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2.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(5): 577-587, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830043

ABSTRACT

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) can capture and kill viruses, such as influenza viruses, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), thus contributing to host defense. Contrary to our expectation, we show here that the histones released by NETosis enhance the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2, as found by using live SARS-CoV-2 and two pseudovirus systems as well as a mouse model. The histone H3 or H4 selectively binds to subunit 2 of the spike (S) protein, as shown by a biochemical binding assay, surface plasmon resonance and binding energy calculation as well as the construction of a mutant S protein by replacing four acidic amino acids. Sialic acid on the host cell surface is the key molecule to which histones bridge subunit 2 of the S protein. Moreover, histones enhance cell-cell fusion. Finally, treatment with an inhibitor of NETosis, histone H3 or H4, or sialic acid notably affected the levels of sgRNA copies and the number of apoptotic cells in a mouse model. These findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 could hijack histones from neutrophil NETosis to promote its host cell attachment and entry process and may be important in exploring pathogenesis and possible strategies to develop new effective therapies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Histones , Mice , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid , Protein Subunits/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Virus Internalization
3.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 692828, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785388

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication among patients with the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). COVID-19 along with AKI usually resulted in a poor prognosis for those affected. Remdesivir is a novel antiviral drug that was urgently approved for the treatment of COVID-19. In the current study, safety data of remdesivir were limited. We gathered information on COVID-19 cases in patients with adverse events that were reported to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database. We employed the reporting odds ratio (ROR) method to perform disproportionality analysis. Finally, we identified 12,869 COVID-19 cases. A total of 3,991 of these cases reported remdesivir as a primary suspected drug, while 8,878 cases were treated with other drugs. More AKI events occurred in cases of male patients and those above the age of 65 years. We detected a significant association between remdesivir and AKI: ROR = 2.81, 95% CI (2.48, 3.18). The association was stronger after the propensity score matching ROR = 3.85, 95% CI (3.11, 4.78). The mean time to AKI event onset was 4.91 ± 7.25 days in COVID-19 cases with remdesivir therapy. The fatality proportion was 36.45% in AKI cases with remdesivir treatment. This pharmacovigilance study identified a significant association between AKI events and remdesivir treatment in COVID-19 patients by mining FAERS real-world big data. Although causality was not confirmed, the association between remdesivir and AKI should not be ignored, especially in the older, male COVID-19 inpatients.

4.
Security and Communication Networks ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1784923

ABSTRACT

With the development of telecommunication systems and customized monitoring devices, telehealth has been widely used to improve medical quality and reduce overall health costs. However, the convenience of connection between the providers and patients through a public channel also leads to significant security and privacy concerns. Though there have been many authentication schemes designed for secure communications in telecare systems, most of them suffer from malicious attacks or have heavy computation and communication costs. Thus, in this article, we proposed a blockchain-based user authentication scheme integrating with access control and physical unclonable function (PUF). Permissioned blockchain and PUF are used to support secure data sharing across the healthcare service providers and identify the devices, respectively. Security analysis shows that our protocol satisfies the security requirements for telehealth services and is provably secure in the random oracle model. The performance evaluation demonstrates that it has less computation and communication costs compared with three of the latest schemes.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313731

ABSTRACT

Background: Real-world evidence (RWE) of a vaccine supplements clinical trial data by providing information in populations differing from clinical trial populations, under different epidemiological situations, on alternative outcomes, or against different pathogen lineages. To date, RWE on inactivated COVID-19 vaccines against the highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant is limited, leaving an important gap in the evidence base of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines for use by immunization programs. Methods: Between May and June 2021, an outbreak of the B.1.617.2 variant was discovered and traced in Guangdong, China. Before this outbreak, Guangdong province had started mass vaccination using inactivated vaccines approved by China’s regulator for use in adults. Using surveillance and vaccination data from the outbreak, we assessed the real-world effectiveness of inactivated vaccines against pneumonia and severe illness caused by the B.1.617.2 variant. We enrolled 10813 subjects who were close contacts of laboratory-confirmed cases, categorizing them as an unvaccinated group, a partially vaccinated (1-dose) group, and a fully vaccinated (2-dose) group. We estimated relative risk (RR) and vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the vaccinated groups in relation to the unvaccinated group. Findings: Unadjusted and adjusted VE of full vaccination against pneumonia were 77·7% (95% CI 45·1–90·9) and 69·5% (95% CI 42·8–96·3), respectively. Full vaccination was 100% effective against severe illness. Unadjusted and adjusted VE of partial vaccination against pneumonia were 1·4% (95% CI -79·7–45·9) and 8·4% (95% CI -47·6–64·4). Interpretation Full vaccination with inactivated vaccines is effective against pneumonia, severe, and critical illness caused by the B.1.617.2 variant. Effort should be placed to ensure full vaccination of target populations. Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China and Key-Area Research and Development Program of Guangdong.Declaration of Interest: None to declare. Ethical Approval: This study was approved by the institutional ethics committee of the Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention (GDCDC). Data in the study were collected per administrative requirements of disease control and surveillance, and were anonymized for analysis. Participants were informed about the requirements of disease surveillance and provided oral consents.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310722

