare workers predictions in a public health emergency setting. The application of multidimensional machine learning models could support hospitals' and healthcare workers' decision-making on possible psychological interventions and proper mental health management.

8.
J Nurs Manag ; 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819919

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study aimed to investigate eHealth literacy about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among older adults during the pandemic. BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic promoted the development of online health care. Higher demand for accessing information from the Internet was seen. METHODS: This was a sequential explanatory mixed-method study, involving a survey of older adults to explore the status and influencing factors of eHealth literacy regarding COVID-19. Semi-structured interviews were used to understand experiences and challenges regarding information retrieval, judgment and utilization. RESULTS: A total of 337 older adults participated in the online questionnaire survey. Overall, older adults had slightly higher scores on eHealth literacy during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants' location in the past month and current health issues were associated with eHealth literacy. Qualitative data were collected from nine older adults and included that some older adults retrieved health-related information during the pandemic. However, those who used non-smartphones described difficulties in information retrieval. A glut of misinformation has resulted in an 'infodemic', which has not only increased the difficulty of judging information but also posed challenges in information utilization for older adults. CONCLUSION: Improving older adults' eHealth literacy is essential in promoting an improved response to major public health events and in providing better health care for this group in the future. It is essential that government health agencies and health care providers provide evidence-based health information via social media platforms. Further efforts are needed to combine aspects of traditional and online health care services and provide reliable and updated online information and resources for older adults. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Providing evidence to eHealth literacy improvement and health management of older adults in the context of public health events.

10.
Comput Inform Nurs ; 2022 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806654

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a leading societal concern. eHealth literacy is important in the prevention and control of this pandemic. The purpose of this study is to identify eHealth literacy of Chinese residents about the COVID-19 pandemic and factors influencing eHealth literacy. A total of 15 694 individuals clicked on the link to the questionnaire, and 15 000 agreed to participate and completed the questionnaire for a response rate of 95.58%. Descriptive statistics, χ2 test, and logistic regression analysis were conducted to analyze participants' level of eHealth literacy about COVID-19 and its influencing factors. The results showed 52.2% of participants had relatively lower eHealth literacy regarding COVID-19 (eHealth literacy score ≤ 48). The scores of the information judgment dimension (3.09 ± 0.71) and information utilization dimension (3.18 ± 0.67) of the eHealth literacy scale were relatively lower. The logistics regression showed that sex, age, education level, level of uncertainty, having people around the respondent diagnosed with COVID-19, relationship with family, and relationship with others were associated to eHealth literacy (χ2 = 969.135, P < .001). The public's eHealth literacy about COVID-19 needs to be improved, especially the ability to judge and utilize online information. Close collaboration among global health agencies, governments, healthcare institutions, and media is needed to provide reliable online information to the public. Interventions to improve eHealth literacy should take into account and accentuate the importance of sex, age, educational background, level of uncertainty, exposure to disease, and social support.

11.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 846543, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798930

ABSTRACT

Autophagy is a crucial and conserved homeostatic mechanism for early defense against viral infections. Recent studies indicate that coronaviruses (CoVs) have evolved various strategies to evade the autophagy-lysosome pathway. In this minireview, we describe the source of double-membrane vesicles during CoV infection, which creates a microenvironment that promotes viral RNA replication and virion synthesis and protects the viral genome from detection by the host. Firstly, CoVs hijack autophagy initiation through non-structural proteins and open-reading frames, leading to the use of non-nucleated phagophores and omegasomes for autophagy-derived double-membrane vesicles. Contrastingly, membrane rearrangement by hijacking ER-associated degradation machinery to form ER-derived double-membrane vesicles independent from the typical autophagy process is another important routine for the production of double-membrane vesicles. Furthermore, we summarize the molecular mechanisms by which CoV non-structural proteins and open-reading frames are used to intercept autophagic flux and thereby evade host clearance and innate immunity. A comprehensive understanding of the above mechanisms may contribute to developing novel therapies and clinical drugs against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the future.

