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1.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 22(1): 89, 2022 04 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846794

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid Advice Guidelines (RAG) provide decision makers with guidance to respond to public health emergencies by developing evidence-based recommendations in a short period of time with a scientific and standardized approach. However, the experience from the development process of a RAG has so far not been systematically summarized. Therefore, our working group will take the experience of the development of the RAG for children with COVID-19 as an example to systematically explore the methodology, advantages, and challenges in the development of the RAG. We shall propose suggestions and reflections for future research, in order to provide a more detailed reference for future development of RAGs. RESULT: The development of the RAG by a group of 67 researchers from 11 countries took 50 days from the official commencement of the work (January 28, 2020) to submission (March 17, 2020). A total of 21 meetings were held with a total duration of 48 h (average 2.3 h per meeting) and an average of 16.5 participants attending. Only two of the ten recommendations were fully supported by direct evidence for COVID-19, three recommendations were supported by indirect evidence only, and the proportion of COVID-19 studies among the body of evidence in the remaining five recommendations ranged between 10 and 83%. Six of the ten recommendations used COVID-19 preprints as evidence support, and up to 50% of the studies with direct evidence on COVID-19 were preprints. CONCLUSIONS: In order to respond to public health emergencies, the development of RAG also requires a clear and transparent formulation process, usually using a large amount of indirect and non-peer-reviewed evidence to support the formation of recommendations. Strict following of the WHO RAG handbook does not only enhance the transparency and clarity of the guideline, but also can speed up the guideline development process, thereby saving time and labor costs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Public Health
2.
BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online) ; 368, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837197

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo delineate the clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) who died.DesignRetrospective case series.SettingTongji Hospital in Wuhan, China.ParticipantsAmong a cohort of 799 patients, 113 who died and 161 who recovered with a diagnosis of covid-19 were analysed. Data were collected until 28 February 2020.Main outcome measuresClinical characteristics and laboratory findings were obtained from electronic medical records with data collection forms.ResultsThe median age of deceased patients (68 years) was significantly older than recovered patients (51 years). Male sex was more predominant in deceased patients (83;73%) than in recovered patients (88;55%). Chronic hypertension and other cardiovascular comorbidities were more frequent among deceased patients (54 (48%) and 16 (14%)) than recovered patients (39 (24%) and 7 (4%)). Dyspnoea, chest tightness, and disorder of consciousness were more common in deceased patients (70 (62%), 55 (49%), and 25 (22%)) than in recovered patients (50 (31%), 48 (30%), and 1 (1%)). The median time from disease onset to death in deceased patients was 16 (interquartile range 12.0-20.0) days. Leukocytosis was present in 56 (50%) patients who died and 6 (4%) who recovered, and lymphopenia was present in 103 (91%) and 76 (47%) respectively. Concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, cardiac troponin I, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and D-dimer were markedly higher in deceased patients than in recovered patients. Common complications observed more frequently in deceased patients included acute respiratory distress syndrome (113;100%), type I respiratory failure (18/35;51%), sepsis (113;100%), acute cardiac injury (72/94;77%), heart failure (41/83;49%), alkalosis (14/35;40%), hyperkalaemia (42;37%), acute kidney injury (28;25%), and hypoxic encephalopathy (23;20%). Patients with cardiovascular comorbidity were more likely to develop cardiac complications. Regardless of history of cardiovascular disease, acute cardiac injury and heart failure were more common in deceased patients.ConclusionSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection can cause both pulmonary and systemic inflammation, leading to multi-organ dysfunction in patients at high risk. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and respiratory failure, sepsis, acute cardiac injury, and heart failure were the most common critical complications during exacerbation of covid-19.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Follow-up study of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors has rarely been reported. We aimed to investigate longitudinal changes in the characteristics of COVID-19 survivors after discharge. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 594 COVID-19 survivors discharged from Tongji Hospital in Wuhan from February 10 to April 30, 2020 were included and followed up until May 17, 2021. Laboratory and radiological findings, pulmonary function tests, electrocardiogram, symptoms and signs were analyzed. 257 (51.2%) patients had at least one symptom at 3 months post-discharge, which decreased to 169 (40.0%) and 138 (28.4%) at 6-month and 12-month visit respectively. During follow-up period, insomnia, chest tightness, and fatigue were the most prevalent symptoms. Most laboratory parameters returned to normal, whereas increased incidence of abnormal liver and renal function and cardiovascular injury was evidenced after discharge. Fibrous stripes (213; 42.4%), pleural thickening and adhesions (188; 37.5%) and enlarged lymph nodes (120; 23.9%) were the most common radiographical findings at 3 months post-discharge. The abnormalities of pulmonary function included obstructive, restrictive, and mixed, which were 5.5%, 4.0%, 0.9% at 6 months post, and 1.9%, 4.7%, 0.2% at 12 months. Electrocardiogram abnormalities occurred in 256 (51.0%) patients at 3 months post-discharge, including arrhythmia, ST-T change and conduction block, which increased to 258 (61.1%) cases at 6-month visit and were maintained at high frequency (242;49.8%) at 12-month visit. CONCLUSIONS: Physiological, laboratory, radiological or electrocardiogram abnormalities, particularly those related to renal, cardiovascular, liver functions are common in patients who recovered from COVID-19 up to 12months post-discharge.