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, Wuhan witnessed the outbreak of an “unexplained pneumonia” caused by a novel coronavirus strain infection and was dubbed the COVID-19 by the WHO. The disease quickly spread to China. This study aimed to investigate the disease’s evolving epidemiological history, as well as analyze the clinical and CT imaging characteristics, treatment regimens, and patients’ prognosis. Methods: : This was a retrospective study whose cases were 64 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. The clinical data were obtained from patients who were admitted to the isolation ward from 21 January 2020 to 19 February 2020. Results: : 60 out of 64 patients had a definitive history of exposure to people who had traveled from Wuhan City. The median time from onset of symptoms to first hospital admission was 3.9±1.9 days. The initial symptoms included fever (46/64), dry cough (38/64), fatigue or myalgia (23/64), sore throat (10/64), diarrhea (3/64) along with late-onset symptoms like chest pains (2/64) and headaches (2/64). The majority of the patients (43/64) had normal white blood cell counts while 29.7 % (19/64) had leukopenia. Only two patients (3.1 %) presented with leukocytosis. 58 of the 64patients had abnormal radiological findings on chest CTs. The first chest CTs (within 2 days) was more sensitive in detecting COVID-19 infection (85.9 %) compared to the initial RT-PCR (56.3 %;p<0.01). The CTs showed lesions in multiple lung lobes in three-quarters of the patients while 15.6 % had lesions localized to one lobe. Most of the lesions were typically dense with ground-glass opacity co-existing with consolidation or cord-like shadows. Most of these patients (50/64) have recovered and got discharged giving a mean length of hospital stay of 13.5±4.8 days. Our hospital unit has not reported any COVID-19 related death so far. Conclusions: : Early intervention in COVID-19 disease improves patients’ prognosis. Our data demonstrate the superiority of early radiological tests ahead of RT-PCR. The initial and dynamic CT changes in COVID-19 patients along with other clinical data shared above can better guide clinical decision making.

7.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(4): 533-540, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677759

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Real-world evidence on inactivated COVID-19 vaccines against the highly transmissible B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2 is limited, leaving an important gap in the evidence base about inactivated COVID-19 vaccines for use by immunization programs. OBJECTIVE: To estimate inactivated vaccine effectiveness (VE) against the B.1.617.2 variant. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: The study was based on the first outbreak of the B.1.617.2 variant in mainland China that was discovered and traced in Guangdong in May and June 2021. PARTICIPANTS: 10 805 adult case patients with laboratory-confirmed infection and close contacts. MEASUREMENTS: Participants were categorized as unvaccinated, partially vaccinated (1 dose), and fully vaccinated (2 doses). We estimated VE against the primary outcome of pneumonia and the secondary outcomes of infections, symptomatic infections, and severe or critical illness associated with the B.1.617.2 variant. RESULTS: Results are reported in the order of outcome severity. Of 10 805 participants, 1.3% contracted infections, 1.2% developed symptomatic infections, 1.1% had pneumonia, and 0.2% had severe or critical illness. The adjusted VEs of full vaccination were 51.8% (95% CI, 20.3% to 83.2%) against infection, 60.4% (CI, 31.8% to 88.9%) against symptomatic infection, and 78.4% (CI, 56.9% to 99.9%) against pneumonia. Also, full vaccination was 100% (CI, 98.4% to 100.0%) effective against severe or critical illness. By contrast, the adjusted VEs of partial vaccination against infection, symptomatic infection, and pneumonia were 10.7% (CI, -41.2% to 62.6%), 6.8% (CI, -47.4% to 61.0%), and 11.6% (CI, -42.6% to 65.8%), respectively. LIMITATION: Observational study with possible unmeasured confounders; insufficient data to do reliable subgroup analyses by age and vaccine brand. CONCLUSION: Full vaccination with inactivated vaccines is effective against the B.1.617.2 variant. Effort should be made to ensure full vaccination of target populations. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Natural Science Foundation of China and Key-Area Research and Development Program of Guangdong Province.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Inactivated
8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 460, 2022 01 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1651070

