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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 782731, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581325

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 and its variants are still hitting the world. Ever since the outbreak, neurological involvements as headache, ageusia, and anosmia in COVID-19 patients have been emphasized and reported. But the pathogenesis of these new-onset neurological manifestations in COVID-19 patients is still obscure and controversial. As difficulty always lay in the diagnosis of neurological infection, current reports to validate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) almost relied on the basic methods and warranted improvement. Here we reported a case series of 8 patients with prominent new-onset neurological manifestations, who were screened out from a patch of 304 COVID-19 confirmed patients. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and proteomics were conducted in the simultaneously obtained CSF and serum samples of the selected patients, with three non-COVID-19 patients with matched demographic features used as the controls for proteomic analysis. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the CSF of four COVID-19 patients and was suspicious in the rest four remaining patients by NGS, but was negative in all serum samples. Proteomic analysis revealed that 185 and 59 proteins were differentially expressed in CSF and serum samples, respectively, and that only 20 proteins were shared, indicating that the proteomic changes in CSF were highly specific. Further proteomic annotation highlighted the involvement of complement system, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, enhanced cellular interaction, and macrophages in the CSF proteomic alterations. This study, equipped with NGS and proteomics, reported a high detection rate of SARS-CoV-2 in the CSF of COVID-19 patients and the proteomic alteration of CSF, which would provide insights into understanding the pathological mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 CNS infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , Central Nervous System Diseases/virology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/metabolism , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , RNA, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, RNA
2.
Front Immunol ; 11: 580237, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116681

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induced Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a global threat to public health. The immune system is crucial in defending and eliminating the virus and infected cells. However, immune dysregulation may result in the rapid progression of COVID-19. Here, we evaluated the subsets, phenotypic and functional characteristics of natural killer (NK) and T cells in patients with COVID-19 and their associations with disease severity. Methods: Demographic and clinical data of COVID-19 patients enrolled in Wuhan Union Hospital from February 25 to February 27, 2020, were collected and analyzed. The phenotypic and functional characteristics of NK cells and T cells subsets in circulating blood and serum levels of cytokines were analyzed via flow cytometry. Then the LASSO logistic regression model was employed to predict risk factors for the severity of COVID-19. Results: The counts and percentages of NK cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and NKT cells were significantly reduced in patients with severe symptoms. The cytotoxic CD3-CD56dimCD16+ cell population significantly decreased, while the CD3-CD56dimCD16- part significantly increased in severe COVID-19 patients. More importantly, elevated expression of regulatory molecules, such as CD244 and programmed death-1 (PD-1), on NK cells and T cells, as well as decreased serum cytotoxic effector molecules including perforin and granzyme A, were detected in patients with COVID-19. The serum IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α were significantly increased in severe patients. Moreover, the CD3-CD56dimCD16- cells were screened out as an influential factor in severe cases by LASSO logistic regression. Conclusions: The functional exhaustion and other subset alteration of NK and T cells may contribute to the progression and improve the prognosis of COVID-19. Surveillance of lymphocyte subsets may in the future enable early screening for signs of critical illness and understanding the pathogenesis of this disease.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , COVID-19/blood , Killer Cells, Natural/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology
3.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-659

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2-associated pneumonia, a disease called COVID-19, caused global concern. New cases of COVID-19 were gradually reduced unde

5.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 44(12): 2479-2485, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)-induced pneumonia (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, and rapidly spread throughout China. COVID-19 patients demonstrated significantly different outcomes in clinic. We aimed to figure out whether obesity is a risk factor influencing the progression and prognosis of COVID-19. METHODS: 95 patients with COVID-19 were divided into obesity group and non-obesity group according to their body mass index (BMI). The demographic data, clinical characteristics, laboratory examination, and chest computed tomography (CT) were collected, analyzed and compared between two groups. RESULTS: Our data showed that COVID-19 patients with obesity had more underlying diseases and higher mortality rate compared to those without obesity. Furthermore, patients with obesity also demonstrated more severe pathological change in lung and higher blood lymphocytes, triglycerides, IL-6, CRP, cystatin C, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), which may greatly influence disease progression and poor prognosis of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: It suggest that obesity contributes to clinical manifestations and may influence the progression and prognosis of COVID-19 and it is considered as a potential risk factor of the prognosis of COVID-19. Special medical care and appropriate intervention should be performed in obesity patients with COVID-19 during hospitalization and later clinical follow-up, especially for those with additional other comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Obesity/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Obesity/blood , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/physiopathology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
Clin Immunol ; 218: 108524, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639598