4.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 57, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702971

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly transmissible disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that poses a major threat to global public health. Although COVID-19 primarily affects the respiratory system, causing severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome in severe cases, it can also result in multiple extrapulmonary complications. The pathogenesis of extrapulmonary damage in patients with COVID-19 is probably multifactorial, involving both the direct effects of SARS-CoV-2 and the indirect mechanisms associated with the host inflammatory response. Recognition of features and pathogenesis of extrapulmonary complications has clinical implications for identifying disease progression and designing therapeutic strategies. This review provides an overview of the extrapulmonary complications of COVID-19 from immunological and pathophysiologic perspectives and focuses on the pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets for the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Lymphopenia/complications , Myocarditis/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/immunology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/virology , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/immunology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319512

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has wildly spread in Europe and the United States. Local human-to-human-transmission indicates the strong infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 and about 80% of the cluster transmission of COVID-19 occurred in families in China. Children as special population are susceptible to SARS-COV-2 at all ages. The epidemiological characteristics and non-pharmacological interventions of pediatric COVID-19 patients in Hubei by 5 periods according to key events and interventions were discussed.Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on the epidemiological characteristics of pediatric COVID-19 patients in Hubei Province from January to May,2020, including patients’ age, sex, residential location, severity classification, date of onset of symptoms and date of diagnosed.Findings: By 24:00 hours on April 21th, 2020, a total number of 68128 confirmed cases were registered, of which 1304 were pediatric confirmed cases, median age was 9.01 years old (intertitles range:3.43-13.84 years). 756 (57.98%) were male and 548 (42.02%) were female. The number of cases account for 2.68%, 8.67%, 23.85%, 25.08%, 27.07%, 12.65% in neonates, infants, 1-5 years old, 6-10 years old, 11-15 years old and >15 years old respectively.226 (17.33%) were asymptomatic, 637 (48.85%) were mild cases and 396 (30.37%) were moderate cases. There were 42 severe cases and 3 critical cases, accounting for 3.22% and 0.23%.The total rate of confirmed cases is 534 per million in Wuhan and 118 per million in non-Wuhan in children. Thirty patients of severe and critical COVID-19 cases have onset of symptoms before February 12th, 2020 . The average daily rate of pediatric confirmed cases of children in Hubei Province is 0.67 per million (first phase), 2.90 per million (second phase), 4.28 per million (third phase), 0.25 per million (fourth phase),0.04 per million (fifth phase) and 0.03 per million (sixth phase).Statistically significant difference was found in different epidemic phases with a sharp decrease in the fourth phase. Interpretation: The proportion of pediatric COVID-19 is lower than that of adults and people in all ages are susceptible including newborns. Pediatric COVID-19 cases are less severe and the rate of confirmed cases are much lower than those in adults in Hubei. There are four keys points to control the epidemic outbreak quickly in children: 1) The centralized quarantine of patients, which protects children from being infected;2) The community and city lockdown and the limit of social activity, which protects the elder children;3) The public intervention, such as wearing face mask and hand hygiene, which protects the infants;4) The compulsory monitored body temperature to investigate and isolate the potential patients in time. Funding: 1.Tongji hospital of Tongji medical college, Huazhong University of Science and Technology No.XXGZBDYJ0052.Major Special Science and Technology Project of Hubei Province under Grant No. 2020AEA0093.Application foundation frontier project of Wuhan No.2020020601012228Declaration of Interest: All the authors, including Liru Qiu, Yue Zhao, Wenhua Liu, Xi Sun, Pik-to Cheung, Sainan Shu, Yan Hao, Yu Chen, Yan Liu, Menaka Dhuromsingh,Jianhua Zhou, Feng Fang,Qin Ning and Xiaoping Luo declare no competing interests.Ethical Approval: All data analysis in this case were approved by the Ethical Committee of TongjiHospital of Huazhong University of Science & Technology (China) (TJC20200359)