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant has spread rapidly worldwide. To provide data on its virological profile, we here report the first local transmission of Delta in mainland China. All 167 infections could be traced back to the first index case. Daily sequential PCR testing of quarantined individuals indicated that the viral loads of Delta infections, when they first become PCR-positive, were on average ~1000 times greater compared to lineage A/B infections during the first epidemic wave in China in early 2020, suggesting potentially faster viral replication and greater infectiousness of Delta during early infection. The estimated transmission bottleneck size of the Delta variant was generally narrow, with 1-3 virions in 29 donor-recipient transmission pairs. However, the transmission of minor iSNVs resulted in at least 3 of the 34 substitutions that were identified in the outbreak, highlighting the contribution of intra-host variants to population-level viral diversity during rapid spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , RNA-Seq/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Time Factors , Vero Cells , Viral Load/genetics , Viral Load/physiology , Virus Replication/genetics , Virus Replication/physiology , Virus Shedding/genetics , Virus Shedding/physiology
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 778340, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595542

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread worldwide, and the WHO declared it a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Clinical characteristics and epidemiology features of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 have been explored in the previous study. However, little is known about the combinative association of liver dysfunction and abnormal interleukins (ILs) in severe patients with COVID-19. This study was designed to estimate whether liver dysfunction and abnormal ILs could predict the severity of COVID-19. This study integrated liver function data and ILs data in patients with COVID-19 and found that liver injury and two ILs, interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), were closely related to the prognosis of patients with COVID-19. This study may give more exact information to clinicians about the prognosis of patients with COVID-19. In addition, this correlational study between liver disorder and ILs may provide a new vision to diagnosis and treatment in patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-6 , Liver/pathology , Receptors, Interleukin-2/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Pandemics
10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296428

ABSTRACT

Background: The pathological features of severe cardiac injury induced by COVID-19 and relevant clinical features is unknown.<br><br>Methods: This autopsy cohort study, including hearts from 26 deceased patients hospitalized in intensive care unit due to COVID-19, was conducted at four sites in Wuhan, China. Cases were divided into neutrophil-infiltration group and no-neutrophil group according to histopathological identification of neutrophilic infiltrates or not.<br><br>Findings: Among 26 cases, four cases had active myocarditis with histopathological examination. All cases with myocarditis accompanied with extensive neutrophil infiltration, while cases without myocarditis did not. Detection rates of interleukin-6 (100% vs 4.6%) and tumor necrosis factor-α (100% vs 31.8%) in neutrophil-infiltration group were significantly higher compared to no-neutrophil group (p<0.05 for both). At admission, patients with neutrophil infiltration in myocardium had significantly higher baseline values of aspartate aminotransferase, D dimer and high-sensitivity C reactive protein compared to other 22 patients (p<0.05 for all). During hospitalization, patients with neutrophil infiltration had a significantly higher maximum of creatine kinase (CK)-MB (median 280.0 vs 38.7IU/L, p=0.04), and a quantitatively higher top Troponin I (median 1.112 vs 0.220ng/ml, p=0.56) than patients without neutrophil infiltration.<br><br>Interpretation: In hearts from deceased patients with severe COVID-19 , active myocarditis was commonly infiltrated with neutrophils. Cases with neutrophil-infiltrated myocarditis had a series of severe abnormal laboratory tests at admission, and a high maximum of CK-MB during hospitalization. Role of neutrophil on severe heart injury and even systemic condition in COVID-19 should be emphasized.<br><br>Funding Information: : Emergency Key Program of Guangzhou Laboratory, Grant No. EKPG21-32. <br><br>Declaration of Interests: None exist.<br><br>Ethics Approval Statement: Full autopsy was performed after patient death with the approval of the ethics committees and written consent of patient relatives in accordance with regulations issued by the National Health Commission of China and the Helsinki Declaration.

