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1.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 29: 100569, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977617

ABSTRACT

Background: China implemented strict non-pharmaceutical interventions to contain COVID-19 at the early stage. We aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on HIV care continuum in China. Methods: Aggregated data on HIV care continuum between 1 January 2017 and 31 December 2020 were collected from centers for disease control and prevention at different levels and major infectious disease hospitals in various regions in China. We used interrupted time series analysis to characterize temporal trend in weekly numbers of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) prescriptions, HIV tests, HIV diagnoses, median time intervals between HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation (time intervals, days), ART initiations, mean CD4+ T cell counts at ART initiation (CD4 counts, cells/µL), ART collections, and missed visits for ART collection, before and after the implementation of massive NPIs (23 January to 7 April 2020). We used Poisson segmented regression models to estimate the immediate and long-term impact of NPIs on these outcomes. Findings: A total of 16,780 PEP prescriptions, 1,101,686 HIV tests, 69,659 HIV diagnoses, 63,409 time intervals and ART initiations, 61,518 CD4 counts, 1,528,802 ART collections, and 6656 missed visits were recorded during the study period. The majority of outcomes occurred in males (55·3-87·4%), 21-50 year olds (51·7-90·5%), Southwestern China (38·2-82·0%) and heterosexual transmission (47·9-66·1%). NPIs was associated with 71·5% decrease in PEP prescriptions (IRR 0·285; 95% CI 0·192-0·423), 36·1% decrease in HIV tests (0·639, 0·497-0·822), 32·0% decrease in HIV diagnoses (0·680, 0·511-0·904), 59·3% increase in time intervals (1·593, 1·270-1·997) and 17·4% decrease in CD4 counts (0·826, 0·746-0·915) in the first week during NPIs. There was no marked change in the number of ART initiations, ART collections and missed visits during the NPIs. By the end of 2020, the number of HIV tests, HIV diagnoses, time intervals, ART initiations, and CD4 counts reached expected levels, but the number of PEP prescriptions (0·523, 0·394-0·696), ART collections (0·720, 0·595-0·872), and missed visits (0·137, 0·086-0·220) were still below expected levels. With the ease of restrictions, PEP prescriptions (slope change 1·024/week, 1·012-1·037), HIV tests (1·016/week, 1·008-1·026), and CD4 counts (1·005/week, 1·001-1·009) showed a significant increasing trend. Interpretation: HIV care continuum in China was affected by the COVID-19 NPIs at various levels. Preparedness and efforts to maintain the HIV care continuum during public health emergencies should leverage collaborations between stakeholders. Funding: Natural Science Foundation of China.

2.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 90(4): 408-417, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of the COVID-19 epidemic on HIV self-testing (HIVST) remains unclear. We aimed to quantify the impact of COVID restrictions on HIVST kit purchasing behaviors in mainland China. METHODS: Deidentified transaction data were retrieved from a large online shopping platform. An interrupted time series model was constructed to examine the impact of COVID restrictions on the weekly number of anonymous customers purchasing HIVST kits, online orders, and purchased kits. RESULTS: A total of 2.32 million individuals submitted 4.46 million orders for 4.84 million HIVST kits between January 7, 2016, and April 22, 2020. Compared with expected levels, assuming COVID-19 epidemic and related restrictions had not happened, the number of purchasers, orders, and kits decreased by an estimated 10,500 (51.7%), 18,000 (55.3%), and 18,500 (54.9%) in the first week (January 23, 2020, to January 29, 2020) after COVID restrictions were implemented, respectively. As restrictions eased, the number of purchasers, orders, and kits increased by an average of 7.4%, 4.8%, and 4.9% per week, respectively. In the first week after COVID restrictions were lifted (April 9, 2020, to April 15, 2020), the number of purchasers returned to expected levels, whereas the number of orders and kits were still lower than expected levels. The impact of COVID restrictions on outcomes at the beginning of COVID restrictions and the increasing trends of outcomes were larger among those living in regions with higher COVID-19 incidence (eg, Wuhan city and Hubei province). CONCLUSIONS: Online sales of HIVST kits were significantly impacted by COVID restrictions, and HIVST kit purchasing patterns returned to expected levels after restrictions were lifted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Commerce , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Testing , Humans , Mass Screening , Self-Testing
3.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(12): 4964-4970, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565873