12.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-333031

ABSTRACT

As the world continues to experience the COVID-19 pandemic, seasonal influenza remain a cause of severe morbidity and mortality globally. Worse yet, coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus (IAV) leads to more severe clinical outcomes. The development of a combined vaccine against both COVID-19 and influenza is thus of high priority. Based on our established lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-encapsulated mRNA vaccine platform, we developed and characterized a novel mRNA vaccine encoding the HA antigen of influenza A (H1N1) virus, termed ARIAV. Then, ARIAV was combined with our COVID-19 mRNA vaccine ARCoV, which encodes the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein, to formulate the final combined vaccine, AR-CoV/IAV. Further characterization demonstrated that immunization with two doses of AR-CoV/IAV elicited robust protective antibodies as well as antigen-specific cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 and IAV. More importantly, AR-CoV/IAV immunization protected mice from coinfection with IAV and the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Delta variants. Our results highlight the potential of the LNP-mRNA vaccine platform in preventing COVID-19 and influenza, as well as other respiratory diseases.

13.
European Journal of Psychotraumatology ; 13(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1782284

ABSTRACT

Background Pre-hospitalisation, hospitalisation and post-hospitalisation factors may significantly affect depression, anxiety and post-traumatic growth (PTG) among COVID-19 survivors. Objective Our study investigated depression, anxiety and PTG and their correlates among COVID-19 survivors. Method A cross-sectional telephone survey recruited 199 COVID-19 patients (Mean age = 42.7;53.3% females) at six-month follow-up after hospital discharge in five Chinese cities (i.e. Wuhan, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Dongguan and Nanning). Their demographic information, clinical records and experiences during (e.g. severity of covid-19 symptoms, treatment and exposure to other patients’ suffering) and after hospitalisation (e.g. perceived impact of covid-19, somatic symptoms after hospitalisation), and psychosocial factors (e.g. perceived discrimination, self-stigma, affiliate stigma, resilience and social support) were investigated. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD-7) scale, respectively. PTG was examined by the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) instrument. Results The proportion of depressive symptoms <5, ≥5 and <10, ≥10 were 76.9%, 12.0% and 11.1%, respectively. The proportion of anxiety symptoms <5, ≥5 and <10, ≥10 were 77.4%, 15.1% and 7.5%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed that receiving mental health care services during hospitalisation, somatic symptoms after discharge, perceived affiliate stigma and perceived impact of being infected with COVID-19 were significantly and positively associated with probable depression. Significant correlates of probable anxiety also included permanent residents of the city, somatic symptoms after discharge, perceived impact of being infected with COVID-19 and self-stigma. Social support, self-stigma and receiving mental health care services during hospitalisation were positively associated with PTG. Conclusions: The results suggest that post-hospitalisation and psychosocial factors had relatively stronger associations with depression, anxiety and PTG than pre-hospitalisation and hospitalisation factors. Promoting social support and social inclusion may be useful strategies to improve the mental health of COVID-19 survivors. HIGHLIGHTS • Post-hospitalisation and psychosocial factors had relatively stronger associations with depression, anxiety and PTG than pre-hospitalisation and hospitalisation factors, promoting social support and social inclusion may be useful strategies to improve mental health of COVID-19 survivors.

14.
Research Square ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1786456

ABSTRACT

As the world continues to experience the COVID-19 pandemic, seasonal influenza remain a cause of severe morbidity and mortality globally. Worse yet, coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus (IAV) leads to more severe clinical outcomes. The development of a combined vaccine against both COVID-19 and influenza is thus of high priority. Based on our established lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-encapsulated mRNA vaccine platform, we developed and characterized a novel mRNA vaccine encoding the HA antigen of influenza A (H1N1) virus, termed ARIAV. Then, ARIAV was combined with our COVID-19 mRNA vaccine ARCoV, which encodes the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein, to formulate the final combined vaccine, AR-CoV/IAV. Further characterization demonstrated that immunization with two doses of AR-CoV/IAV elicited robust protective antibodies as well as antigen-specific cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 and IAV. More importantly, AR-CoV/IAV immunization protected mice from coinfection with IAV and the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Delta variants. Our results highlight the potential of the LNP-mRNA vaccine platform in preventing COVID-19 and influenza, as well as other respiratory diseases.