6.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(24): 2899-2900, 2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595352
7.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(4): 2431-2446, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505773

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As a homologue of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identified as the main receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) invasion. We aimed to investigate the role of serum ACE in predicting the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease progression and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 120 patients with confirmed COVID-19 who underwent serum ACE detection on admission. The clinical characteristics and laboratory findings during hospitalization were evaluated dynamically to identify the potential risk factors for disease progression. RESULTS: ACE level was demonstrated as one of the independent risk factors. Patients with ACE level ≤ 33.5 U/L showed a higher cumulative virus RNA detection rate, elevated pro-inflammatory mediators levels, declined lymphocyte count, and decreased SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies than those with ACE level > 33.5 U/L. CONCLUSION: Lower serum ACE levels in relation to delayed virus elimination, hyperinflammatory condition, and impaired host antiviral immune responses contribute to disease progression of COVID-19.

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Follow-up study of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors has rarely been reported. We aimed to investigate longitudinal changes in the characteristics of COVID-19 survivors after discharge. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 594 COVID-19 survivors discharged from Tongji Hospital in Wuhan from February 10 to April 30, 2020 were included and followed up until May 17, 2021. Laboratory and radiological findings, pulmonary function tests, electrocardiogram, symptoms and signs were analyzed. 257 (51.2%) patients had at least one symptom at 3 months post-discharge, which decreased to 169 (40.0%) and 138 (28.4%) at 6-month and 12-month visit respectively. During follow-up period, insomnia, chest tightness, and fatigue were the most prevalent symptoms. Most laboratory parameters returned to normal, whereas increased incidence of abnormal liver and renal function and cardiovascular injury was evidenced after discharge. Fibrous stripes (213; 42.4%), pleural thickening and adhesions (188; 37.5%) and enlarged lymph nodes (120; 23.9%) were the most common radiographical findings at 3 months post-discharge. The abnormalities of pulmonary function included obstructive, restrictive, and mixed, which were 5.5%, 4.0%, 0.9% at 6 months post, and 1.9%, 4.7%, 0.2% at 12 months. Electrocardiogram abnormalities occurred in 256 (51.0%) patients at 3 months post-discharge, including arrhythmia, ST-T change and conduction block, which increased to 258 (61.1%) cases at 6-month visit and were maintained at high frequency (242;49.8%) at 12-month visit. CONCLUSIONS: Physiological, laboratory, radiological or electrocardiogram abnormalities, particularly those related to renal, cardiovascular, liver functions are common in patients who recovered from COVID-19 up to 12months post-discharge.