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to ravage the world. People living with HIV (PLHIV) are one of the most vulnerable groups. This study aims to identify the factors associated with the uptake and adverse reactions of COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: We recruited PLHIV in China by convenience sampling between 7 and 23 February 2021. Participants were asked to complete an online questionnaire. Chi-squared test and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess factors associated with vaccine uptake. RESULTS: A total of 527 vaccinated and 1091 unvaccinated PLHIV were recruited. Individuals who had a higher education, engaged in occupations with a higher risk of COVID-19 infection, received influenza or pneumonia vaccine in the past 3 years (5.40, 3.36-8.77), believed in the effectiveness of vaccines (3.01, 2.20-4.12), and received media information regarding COVID-19 vaccine (2.23, 1.61-3.11), were more likely to be vaccinated. Concerning about adverse reactions (0.31, 0.22-0.44), negative impact on the progression of HIV/AIDS (0.36, 0.26-0.50) or antiretroviral therapy (ART) (0.61, 0.44-0.85), disclosure of HIV infection status (0.69, 0.49-0.96), comorbidities (0.33, 0.22-0.47), being unmarried (0.43, 0.28-0.66) and older age were negatively associated with vaccination. Of the 527 vaccinated PLHIV, 155 (29.4%) PLHIV reported adverse reactions, with pain at the injection site being the most common (18.2%). CONCLUSIONS: PLHIV, who are concerned about adverse reactions, negative impact on ART outcome and disclosure of HIV infection status, were less likely to adopt COVID-19 vaccination. To increase vaccination coverage among PLHIV, health-care professionals should emphasize the benefits and necessity of vaccination and provide consultancy regarding adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Influenza Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e23853, 2020 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel COVID-19 disease has spread worldwide, resulting in a new pandemic. The Chinese government implemented strong intervention measures in the early stage of the epidemic, including strict travel bans and social distancing policies. Prioritizing the analysis of different contributing factors to outbreak outcomes is important for the precise prevention and control of infectious diseases. We proposed a novel framework for resolving this issue and applied it to data from China. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to systematically identify national-level and city-level contributing factors to the control of COVID-19 in China. METHODS: Daily COVID-19 case data and related multidimensional data, including travel-related, medical, socioeconomic, environmental, and influenza-like illness factors, from 343 cities in China were collected. A correlation analysis and interpretable machine learning algorithm were used to evaluate the quantitative contribution of factors to new cases and COVID-19 growth rates during the epidemic period (ie, January 17 to February 29, 2020). RESULTS: Many factors correlated with the spread of COVID-19 in China. Travel-related population movement was the main contributing factor for new cases and COVID-19 growth rates in China, and its contributions were as high as 77% and 41%, respectively. There was a clear lag effect for travel-related factors (previous vs current week: new cases, 45% vs 32%; COVID-19 growth rates, 21% vs 20%). Travel from non-Wuhan regions was the single factor with the most significant impact on COVID-19 growth rates (contribution: new cases, 12%; COVID-19 growth rate, 26%), and its contribution could not be ignored. City flow, a measure of outbreak control strength, contributed 16% and 7% to new cases and COVID-19 growth rates, respectively. Socioeconomic factors also played important roles in COVID-19 growth rates in China (contribution, 28%). Other factors, including medical, environmental, and influenza-like illness factors, also contributed to new cases and COVID-19 growth rates in China. Based on our analysis of individual cities, compared to Beijing, population flow from Wuhan and internal flow within Wenzhou were driving factors for increasing the number of new cases in Wenzhou. For Chongqing, the main contributing factor for new cases was population flow from Hubei, beyond Wuhan. The high COVID-19 growth rates in Wenzhou were driven by population-related factors. CONCLUSIONS: Many factors contributed to the COVID-19 outbreak outcomes in China. The differential effects of various factors, including specific city-level factors, emphasize the importance of precise, targeted strategies for controlling the COVID-19 outbreak and future infectious disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , China/epidemiology , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans
5.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(11): e25637, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-897817