11.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295289

ABSTRACT

Summary We report the first local transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant in mainland China. All 167 infections could be traced back to the first index case. Daily sequential PCR testing of the quarantined subjects indicated that the viral loads of Delta infections, when they first become PCR+, were on average ∼1000 times greater compared to A/B lineage infections during initial epidemic wave in China in early 2020, suggesting potentially faster viral replication and greater infectiousness of Delta during early infection. We performed high-quality sequencing on samples from 126 individuals. Reliable epidemiological data meant that, for 111 transmission events, the donor and recipient cases were known. The estimated transmission bottleneck size was 1-3 virions with most minor intra-host single nucleotide variants (iSNVs) failing to transmit to the recipients. However, transmission heterogeneity of SARS-CoV-2 was also observed. The transmission of minor iSNVs resulted in at least 4 of the 30 substitutions identified in the outbreak, highlighting the contribution of intra-host variants to population level viral diversity during rapid spread. Disease control activities, such as the frequency of population testing, quarantine during pre-symptomatic infection, and level of virus genomic surveillance should be adjusted in order to account for the increasing prevalence of the Delta variant worldwide.

12.
Cell Res ; 32(1): 24-37, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537308

ABSTRACT

Host cellular receptors play key roles in the determination of virus tropism and pathogenesis. However, little is known about SARS-CoV-2 host receptors with the exception of ACE2. Furthermore, ACE2 alone cannot explain the multi-organ tropism of SARS-CoV-2 nor the clinical differences between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, suggesting the involvement of other receptor(s). Here, we performed genomic receptor profiling to screen 5054 human membrane proteins individually for interaction with the SARS-CoV-2 capsid spike (S) protein. Twelve proteins, including ACE2, ASGR1, and KREMEN1, were identified with diverse S-binding affinities and patterns. ASGR1 or KREMEN1 is sufficient for the entry of SARS-CoV-2 but not SARS-CoV in vitro and in vivo. SARS-CoV-2 utilizes distinct ACE2/ASGR1/KREMEN1 (ASK) receptor combinations to enter different cell types, and the expression of ASK together displays a markedly stronger correlation with virus susceptibility than that of any individual receptor at both the cell and tissue levels. The cocktail of ASK-related neutralizing antibodies provides the most substantial blockage of SARS-CoV-2 infection in human lung organoids when compared to individual antibodies. Our study revealed an interacting host receptome of SARS-CoV-2, and identified ASGR1 and KREMEN1 as alternative functional receptors that play essential roles in ACE2-independent virus entry, providing insight into SARS-CoV-2 tropism and pathogenesis, as well as a community resource and potential therapeutic strategies for further COVID-19 investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Asialoglycoprotein Receptor , Humans , Membrane Proteins , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
13.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(11): 1546-1555, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376276

ABSTRACT

Objective: The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) threatens a surging number of community groups within society, including women actively breastfeeding. Breastfeeding involves intimate behaviors, a major transmission route of SARS-CoV-2, and is integral to the close mother-baby relationship highly correlated with maternal psychological status. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three pregnant women and puerperae with either confirmed or suspected diagnoses of COVID-19 were enrolled in the study. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of the mothers and neonates were recorded. The presence of SARS-CoV-2, IgG, and IgM in breast milk, maternal blood, and infant blood, together with feeding patterns, was assessed within 1 month after delivery. Feeding patterns and maternal psychological status were also recorded in the second follow-up. Results: No positive detection of SARS-CoV-2 was found in neonates. All breast milk samples were negative for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. The presence of IgM for SARS-CoV-2 in breast milk was correlated with IgM presence in the maternal blood. The results of IgG detection for SARS-CoV-2 were negative in all breast milk samples. All infants were in a healthy condition in two follow-ups, and antibody tests for SARS-CoV-2 were negative. The rate of breast milk feeding increased during two follow-ups. All mothers receiving a second follow-up experienced negative psychological factors and status. Conclusions: Our findings support the feasibility of breastfeeding in women infected with SARS-CoV-2. The additional negative psychological status of mothers due to COVID-19 should also be considered during the puerperium period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Breast Feeding , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Mothers , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-8, 2021 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305344