9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 596518, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156116

ABSTRACT

Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT04365634. Context: Diabetes mellitus was associated with increased severity and mortality of disease in COVID-19 pneumonia. So far the effect of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) or hyperglycemia on the immune system among COVID-19 disease has remained unclear. Objective: We aim to explore the clinical and immunological features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among COVID-19 patients. Design and Methods: In this retrospective study, the clinical and immunological characteristics of 306 hospitalized confirmed COVID-19 patients (including 129 diabetic and 177 non-diabetic patients) were analyzed. The serum concentrations of laboratory parameters including cytokines and numbers of immune cells were measured and compared between diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Results: Compared with non-diabetic group, diabetic cases more frequently had lymphopenia and hyperglycemia, with higher levels of urea nitrogen, myoglobin, D-dimer and ferritin. Diabetic cases indicated the obviously elevated mortality and the higher levels of cytokines IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α, as well as the distinctly reduced Th1/Th2 cytokines ratios compared with non-diabetic cases. The longitudinal assays showed that compared to that at week 1, the levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly elevated at week 2 after admission in non-survivors of diabetic cases, whereas there were greatly reductions from week 1 to week 2 in survivors of diabetic cases. Compared with survival diabetic patients, non-survival diabetic cases displayed distinct higher serum concentrations of IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and lower Th1/Th2 cytokines ratios at week 2. Samples from a subset of participants were evaluated by flow cytometry for the immune cells. The counts of peripheral total T lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and NK cells were markedly lower in diabetic cases than in non-diabetic cases. The non-survivors showed the markedly declined counts of CD8+ T cells and NK cells than survivors. Conclusion: The elevated cytokines, imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokines ratios and reduced of peripheral numbers of CD8+ T cells and NK cells might contribute to the pathogenic mechanisms of high mortality of COVID-19 patients with T2DM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Adult , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/immunology , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Immune System/metabolism , Immune System/pathology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/complications , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Th1 Cells/pathology , Th2 Cells/pathology
10.
Neonatology ; 117(5): 592-598, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has spread rapidly over the world. Little is known about the outcomes of infections in pregnant women. The management and characteristics of preterm infants born to COVID-19 mothers need to be clarified. METHODS: In this retrospective, single-center cohort study, we describe the clinical courses of 6 preterm infants born to COVID-19 mothers, the management protocol, and related outcomes. RESULTS: Six preterm infants were admitted to Tongji Hospital between January 23 and March 19, 2020. Gestational age ranged from 28+5 to 36+3 weeks. One late preterm infant was delivered early due to maternal dyspnea from COVID-19. Five infants were delivered by Caesarean section. None had perinatal asphyxia. Two infants required respiratory support due to respiratory distress syndrome and apnea of prematurity. All infants did not develop severe complications of prematurity and are negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing. CONCLUSION: With an expedited and adequate delivery protocol, less invasive treatment principle, and active infection precautious, we found a limited impact of COVID-19 mothers on preterm delivery and neonatal short-term outcomes. The risk of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is low in preterm infants born to COVID-19 mothers if appropriate management is implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Infant, Premature , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Maternal Exposure , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnant Women , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
11.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 553394, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940197

ABSTRACT

Ever since SARS-CoV-2 began infecting people by the end of 2019, of whom some developed severe pneumonia (about 5%), which could be fatal (case fatality ~3.5%), the extent and speed of the COVID-19 outbreak has been phenomenal. Within 2.5 months (by March 18, 2020) over 191,127 COVID-19 patients have been identified in 161 countries. By then, over 700 pediatric patients were confirmed to have COVID-19 in China, with only about 58 diagnosed elsewhere. By now, there are thousands of children and adolescents infected. Chinese pediatricians would like to share their experience on how these patients were managed in China and the key recommendations that had guided them in meeting the evolving challenges. A group of experts were summoned by the Chinese Pediatric Society and Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Pediatrics to extract informative data from a survey on confirmed COVID-19 pediatric patients in China. Consensus on diagnosis, management, and prevention of pediatric COVID-19 were drawn up based on the analysis of such data plus insights gained from the past SARS and MERS coronavirus outbreaks. Relevant cumulating experiences from physicians managing adult patients, expedited reports on clinical and scientific COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 data, and the National Health Committee guidelines on COVID-19 management were integrated into this proposal.