15.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(1): 2055294, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774261

ABSTRACT

Background: Pre-hospitalisation, hospitalisation and post-hospitalisation factors may significantly affect depression, anxiety and post-traumatic growth (PTG) among COVID-19 survivors. Objective: Our study investigated depression, anxiety and PTG and their correlates among COVID-19 survivors. Method: A cross-sectional telephone survey recruited 199 COVID-19 patients (Mean age = 42.7; 53.3% females) at six-month follow-up after hospital discharge in five Chinese cities (i.e. Wuhan, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Dongguan and Nanning). Their demographic information, clinical records and experiences during (e.g. severity of covid-19 symptoms, treatment and exposure to other patients' suffering) and after hospitalisation (e.g. perceived impact of covid-19, somatic symptoms after hospitalisation), and psychosocial factors (e.g. perceived discrimination, self-stigma, affiliate stigma, resilience and social support) were investigated. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD-7) scale, respectively. PTG was examined by the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) instrument. Results: The proportion of depressive symptoms <5, ≥5 and <10, ≥10 were 76.9%, 12.0% and 11.1%, respectively. The proportion of anxiety symptoms <5, ≥5 and <10, ≥10 were 77.4%, 15.1% and 7.5%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed that receiving mental health care services during hospitalisation, somatic symptoms after discharge, perceived affiliate stigma and perceived impact of being infected with COVID-19 were significantly and positively associated with probable depression. Significant correlates of probable anxiety also included permanent residents of the city, somatic symptoms after discharge, perceived impact of being infected with COVID-19 and self-stigma. Social support, self-stigma and receiving mental health care services during hospitalisation were positively associated with PTG.Conclusions: The results suggest that post-hospitalisation and psychosocial factors had relatively stronger associations with depression, anxiety and PTG than pre-hospitalisation and hospitalisation factors. Promoting social support and social inclusion may be useful strategies to improve the mental health of COVID-19 survivors. HIGHLIGHTS: • Post-hospitalisation and psychosocial factors had relatively stronger associations with depression, anxiety and PTG than pre-hospitalisation and hospitalisation factors, promoting social support and social inclusion may be useful strategies to improve mental health of COVID-19 survivors.


Antecedentes: Los factores pre-hospitalización, durante la hospitalización y post-hospitalización pueden afectar significativamente la depresión, la ansiedad y el crecimiento postraumático (CPT) en los sobrevivientes de COVID-19.Objetivo: Nuestro estudio investigó la depresión, la ansiedad y el CPT y sus correlatos en sobrevivientes de COVID-19.Método: Una encuesta telefónica transversal reclutó a 199 pacientes con COVID-19 (edad promedio = 42,7; 53,3% mujeres) a los seis meses de seguimiento después del alta hospitalaria en cinco ciudades chinas (Wuhan, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Dongguan y Nanning). Su información demográfica, registros clínicos y experiencias durante la hospitalización (e.g. gravedad de los síntomas de COVID-19, tratamiento, exposición al sufrimiento de otros pacientes) y después de la hospitalización (e.g. impacto percibido de COVID-19, síntomas somáticos después de la hospitalización) y factores psicosociales (e.g. discriminación percibida, autoestigma, estigma de afiliación, resiliencia, apoyo social) fueron investigados. Los síntomas depresivos y de ansiedad se midieron mediante el Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente (PHQ-9 en su sigla en inglés) y la escala de trastorno de ansiedad generalizada (GAD-7 en su sigla en inglés) respectivamente, el CPT se examinó mediante el instrumento Inventario de Crecimiento Postraumático (PTGI en su sigla en inglés).Resultados: La proporción de síntomas depresivos <5, ≥5 y <10, y ≥10 fue 76,9%, 12,0% y 11,1% respectivamente. La proporción de síntomas de ansiedad <5, ≥5 y <10, y ≥10 fue del 77,4%, 15,1% y 7,5% respectivamente. La regresión logística multivariante mostró que recibir servicios de atención de salud mental durante la hospitalización, los síntomas somáticos después del alta, el estigma de afiliación percibido y el impacto percibido de estar infectado con COVID-19 se asociaron significativa y positivamente con una probable depresión. Los correlatos significativos de ansiedad probable también incluyeron ser residente permanente de la ciudad, síntomas somáticos después del alta, impacto percibido de estar infectado con COVID-19 y autoestigma. El apoyo social, el autoestigma y recibir servicios de salud mental durante la hospitalización se asociaron positivamente con el CPT.Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que los factores psicosociales y posteriores a la hospitalización tuvieron asociaciones relativamente más fuertes con la depresión, la ansiedad y el CPT que los factores previos a la hospitalización y hospitalización. Promover el apoyo social y la inclusión social pueden ser estrategias útiles para mejorar la salud mental de los sobrevivientes de COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medically Unexplained Symptoms , Posttraumatic Growth, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Patient Discharge , Survivors
16.
Adv Mater ; 34(21): e2200443, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763176

