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1.
Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology - TOJET ; 22(1):80-98, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20238687

ABSTRACT

Qualitative content analysis is used in this study to review related online education since the outbreak of COVID-19. The aim of this study was to summarize the impact of online teaching on the education industry during the pandemic, sum up the viewpoints of all kinds of people to draw conclusions, and conclude the practical countermeasures. Based on the result of the analysis, firstly, we think that students and teachers are satisfied with online education, but parents have expressed dissatisfaction with this kind of education. Secondly, this paper lists the advantages and common problems of online teaching during study at home from different aspects. According to deficits, we summarize the solutions from three aspects: network equipment, teaching, and self-adjustment. This research is of great significance. It is not only beneficial to the development of educational platforms and personalized teaching but also helps formulate education policy to reduce the burden of education.

2.
mBio ; 14(2): e0328522, 2023 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246542

ABSTRACT

In the last 2 decades, pathogens originating in animals may have triggered three coronavirus pandemics, including the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Thus, evaluation of the spillover risk of animal severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV) is important in the context of future disease preparedness. However, there is no analytical framework to assess the spillover risk of SARSr-CoVs, which cannot be determined by sequence analysis alone. Here, we established an integrity framework to evaluate the spillover risk of an animal SARSr-CoV by testing how viruses break through key human immune barriers, including viral cell tropism, replication dynamics, interferon signaling, inflammation, and adaptive immune barriers, using human ex vivo lung tissues, human airway and nasal organoids, and human lung cells. Using this framework, we showed that the two pre-emergent animal SARSr-CoVs, bat BtCoV-WIV1 and pangolin PCoV-GX, shared similar cell tropism but exhibited less replicative fitness in the human nasal cavity or airway than did SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, these viruses triggered fewer proinflammatory responses and less cell death, yet showed interferon antagonist activity and the ability to partially escape adaptive immune barriers to SARS-CoV-2. Collectively, these animal viruses did not fully adapt to spread or cause severe diseases, thus causing successful zoonoses in humans. We believe that this experimental framework provides a path to identifying animal coronaviruses with the potential to cause future zoonoses. IMPORTANCE Evaluation of the zoonotic risk of animal SARSr-CoVs is important for future disease preparedness. However, there are misconceptions regarding the risk of animal viruses. For example, an animal SARSr-CoV could readily infect humans. Alternately, human receptor usage may result in spillover risk. Here, we established an analytical framework to assess the zoonotic risk of SARSr-CoV by testing a series of virus-host interaction profiles. Our data showed that the pre-emergent bat BtCoV-WIV1 and pangolin PCoV-GX were less adapted to humans than SARS-CoV-2 was, suggesting that it may be extremely rare for animal SARSr-CoVs to break all bottlenecks and cause successful zoonoses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Animals , Humans , Pangolins , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses , Interferons , Phylogeny
3.
J Transl Int Med ; 10(3): 207-218, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229926

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has brought severe challenges to global public health. Many studies have shown that obesity plays a vital role in the occurrence and development of COVID-19. Obesity exacerbates COVID-19, leading to increased intensive care unit hospitalization rate, high demand for invasive mechanical ventilation, and high mortality. The mechanisms of interaction between obesity and COVID-19 involve inflammation, immune response, changes in pulmonary dynamics, disruptions of receptor ligands, and dysfunction of endothelial cells. Therefore, for obese patients with COVID-19, the degree of obesity and related comorbidities should be evaluated. Treatment methods such as administration of anticoagulants and anti-inflammatory drugs like glucocorticoids and airway management should be actively initiated. We should also pay attention to long-term prognosis and vaccine immunity and actively address the physical and psychological problems caused by longterm staying-at-home during the pandemic. The present study summarized the research to investigate the role of obesity in the incidence and progression of COVID-19 and the psychosocial impact and treatment options for obese patients with COVID-19, to guide the understanding and management of the disease.

4.
TOJET : The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology ; 22(1), 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2168892

ABSTRACT

Qualitative content analysis is used in this study to review related online education since the outbreak of COVID-19. The aim of this study was to summarize the impact of online teaching on the education industry during the pandemic, sum up the viewpoints of all kinds of people to draw conclusions, and conclude the practical countermeasures. Based on the result of the analysis, firstly, we think that students and teachers are satisfied with online education, but parents have expressed dissatisfaction with this kind of education. Secondly, this paper lists the advantages and common problems of online teaching during study at home from different aspects. According to deficits, we summarize the solutions from three aspects: network equipment, teaching, and self-adjustment. This research is of great significance. It is not only beneficial to the development of educational platforms and personalized teaching but also helps formulate education policy to reduce the burden of education.

5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 96: 107773, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237729

ABSTRACT

To date, drugs to attenuate cytokine storm in severe cases of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are not available. In this study, we investigated the effects of intragastric and atomized administration of canagliflozin (CAN) on cytokine storm in lung tissues of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced mice. Results showed that intragastric administration of CAN significantly and widely inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines in lung tissues of LPS-induced sepsis mice. Simultaneously, intragastric administration of CAN significantly improved inflammatory pathological changes of lung tissues. Atomized administration of CAN also exhibited similar effects in LPS-induced sepsis mice. Furthermore, CAN significantly inhibited hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and phosphofructokinase-2/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) protein levels in LPS-treated lung tissues. These results indicated that CAN might attenuate cytokine storm and reduce the inflammatory symptoms in critical cases in COVID-19. Its action mechanism might involve the regulation of HIF-1α and glycolysis in vivo. However, further studies about clinical application and mechanism analysis should be validated in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Canagliflozin/pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Animals , Cytokine Release Syndrome/chemically induced , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Male , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/chemically induced
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