12.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 22(2): 202-206, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934041

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), responsible for the coronavirus disease COVID-19, was first identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Diabetes, as well as other cardiovascular comorbidities, has been recognized as a major risk factor for outcomes and mortality in adults with COVID-19, particularly in the elderly with type 2 diabetes. Based on these conclusions, COVID-19 data on adults have been generalized to youth with diabetes. Nevertheless, experience from pediatric diabetes practices in China (Wuhan), Italy, Spain (Catalonia), and the United States (San Francisco Bay Area) consistently report only a single severe case of COVID-19 in a 20-year-old female youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) that was hospitalized for bilateral pneumonia and was subsequently discharged without complications. In Italy, information on COVID-19 in all children with diabetes is collected on a weekly basis and those with positive swab test or infection-related symptoms reported to a dedicated national registry. Of a total of 15 500 children tested, 11 subjects with T1D (age 8-17y) tested positive for COVID-19; 6/11 were asymptomatic and the rest presented with mild symptoms. In the rest of locations, youths with T1D diagnosed with COVID-19 were based on clinical suspicion and a confirmatory PCR test (Wuhan:0; Catalonia-HSJD:3; California-Stanford:2). All of them were asymptomatic or had a mild course. We suggest that COVID-19 data from adults should not be generalized to children, adolescents, and youth with diabetes as their outcomes and prognosis seem to be similar to their non-diabetic-peers and consistently milder than adults with diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors
13.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(5): 817-821, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893328

ABSTRACT

In the period of regular epidemic prevention and control of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in our country, work resumption has been fully advanced. But there are still new sporadic local cases and imported cases across the country. In this situation, whether kindergartens reopening will increase the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread still remains uncertain. We reviewed two pediatric patients with moderate COVID-19, collected the epidemiologic information and monitored the cycle threshold value of rectal specimen and the viral loads, and discussed the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in pediatric patients and the virulence of feces in children with moderate COVID-19, in order to analyze the risk of kindergartens reopening.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Feces/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Parents , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Viral Load , Virus Shedding
14.
Hepatol Int ; 14(5): 723-732, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-834069

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a major international public health concern. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of COVID-19-associated liver injury. METHODS: A fraction of 657 COVID-19 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and laboratory data were derived from electronic medical records and compared between patients with or without liver injury. Multivariate logistic regression method was used to analyze the risk factors for liver injury. RESULTS: Among 657 patients, 303 (46.1%) patients had liver injury with higher rate in severe/critically ill patients [148/257 (57.6%)] than those in moderate cases [155/400 (38.8%)]. The incidence of liver injury was much higher in male [192/303 (63.4%)] than female [111/303 (36.6%)], and in severe/critical patients [148/303 (48.8%)] with percutaneous oxygen saturation ≤ 93% [89/279 (31.9%)] or peak body temperature ≥ 38.5 °C [185/301 (61.5%)] on admission. Liver injury-related inflammations included increased white blood cells, neutrophils and decreased lymphocytes. More patients with liver injury than without had increased serum IL-2R, TNFα, ferritin, hsCRP, PCT, ESR, γ-GT, and LDH. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that increasing odds of liver injury were related to male, higher serum hsCRP (≥ 10 mg/L), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (≥ 5). Moreover, more deceased patients (14/82 (17%)) had significantly elevated serum TBIL than discharged patients [25/532 (4.7%)]. CONCLUSION: Liver injury is a common complication in COVID-19 patients. The potential risk factors of liver injury include male, hsCRP and NLR score. A close monitor of liver function should be warned in COVID-19 patients, especially in severe/critical individuals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Cytokines/blood , Hepatic Insufficiency , Leukocyte Count/methods , Liver Function Tests , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hepatic Insufficiency/blood , Hepatic Insufficiency/epidemiology , Hepatic Insufficiency/virology , Humans , Incidence , Liver Function Tests/methods , Liver Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
16.
Haemophilia ; 26(6): 1031-1037, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744737