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the management mode for the prevention and control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission used at a general hospital in Shenzhen, China, with the aim to maintain the normal operation of the hospital. METHODS: From January 2, 2020, to April 23, 2020, Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, a tertiary hospital in Shenzhen, has operated a special response protocol named comprehensive pandemic prevention and control model, which mainly includes 6 aspects: (1) human resource management; (2) equipment management; (3) logistics management; (4) cleaning, disinfection, and process reengineering; (5) environment layout; (6) and training and assessment. The detail of every aspect was described, and its efficiency was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 198,802 patients were received. Of those, 10,821 were hospitalized; 26,767 were received by the emergency department and fever clinics; 288 patients were admitted for observation with fever; and 324 were admitted as suspected cases for isolation. Under the protocol of comprehensive pandemic prevention and control model, no case of hospital-acquired infection with COVID-19 occurred among the inpatients or staff. CONCLUSION: The present comprehensive response model may be useful in large public health emergencies to ensure appropriate management and protect the health and life of individuals.

15.
Revista Argentina de Clínica Psicológica ; 30(1):435, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1110923

ABSTRACT

Based on prior research and observations of global responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, we study the relationship between underestimation of novel risks and the performance of fighting adversities (PFA). While prior research suggests that underestimation of risks may have some positive effects on PFA, we propose that, for novel adversities such as the COVID-19 pandemic, underestimation of its risk can be very harmful and damaging. We also propose that the relationship between the underestimation and PFA can be moderated by intensiveness of politics (IPS) and adaptive innovation. The contingent model in this paper provides insightful practical implications to risk and disaster management in human collectives.

17.
Nature ; 586(7830): 572-577, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691301

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a respiratory disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the spread of which has led to a pandemic. An effective preventive vaccine against this virus is urgently needed. As an essential step during infection, SARS-CoV-2 uses the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein to engage with the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on host cells1,2. Here we show that a recombinant vaccine that comprises residues 319-545 of the RBD of the spike protein induces a potent functional antibody response in immunized mice, rabbits and non-human primates (Macaca mulatta) as early as 7 or 14 days after the injection of a single vaccine dose. The sera from the immunized animals blocked the binding of the RBD to ACE2, which is expressed on the cell surface, and neutralized infection with a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and live SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Notably, vaccination also provided protection in non-human primates to an in vivo challenge with SARS-CoV-2. We found increased levels of RBD-specific antibodies in the sera of patients with COVID-19. We show that several immune pathways and CD4 T lymphocytes are involved in the induction of the vaccine antibody response. Our findings highlight the importance of the RBD domain in the design of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and provide a rationale for the development of a protective vaccine through the induction of antibodies against the RBD domain.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Models, Animal , Models, Molecular , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum/immunology , Spleen/cytology , Spleen/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination
18.
Psychiatry Res ; 291: 113190, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548199

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused enormous psychological impact worldwide. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the psychological and mental impact of COVID-19 among healthcare workers, the general population, and patients with higher COVID-19 risk published between 1 Nov 2019 to 25 May 2020. We conducted literature research using Embase, PubMed, Google scholar and WHO COVID-19 databases. Among the initial search of 9207 studies, 62 studies with 162,639 participants from 17 countries were included in the review. The pooled prevalence of anxiety and depression was 33% (95% confidence interval: 28%-38%) and 28% (23%-32%), respectively. The prevalence of anxiety and depression was the highest among patients with pre-existing conditions and COVID-19 infection (56% [39%-73%] and 55% [48%-62%]), and it was similar between healthcare workers and the general public. Studies from China, Italy, Turkey, Spain and Iran reported higher-than-pooled prevalence among healthcare workers and the general public. Common risk factors included being women, being nurses, having lower socioeconomic status, having high risks of contracting COVID-19, and social isolation. Protective factors included having sufficient medical resources, up-to-date and accurate information, and taking precautionary measures. In conclusion, psychological interventions targeting high-risk populations with heavy psychological distress are in urgent need.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Med Virol ; 92(5): 476-478, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-10247

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) since December 2019 in Wuhan, the major transportation hub in central China, became an emergency of major international concern. While several etiological studies have begun to reveal the specific biological features of this virus, the epidemic characteristics need to be elucidated. Notably, a long incubation time was reported to be associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, leading to adjustments in screening and control policies. To avoid the risk of virus spread, all potentially exposed subjects are required to be isolated for 14 days, which is the longest predicted incubation time. However, based on our analysis of a larger dataset available so far, we find there is no observable difference between the incubation time for SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), highlighting the need for larger and well-annotated datasets.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Datasets as Topic , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Time Factors , Virus Latency
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