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2-associated pneumonia, a disease called COVID-19, has caused a pandemic worldwide. To investigate the immune responses after infection of SARS-CoV-2 in non-critical patients may help to better understand the disease progression. We collected 334 confirmed COVID-19 cases including 212 still in hospital with nucleic acid test positive on halfway for SARS-CoV-2 and 122 discharged from hospital, compared specific antibodies, immune cells, and cytokine changes between the hospitalized and discharged patients. The hospitalized patients had a longer illness time compared with discharged patients. Analysis of viral loads explained long-term or persistent infection of SARS-CoV-2, which existed with the median time of 18.5 days of the positive nucleic acid test. Serum analysis showed that the specific anti-N IgG antibody was positive in all detected patients after infection of two weeks. Neutrophils, Monocytes, NK cells, and CD4+ T cells significantly increased, while total lymphocytes and CD8+ T cells decreased from non-critical hospitalized patients after longer-term infection. Further analysis of the cytokines showed that IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 from the hospitalized patients were significantly higher, indicating a potential of the increased CD4+ T cell differentiation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Lung Diseases/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Killer Cells, Natural/virology , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/pathology , Lung Diseases/virology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/pathology , Lymphocyte Subsets/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/pathology , Monocytes/virology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/virology , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Viral Load/immunology
7.
J Med Virol ; 92(11): 2675-2683, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-505549

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, started in December 2019, Wuhan, China. We aimed to figure out the time-point and duration of using antiviral drugs for receiving the maximal effects in patients with COVID-19. In this study, we enrolled 129 confirmed COVID-19 mild to moderate patients who had been treated with antiviral drugs during their hospitalization in Wuhan Union Hospital China. The patients were divided into an early antiviral treatment group and late antiviral treatment group. The demographic data, laboratory tests, the virus clearance time, chest computed tomography scans, and so forth were extracted, calculated, and compared between two groups. Our data showed that the median time from illness onset to initiation of antiviral treatment was 6 days in all patients. The group with early antiviral treatment demonstrated 7 days shorter in the virus clearance time when compared to the group with late antiviral treatment. After virus clearance, the group with early antiviral treatment showed milder illness than the group with late antiviral treatment. Early antiviral treatment could effectively shorten the virus clearance time, and prevent the rapid progression of COVID-19. Therefore, the COVID-19 patients should receive combined therapies with antiviral treatment at an early stage.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Viral Load/drug effects , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , China , Comorbidity , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
8.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(6): 2823-2829, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436991

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) began in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and quickly spread throughout the country and world. An efficient and convenient method based on clinical characteristics was needed to evaluate the potential deterioration in patients. We aimed to develop a simple and practical risk scoring system to predict the severity of COVID-19 patients on admission. We retrospectively investigated the clinical information of confirmed COVID-19 patients from 10 February 2020 to 29 February 2020 in Wuhan Union Hospital. Predictors of severity were identified by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 147 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were grouped into non-severe (94 patients) and severe (53 patients) groups. We found that an increased level of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, D-dimer, fibrinogen (FIB), IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), serum amyloid A (SAA) and a decreased level of lymphocytes were important risk factors associated with severity. Furthermore, three variables were used to formulate a clinical risk scoring system named COVID-19 index = 3 × D-dimer (µg/L) + 2 × lgESR (mm/hr) - 4 × lymphocyte (×109 /L) + 8. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.843 (95% CI, 0.771-0.914). We propose an effective scoring system to predict the severity of COVID-19 patients. This simple prediction model may provide healthcare workers with a practical method and could positively impact decision-making with regard to deteriorating patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
9.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(7): 1061-1067, 2020 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-71938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: A novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused pneumonia, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), broke out in Wuhan, China in December 2019, and spread all over the world. Patients with COVID-19 showed huge differences in the hospital stay, progression, and prognosis. As reported, the comorbidities may play an important role in COVID-19. Here, we aim to address the role of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the progression and prognosis of COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighty-three confirmed COVID-19 patients were divided into CVD (n = 42) and non-CVD (n = 41) group according to their medical history. Medical records including demographic data, medical history, clinical characteristics, laboratory examinations, chest computed tomography (CT), and treatment measures were collected, analyzed, and compared between the two groups. COVID-19 patients with CVD showed (1) more severe pathological changes in the lungs, (2) elevated injury-related enzymes including α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HDBH), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), (3) significantly increased uncontrolled inflammation related markers, such as c-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, serum ferritin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and serum amyloid A (SAA), (4) serious hypercoagulable status reflected by increased D-dimer and serum fibrinogen (FIB), and (5) higher mortality, compared to COVID-19 patients without CVD. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicated that CVD is a strong risk factor for rapid progression and bad prognosis of COVID-19. More intensive medical care should be applied to patients with CVD to prevent rapid deterioration of the disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Disease Progression , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Chemical Analysis , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Reference Values , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
10.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; : e3319, 2020 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20583

