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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2099-2108, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To illustrate the extent of transmission, identify affecting risk factors and estimate epidemiological modeling parameters of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in household setting. METHODS: We enrolled 35 confirmed index cases and their 148 household contacts, January 2020-February 2020, in Zhuhai, China. All participants were interviewed and asked to complete questionnaires. Household contacts were then prospectively followed active symptom monitoring through the 21-day period and nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal swabs were collected at 3-7 days intervals. Epidemiological, demographic, and clinical data (when available) were collected. RESULTS: Assuming that all these secondary cases were infected by their index cases, the second infection rate in household context is 32.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22.4%-44.4%), with 10.4% of secondary cases being asymptomatic. Multivariate analysis showed that household contacts with underlying medical conditions, a history of direct exposure to Wuhan and its surrounding areas, and shared vehicle with an index patient were associated with higher susceptibility. Household members without protective measures after illness onset of the index patient seem to increase the risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The median incubation period and serial interval within household were estimated to be 4.3 days (95% CI: 3.4-5.3 days) and 5.1 days (95% CI: 4.3-6.2 days), respectively. CONCLUSION: Early isolation of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and prioritizing rapid contact investigation, followed by active symptom monitoring and periodic laboratory evaluation, should be initiated immediately after confirming patients to address the underlying determinants driving the continuing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , China/epidemiology , Confidence Intervals , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Young Adult
2.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 54(2): 421-428, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury has been found using magnetic resonance imaging in recovered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients unselected or with ongoing cardiac symptoms. PURPOSE: To evaluate for the presence of myocardial involvement in recovered COVID-19 patients without cardiovascular symptoms and abnormal serologic markers during hospitalization. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. POPULATION: Twenty-one recovered COVID-19 patients and 20 healthy controls (HC). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3.0 T, cine, T2-weighted imaging, T1 mapping, and T2 mapping. ASSESSMENT: Cardiac ventricular function includes end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume, cardiac output, left ventricle (LV) mass, and ejection fraction (EF) of LV and right ventricle (RV), and segmental myocardial T1 and T2 values were measured. STATISTICAL TESTS: Student's t-test, univariate general linear model test, and chi-square test were used for analyses between two groups. Ordinary one-way analyses of variance or Kruskal-Wallis H test were used for analyses between three groups, followed by post-hoc analyses. RESULTS: Fifteen (71.43%) COVID-19 patients had abnormal magnetic resonance findings, including raised myocardial native T1 (5, 23.81%) and T2 values (10, 47.62%), decreased LVEF (1, 4.76%), and RVEF (2, 9.52%). The segmental myocardial T2 value of COVID-19 patients (49.20 [46.1, 54.6] msec) was significantly higher than HC (48.3 [45.2, 51.7] msec) (P < 0.001), while the myocardial native T1 value showed no significant difference between COVID-19 patients and HC. The myocardial T2 value of serious COVID-19 patients (52.5 [48.1, 57.1] msec) was significantly higher than unserious COVID-19 patients (48.8 [45.9, 53.8] msec) and HC (48.3 [45.2, 51.7]) (P < 0.001). COVID-19 patients with abnormally elevated D-dimer, C-reactive protein, or lymphopenia showed higher myocardial T2 values than without (all P < 0.05). DATA CONCLUSION: Cardiac involvement was observed in recovered COVID-19 patients with no preexisting cardiovascular disease, no cardiovascular symptoms, and elevated serologic markers of myocardial injury during the whole course of COVID-19. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 5.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Myocardium , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
3.
Cardiovasc Diagn Ther ; 10(5): 1303-1312, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has already became a public health emergency of international concern. COVID-19 related cardiac injury remains largely unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed demographic, clinical, laboratory and cardiovascular imaging data of all consecutively admitted adult COVID-19 patients in Zhuhai, China from January 17th, 2020 to February 18th, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 93 patients were included in the study. Acute cardiac injury was found in 9 (9.7%) COVID-19 patients with median level of hypersensitive cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) to be 0.085 µg/L (IQR 0.027-0.560 µg/L). Compared with patients without cardiac injury, the median age of patients with cardiac injury was significantly older (65.0 vs. 44.0, P<0.05), hypertension was significantly more common (44.4% vs. 14.3%, P<0.05), and the proportion of severe-critical cases were greater (77.8% vs. 17.9%, P<0.05). Patients with cardiac injury were more likely have elevation of N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) in comparison (66.7% vs. 10.0%, P<0.05). There was no significant difference in echocardiographic parameters between patients with and without cardiac injury. Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that older age (OR: 1.093, 95% CI: 1.011-1.182) and increased NT-proBNP (OR: 10.979, 95% CI: 2.024-59.555) were independent risk factors for cardiac injury. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging performed on three patients at around one month after they underwent significant hs-cTnI elevation showed that they had underlying cardiovascular comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Acute cardiac injury was seen in the minority of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Zhuhai, China. Older age and increased NT-proBNP were associated with acute cardiac injury. REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR2000030952.

4.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-632

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus COVID-19 has spread globally and caused a pneumonia outbreak. Although the whole genome sequences of COVID-19 have been rapidly obtained, pa

5.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 163, 2020 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617310

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the influence of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) on lung function in early convalescence phase. METHODS: A retrospective study of COVID-19 patients at the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were conducted, with serial assessments including lung volumes (TLC), spirometry (FVC, FEV1), lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO),respiratory muscle strength, 6-min walking distance (6MWD) and high resolution CT being collected at 30 days after discharged. RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients completed the serial assessments. There were 40 non-severe cases and 17 severe cases. Thirty-one patients (54.3%) had abnormal CT findings. Abnormalities were detected in the pulmonary function tests in 43 (75.4%) of the patients. Six (10.5%), 5(8.7%), 25(43.8%) 7(12.3%), and 30 (52.6%) patients had FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, TLC, and DLCO values less than 80% of predicted values, respectively. 28 (49.1%) and 13 (22.8%) patients had PImax and PEmax values less than 80% of the corresponding predicted values. Compared with non-severe cases, severe patients showed higher incidence of DLCO impairment (75.6%vs42.5%, p = 0.019), higher lung total severity score (TSS) and R20, and significantly lower percentage of predicted TLC and 6MWD. No significant correlation between TSS and pulmonary function parameters was found during follow-up visit. CONCLUSION: Impaired diffusing-capacity, lower respiratory muscle strength, and lung imaging abnormalities were detected in more than half of the COVID-19 patients in early convalescence phase. Compared with non-severe cases, severe patients had a higher incidence of DLCO impairment and encountered more TLC decrease and 6MWD decline.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Muscles/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Chi-Square Distribution , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Convalescence , Exercise Test , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle Strength , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Respiratory Function Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Spirometry/methods , Tertiary Care Centers , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Vital Capacity/physiology
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