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Social disruption associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) threatens to impede access to regular healthcare, including for people living with HIV (PLHIV), potentially resulting in antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption (ATI). We aimed to explore the characteristics and factors associated with ATI during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. METHODS: We conducted an online survey among PLHIV by convenience sampling through social media between 5 and 17 February 2020. Respondents were asked to report whether they were at risk of ATI (i.e. experienced ATI, risk of imminent ATI, threatened but resolved risk of ATI [obtaining ART prior to interruption]) or were not at risk of ATI associated with the COVID-19 outbreak. PLHIV were also asked to report perceived risk factors for ATI and sources of additional ART. The factors associated with the risk of ATI were assessed using logistic regression. We also evaluated the factors associated with experienced ATI. RESULTS: A total of 5084 PLHIV from 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in mainland China completed the survey, with valid response rate of 99.4%. The median age was 31 years (IQR 27 to 37), 96.5% of participants were men, and 71.3% were men who had sex with men. Over one-third (35.1%, 1782/5084) reported any risk of ATI during the COVID-19 outbreak, including 2.7% (135/5084) who experienced ATI, 18.0% (917/5084) at risk of imminent ATI and 14.4% (730/5084) at threatened but resolved risk. PLHIV with ATI were more likely to have previous interruptions in ART (aOR 8.3, 95% CI 5.6 to 12.3), travelled away from where they typically receive HIV care (aOR 3.0, 95% CI 2.1 to 4.5), stayed in an area that implemented citywide lockdowns or travel restrictions to control COVID-19 (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.6), and be in permanent residence in a rural area (aOR 3.7, 95% CI 2.3 to 5.8). CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of PLHIV in China are at risk of ATI during the COVID-19 outbreak and some have already experienced ATI. Correlates of ATI and self-reported barriers to ART suggest that social disruptions from COVID-19 have contributed to ATI. Our findings demonstrate an urgent need for policies and interventions to maintain access to HIV care during public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/supply & distribution , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Continuity of Patient Care , HIV Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Rural Population , Surveys and Questionnaires , Travel
6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 321, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-633920

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and quickly spread throughout China and the rest of the world. Many mathematical models have been developed to understand and predict the infectiousness of COVID-19. We aim to summarize these models to inform efforts to manage the current outbreak. Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of science, EMBASE, bioRxiv, medRxiv, arXiv, Preprints, and National Knowledge Infrastructure (Chinese database) for relevant studies published between 1 December 2019 and 21 February 2020. References were screened for additional publications. Crucial indicators were extracted and analysed. We also built a mathematical model for the evolution of the epidemic in Wuhan that synthesised extracted indicators. Results: Fifty-two articles involving 75 mathematical or statistical models were included in our systematic review. The overall median basic reproduction number (R0) was 3.77 [interquartile range (IQR) 2.78-5.13], which dropped to a controlled reproduction number (Rc) of 1.88 (IQR 1.41-2.24) after city lockdown. The median incubation and infectious periods were 5.90 (IQR 4.78-6.25) and 9.94 (IQR 3.93-13.50) days, respectively. The median case-fatality rate (CFR) was 2.9% (IQR 2.3-5.4%). Our mathematical model showed that, in Wuhan, the peak time of infection is likely to be March 2020 with a median size of 98,333 infected cases (range 55,225-188,284). The earliest elimination of ongoing transmission is likely to be achieved around 7 May 2020. Conclusions: Our analysis found a sustained Rc and prolonged incubation/ infectious periods, suggesting COVID-19 is highly infectious. Although interventions in China have been effective in controlling secondary transmission, sustained global efforts are needed to contain an emerging pandemic. Alternative interventions can be explored using modelling studies to better inform policymaking as the outbreak continues.

7.
J Infect ; 80(6): 656-665, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47365

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To better inform efforts to treat and control the current outbreak with a comprehensive characterization of COVID-19. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and CNKI (Chinese Database) for studies published as of March 2, 2020, and we searched references of identified articles. Studies were reviewed for methodological quality. A random-effects model was used to pool results. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's test. RESULTS: 43 studies involving 3600 patients were included. Among COVID-19 patients, fever (83.3% [95% CI 78.4-87.7]), cough (60.3% [54.2-66.3]), and fatigue (38.0% [29.8-46.5]) were the most common clinical symptoms. The most common laboratory abnormalities were elevated C-reactive protein (68.6% [58.2-78.2]), decreased lymphocyte count (57.4% [44.8-69.5]) and increased lactate dehydrogenase (51.6% [31.4-71.6]). Ground-glass opacities (80.0% [67.3-90.4]) and bilateral pneumonia (73.2% [63.4-82.1]) were the most frequently reported findings on computed tomography. The overall estimated proportion of severe cases and case-fatality rate (CFR) was 25.6% (17.4-34.9) and 3.6% (1.1-7.2), respectively. CFR and laboratory abnormalities were higher in severe cases, patients from Wuhan, and older patients, but CFR did not differ by gender. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of COVID-19 cases are symptomatic with a moderate CFR. Patients living in Wuhan, older patients, and those with medical comorbidities tend to have more severe clinical symptoms and higher CFR.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Factors
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