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has led to millions of deaths worldwide. Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) remains a major cause of mortality in underdeveloped countries. A vaccine that prevents both SARS-CoV-2 and S. pneumoniae infection represents a long-sought "magic bullet". Herein, a nanoparticle vaccine, termed SCTV01B, is rationally developed by using the capsular polysaccharide of S. pneumoniae serotype 14 (PPS14) as the backbone to conjugate with the recombinant receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The final formulation of conjugated nanoparticles in the network structure exhibits high thermal stability. Immunization with SCTV01B induces potent humoral and Type 1/Type 2 T helper cell (Th1/Th2) cellular immune responses in mice, rats, and rhesus macaques. In particular, SCTV01B-immunized serum not only broadly cross-neutralizes all SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs), including the most recent Omicron variant, but also shows high opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) against S. pneumoniae serotype 14. Finally, SCTV01B vaccination confers protection against challenges with the SARS-CoV-2 mouse-adapted strain and the original strain in established murine models. Collectively, these promising preclinical results support further clinical evaluation of SCTV01B, highlighting the potency of polysaccharide-RBD-conjugated nanoparticle vaccine platforms for the development of vaccines for COVID-19 and other infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Macaca mulatta/metabolism , Mice , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Pandemics , Polysaccharides , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Streptococcus pneumoniae/metabolism
17.
J Med Virol ; 94(7): 3223-3232, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756617

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has evolved into a panel of variants of concern (VOCs) and constituted a sustained threat to global health. The wildtype (WT) SARS-CoV-2 isolates fail to infect mice, while the Beta variant, one of the VOCs, has acquired the capability to infect standard laboratory mice, raising a spreading risk of SARS-CoV-2 from humans to mice. However, the infectivity and pathogenicity of other VOCs in mice remain not fully understood. In this study, we systematically investigated the infectivity and pathogenicity of three VOCs, Alpha, Beta, and Delta, in mice in comparison with two well-understood SARS-CoV-2 mouse-adapted strains, MASCp6 and MASCp36, sharing key mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) with Alpha or Beta, respectively. Our results showed that the Beta variant had the strongest infectivity and pathogenicity among the three VOCs, while the Delta variant only caused limited replication and mild pathogenic changes in the mouse lung, which is much weaker than what the Alpha variant did. Meanwhile, Alpha showed comparable infectivity in lungs in comparison with MASCp6, and Beta only showed slightly lower infectivity in lungs when compared with MASCp36. These results indicated that all three VOCs have acquired the capability to infect mice, highlighting the ongoing spillover risk of SARS-CoV-2 from humans to mice during the continued evolution of SARS-CoV-2, and that the key amino acid mutations in the RBD of mouse-adapted strains may be referenced as an early-warning indicator for predicting the spillover risk of newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , Mice , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
18.
Frontiers in microbiology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1743731

ABSTRACT

Autophagy is a crucial and conserved homeostatic mechanism for early defense against viral infections. Recent studies indicate that coronaviruses (CoVs) have evolved various strategies to evade the autophagy–lysosome pathway. In this minireview, we describe the source of double-membrane vesicles during CoV infection, which creates a microenvironment that promotes viral RNA replication and virion synthesis and protects the viral genome from detection by the host. Firstly, CoVs hijack autophagy initiation through non-structural proteins and open-reading frames, leading to the use of non-nucleated phagophores and omegasomes for autophagy-derived double-membrane vesicles. Contrastingly, membrane rearrangement by hijacking ER-associated degradation machinery to form ER-derived double-membrane vesicles independent from the typical autophagy process is another important routine for the production of double-membrane vesicles. Furthermore, we summarize the molecular mechanisms by which CoV non-structural proteins and open-reading frames are used to intercept autophagic flux and thereby evade host clearance and innate immunity. A comprehensive understanding of the above mechanisms may contribute to developing novel therapies and clinical drugs against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the future.