ABSTRACT

BACKGOUND: To figure out whether diabetes is a risk factor influencing the progression and prognosis of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS: A total of 174 consecutive patients confirmed with COVID-19 were studied. Demographic data, medical history, symptoms and signs, laboratory findings, chest computed tomography (CT) as well the treatment measures were collected and analysed. RESULTS: We found that COVID-19 patients without other comorbidities but with diabetes (n = 24) were at higher risk of severe pneumonia, release of tissue injury-related enzymes, excessive uncontrolled inflammation responses and hypercoagulable state associated with dysregulation of glucose metabolism. Furthermore, serum levels of inflammation-related biomarkers such as IL-6, C-reactive protein, serum ferritin and coagulation index, D-dimer, were significantly higher (P < .01) in diabetic patients compared with those without, suggesting that patients with diabetes are more susceptible to an inflammatory storm eventually leading to rapid deterioration of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the notion that diabetes should be considered as a risk factor for a rapid progression and bad prognosis of COVID-19. More intensive attention should be paid to patients with diabetes, in case of rapid deterioration.

11.
N Engl J Med ; 382(19): 1787-1799, 2020 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-9371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: No therapeutics have yet been proven effective for the treatment of severe illness caused by SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label trial involving hospitalized adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, which causes the respiratory illness Covid-19, and an oxygen saturation (Sao2) of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air or a ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen (Pao2) to the fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) of less than 300 mm Hg. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either lopinavir-ritonavir (400 mg and 100 mg, respectively) twice a day for 14 days, in addition to standard care, or standard care alone. The primary end point was the time to clinical improvement, defined as the time from randomization to either an improvement of two points on a seven-category ordinal scale or discharge from the hospital, whichever came first. RESULTS: A total of 199 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection underwent randomization; 99 were assigned to the lopinavir-ritonavir group, and 100 to the standard-care group. Treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir was not associated with a difference from standard care in the time to clinical improvement (hazard ratio for clinical improvement, 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.80). Mortality at 28 days was similar in the lopinavir-ritonavir group and the standard-care group (19.2% vs. 25.0%; difference, -5.8 percentage points; 95% CI, -17.3 to 5.7). The percentages of patients with detectable viral RNA at various time points were similar. In a modified intention-to-treat analysis, lopinavir-ritonavir led to a median time to clinical improvement that was shorter by 1 day than that observed with standard care (hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.91). Gastrointestinal adverse events were more common in the lopinavir-ritonavir group, but serious adverse events were more common in the standard-care group. Lopinavir-ritonavir treatment was stopped early in 13 patients (13.8%) because of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized adult patients with severe Covid-19, no benefit was observed with lopinavir-ritonavir treatment beyond standard care. Future trials in patients with severe illness may help to confirm or exclude the possibility of a treatment benefit. (Funded by Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development and others; Chinese Clinical Trial Register number, ChiCTR2000029308.).


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intention to Treat Analysis , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Proportional Hazards Models , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Failure , Viral Load
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