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Eur Phys J B ; 96(2): 15, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237282


Abstract: Multiplex networks frame the heterogeneous nature of real systems, where the multiple roles of nodes, both functionally and structurally, are well represented. We identify these vital nodes in a multiplex network so that we can control a pandemic outbreak like COVID-19, eliminate damage from a network attack, maintain traffic, and so on. Vital node identification has attracted scientists in various fields for decades. In this paper, we propose a hybrid supra-cycle number and hybrid supra-cycle ratio based on the cycle structure, and present an extensive experimental analysis by comparing our indexes and several different indexes in four real multiplex networks on layer nodes and multiplex nodes. The experimental results show that these proposed indexes have good robustness, synchronization, and transmission dynamics. Finally, we provide an in-depth understanding of multiplex networks and cycle structure, and we sincerely hope more valuable academic achievements are proposed in the future.

JAMA Psychiatry ; 80(3): 211-219, 2023 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2208847


Importance: Concerns have been raised that the use of antipsychotic medication for people living with dementia might have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: To examine multinational trends in antipsychotic drug prescribing for people living with dementia before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multinational network cohort study used electronic health records and claims data from 8 databases in 6 countries (France, Germany, Italy, South Korea, the UK, and the US) for individuals aged 65 years or older between January 1, 2016, and November 30, 2021. Two databases each were included for South Korea and the US. Exposures: The introduction of population-wide COVID-19 restrictions from April 2020 to the latest available date of each database. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were yearly and monthly incidence of dementia diagnosis and prevalence of people living with dementia who were prescribed antipsychotic drugs in each database. Interrupted time series analyses were used to quantify changes in prescribing rates before and after the introduction of population-wide COVID-19 restrictions. Results: A total of 857 238 people with dementia aged 65 years or older (58.0% female) were identified in 2016. Reductions in the incidence of dementia were observed in 7 databases in the early phase of the pandemic (April, May, and June 2020), with the most pronounced reduction observed in 1 of the 2 US databases (rate ratio [RR], 0.30; 95% CI, 0.27-0.32); reductions were also observed in the total number of people with dementia prescribed antipsychotic drugs in France, Italy, South Korea, the UK, and the US. Rates of antipsychotic drug prescribing for people with dementia increased in 6 databases representing all countries. Compared with the corresponding month in 2019, the most pronounced increase in 2020 was observed in May in South Korea (Kangwon National University database) (RR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.47-3.02) and June in the UK (RR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.24-3.09). The rates of antipsychotic drug prescribing in these 6 databases remained high in 2021. Interrupted time series analyses revealed immediate increases in the prescribing rate in Italy (RR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08-1.58) and in the US Medicare database (RR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.20-1.71) after the introduction of COVID-19 restrictions. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found converging evidence that the rate of antipsychotic drug prescribing to people with dementia increased in the initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic in the 6 countries studied and did not decrease to prepandemic levels after the acute phase of the pandemic had ended. These findings suggest that the pandemic disrupted the care of people living with dementia and that the development of intervention strategies is needed to ensure the quality of care.

Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , Humans , Female , United States , Male , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Cohort Studies , Medicare , Reflex
Nat Microbiol ; 7(8): 1259-1269, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972611


Pangolins are the most trafficked wild animal in the world according to the World Wildlife Fund. The discovery of SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolins has piqued interest in the viromes of these wild, scaly-skinned mammals. We sequenced the viromes of 161 pangolins that were smuggled into China and assembled 28 vertebrate-associated viruses, 21 of which have not been previously reported in vertebrates. We named 16 members of Hunnivirus, Pestivirus and Copiparvovirus pangolin-associated viruses. We report that the L-protein has been lost from all hunniviruses identified in pangolins. Sequences of four human-associated viruses were detected in pangolin viromes, including respiratory syncytial virus, Orthopneumovirus, Rotavirus A and Mammalian orthoreovirus. The genomic sequences of five mammal-associated and three tick-associated viruses were also present. Notably, a coronavirus related to HKU4-CoV, which was originally found in bats, was identified. The presence of these viruses in smuggled pangolins identifies these mammals as a potential source of emergent pathogenic viruses.

COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Animals , Humans , Mammals , Pangolins , SARS-CoV-2/genetics