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify lessons learned from haemophilia care experience in Wuhan (COVID-19 outbreak epicenter in China) and Tianjin (with relatively low COVID-19 incidence) in the pandemic. METHODS: We compared the challenges in haemophilia management attributed to local COVID-19 containment policies, healthcare resource availability, clotting factors supply, daily living restrictions and coping strategies employed. RESULTS: Wuhan was in lockdown with strict traffic controls, enforced quarantine and overwhelmed resources. Tianjin was in relatively relaxed countermeasures to COVID-19. In Wuhan, haemophilia treatment (for bleeding, prophylaxis, multidisciplinary team care, immune tolerance induction) and patient education were severely affected, while the challenges in Tianjin were less. In both cities, patients' fear for COVID-19 infection also affected their management. Coping strategy in Wuhan included channelling of clotting factors supply from hospitals to nine pharmacies; timely transfers of in-need patients to healthcare facilities by a volunteer service network jointly coordinated by the government, hospitals and the community. Although factor concentrate supply in each city was adequate, patients still worried whether there would be enough supply to last through the pandemics. Consequently, many downgraded their treatment regimens resulting in increased bleeding episodes. In both cities, telemedicine was promoted for patient care and education. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had varying adverse impacts on haemophilia care depending on the local infection incidence. Our experience suggests that haemophilia management strategies in the pandemic need to be established according to the local virus containment/mitigation policies, daily living restrictions and resource availability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hemophilia A/epidemiology , Quarantine/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cities , Containment of Biohazards , Health Policy , Health Resources , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Patient Care , Telemedicine , Volunteers
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 99: 272-275, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695678

ABSTRACT

Whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) affects the fetus in utero is important to the well-being of the mother and neonate. We report the case of a full-term neonate born to a mother who developed symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at 32 weeks of gestation. The placental pathology showed slight local inflammation. Serial quantitative antibody measurements in the neonate showed elevated levels of IgM on the day of birth and a gradual decline to negative levels within 28 days of life; the levels of IgG declined gradually, but IgG was still positive on day 50 of life. The sequential dynamic changes in antibody levels in the neonate were consistent with those in his mother. One-step reverse transcriptase droplet digital PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in throat and anal swabs showed positive results (750 and 892copies/ml) on day 7 of life and negative results on day 14 of life. The neonate had no symptoms of COVID-19. This report enables us to re-evaluate the significance of IgM detection in intrauterine SARS-CoV-2 infection and presents a favorable prognosis for the neonate with long-term exposure to maternal COVID-19, despite a high possibility of intrauterine infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(4): 642-645, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696904

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 infection status of hospitalized children was surveyed in the department of pediatric hematology and oncology in three different hospitals of epidemic areas in Hubei, China. A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the clinical characteristics, lung CT scan, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test and serum antibodies of hospitalized children with hemato-oncological diseases from January 23 to April 24, 2020. 299 children were enrolled in this study, including 176 males (58.9%) and 123 females (41.1%), aged from 2 months to 16 years. 255 cases (85.3%) received chemotherapy or other immunosuppressive therapies, and there were 44 cases (14.7%) of other benign diseases. Nucleic acid test was performed on 258 children (86.3%) and one case was positive. 163 cases (54.5%) were tested for serum antibodies, and all of them were negative. Lung CT scan was performed on 247 children (82.6%), and 107 of them showed infectious changes. Only one case (0.33%) of COVID-19 was diagnosed in the group. The prevalence rate of COVID-19 in enrolled children with hemato-oncological diseases in Hubei was 0.33%. Immunosuppressed patients are not prone to produce related antibodies. Comprehensive protective measures and ward management can reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the group patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hematologic Diseases/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infection Control , Male , Mass Screening , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(10): 2491-2494, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634885

ABSTRACT

We report the detection and decline over time of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antibodies in infants born to women with coronavirus disease. Among 11 infants tested at birth, all had detectable IgG and 5 had detectable IgM. IgG titers with positive IgM declined more slowly than those without.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pharynx/virology , Pregnancy , Rectum/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
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