20.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(1): 2019980, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665830

ABSTRACT

Background: As a highly infectious disease with human-to-human transmission characteristics, COVID-19 has caused panic in the general public. Those who have recovered from COVID-19 may experience discrimination and internalized stigma. They may be more likely to worry about social interaction and develop social anxiety. Objectives: This study investigated the associations among hospitalization factors, social/interpersonal factors, personal factors, and social anxiety to reveal the mechanism of social anxiety in COVID-19 survivors. Methods: A cross-sectional, multicenter telephone survey was conducted from July to September 2020 in five Chinese cities (i.e. Wuhan, Nanning, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, and Dongguan); adult COVID-19 survivors were recruited 6 months after they were discharged from the hospital. Linear regressions and path analysis based on the minority stress model were conducted to test the relationships among hospitalization, social/interpersonal factors, personal factors, and social anxiety. Results: The response rate was 74.5% (N = 199, 55.3% females). Linear regression analyses showed that various hospitalization, social/interpersonal, and personal factors were statistically significantly associated with social anxiety. Path analysis showed that the proposed model fit the data well (χ2(df) = 3.196(3), p = .362, CFI = .999, NNFI = .996, RMSEA = .018). Internalized stigma fully mediated the association between perceived discrimination/social support and social anxiety, while it partially mediated the association between perceived affiliate stigma and social anxiety. Conclusions: The results suggest that social/interpersonal and personal factors have a stronger association with social anxiety than hospitalization factors and highlight the importance of internalized stigma in understanding the mechanisms of these relationships. Clinical psychologists can refer to these modifiable psychosocial factors to develop efficient interventions for mental health promotion.


Antecedentes: Como una enfermedad altamente infecciosa con características de transmisión de persona a persona, el COVID-19 ha causado pánico en el público en general. Aquellos que se han recuperado del COVID-19 pueden experimentar discriminación y estigma internalizado. Es más probable que se preocupen por la interacción social y desarrollen ansiedad social.Objetivos: Este estudio investigó las asociaciones entre factores de hospitalización, factores sociales /interpersonales, factores personales y ansiedad social para revelar el mecanismo de ansiedad social en sobrevivientes de COVID-19.Métodos: Se realizó una encuesta telefónica transversal multicentro de julio a septiembre de 2020 en cinco ciudades chinas (es decir, Wuhan, Nanning, Shenzhen, Zhuhai y Dongguan). Se reclutaron sobrevivientes adultos de COVID-19 seis meses después de ser dados de alta del hospital. Se realizaron regresiones lineales y análisis de ruta basados en el modelo de estrés de minoría para probar las relaciones entre la hospitalización, los factores sociales/interpersonales, los factores personales y la ansiedad social.Resultados: La tasa de respuesta fue del 74,5% (N = 199, 55,3% mujeres). Los análisis de regresión lineal mostraron que varios factores de hospitalización, sociales/interpersonales y personales se asociaron de manera estadísticamente significativa con la ansiedad social. El análisis de ruta mostró que el modelo propuesto se ajustaba bien a los datos (χ 2 (df) = 3.196 (3), p = .362, CFI = .999, NNFI = .996, RMSEA = .018). El estigma internalizado medió completamente la asociación entre discriminación/apoyo social percibido y ansiedad social, mientras que medió parcialmente la asociación entre el estigma percibido de afiliados y ansiedad social.Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que los factores sociales/interpersonales y personales tienen una asociación más fuerte con la ansiedad social que los factores de hospitalización y resaltan la importancia del estigma internalizado en la comprensión de los mecanismos de estas relaciones. Los psicólogos clínicos pueden referirse a estos factores psicosociales modificables para desarrollar intervenciones eficientes para la promoción de la salud mental.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Hospitalization , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Stigma , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , Survivors , Young Adult
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