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1.
Am J Chin Med ; : 1-31, 2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605157

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused enormous public health and socioeconomic burden globally. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicine (CM) against COVID-19. Eleven databases were searched on April 30, 2021, and 52 studies were included. The RoB 2.0, ROBINS-I, and GRADE tools were employed to assess the risks and evidence grades. The findings with moderate certainty in GRADE showed that compared with routine treatment (RT), Lianhua Qingwen granules (LHQW) adjunctive to RT showed significantly improved efficacy rate (relative risk (RR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): [1.09, 1.31]), febrile score (standard mean difference (SMD) = -1.21, 95% CI: [-1.43, -0.99]), and computerized tomography (CT) lung images (RR = 1.23, 95% CI: [1.10, 1.38]); Qingfei Paidu decoction (QFPD) plus RT significantly shortened the length of hospital stay (SMD = -1.83, 95% CI: [-2.18, -1.48]); Feiyan Yihao formula (FYYH) plus RT significantly improved the clinical efficacy rate (RR = 1.07, 95% CI: [1, 1.15]), febrile time (SMD = -0.02, 95% CI: [-0.23, 0.19]), and time to negative PCR test for COVID-19 (SMD = -0.72, 95% CI: [-0.94, -0.51]). Adjunctive effects of CM with lower certainty of evidence were found, including the improvements of symptoms, laboratory findings, and mortality. No or mild adverse events were observed in most of the studies. In conclusion, the current evidence indicates that CM formulae, particularly LHQW, QFPD, and FYYH, have adjunctive effects on the standard treatment of COVID-19.

2.
J Transcult Nurs ; : 10436596211065395, 2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604286

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is evidence for relatively lower COVID-19 vaccine uptake among people of color in the United States. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between race/ethnicity and COVID-19 vaccine uptake among nurses. METHODS: Nurses in Southern California (N = 1183) completed a one-time, web-based survey to assess COVID-19 vaccine perceptions and uptake. RESULTS: In all, 82.8% of respondents (N = 979) received at least one COVID-19 vaccine dose. Identifying as East Asian was associated with 14% higher odds of COVID-19 vaccine uptake relative to identifying as White (odds ratio [OR] = 1.14/95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.06, 1.24]); identifying as Filipino was associated with 14% higher odds of uptake (OR = 1.14/95% CI = [1.08, 1.20]); and identifying as Hispanic/Latinx was associated with 6% higher odds of uptake (OR = 1.06/95% CI = [1.00, 1.12]). DISCUSSION: Although nurses and people of color have been identified as groups with low levels of COVID-19 vaccine uptake, this study found that nurses of color received the vaccine at higher levels than their White counterparts.

3.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some vaccines elicit non-specific immune responses that may protect against heterologous infections. We evaluated the association between recombinant adjuvanted zoster vaccine (RZV) and COVID-19 outcomes at Kaiser Permanente Southern California. METHODS: In a cohort design, adults aged ≥50 years who received ≥1 RZV dose before 3/1/2020 were matched 1:2 to unvaccinated individuals and followed until 12/31/2020. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for COVID-19 outcomes were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. In a test-negative design, cases had a positive SARS-CoV-2 test and controls had only negative tests, during 3/1/2020-12/31/2020. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% CIs for RZV receipt were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: In the cohort design, 149,244 RZV recipients were matched to 298,488 unvaccinated individuals. The aHRs (95% CI) for COVID-19 diagnosis and hospitalization were 0.84 (0.81-0.87) and 0.68 (0.64-0.74), respectively. In the test-negative design, 8.4% of 75,726 test-positive cases and 13.1% of 340,898 test-negative controls had received ≥1 RZV dose. The aOR (95% CI) was 0.84 (0.81-0.86). CONCLUSION: RZV vaccination was associated with a 16% lower risk of COVID-19 diagnosis and 32% lower risk of hospitalization. Further study of vaccine-induced non-specific immunity for potential attenuation of future pandemics is warranted.

4.
JMIR Infodemiology ; 1(1): e33330, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591914

ABSTRACT

Background: Information and opinions shared by health care providers can affect patient vaccination decisions, but little is known about who health care providers themselves trust for information in the context of new COVID-19 vaccines. Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate which sources of information about COVID-19 vaccines are trusted by health care providers and how they communicate this information to patients. Methods: This mixed methods study involved a one-time, web-based survey of health care providers and qualitative interviews with a subset of survey respondents. Health care providers (physicians, advanced practice providers, pharmacists, nurses) were recruited from an integrated health system in Southern California using voluntary response sampling, with follow-up interviews with providers who either accepted or declined a COVID-19 vaccine. The outcome was the type of information sources that respondents reported trusting for information about COVID-19 vaccines. Bivariate tests were used to compare trusted information sources by provider type; thematic analysis was used to explore perspectives about vaccine information and communicating with patients about vaccines. Results: The survey was completed by 2948 providers, of whom 91% (n=2683) responded that they had received ≥1 dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. The most frequently trusted source of COVID-19 vaccine information was government agencies (n=2513, 84.2%); the least frequently trusted source was social media (n=691, 9.5%). More physicians trusted government agencies (n=1226, 93%) than nurses (n=927, 78%) or pharmacists (n=203, 78%; P<.001), and more physicians trusted their employer (n=1115, 84%) than advanced practice providers (n=95, 67%) and nurses (n=759, 64%; P=.002). Qualitative themes (n=32 participants) about trusted sources of COVID-19 vaccine information were identified: processing new COVID-19 information in a health care work context likened to a "war zone" during the pandemic and communicating information to patients. Some providers were hesitant to recommend vaccines to pregnant people and groups they perceived to be at low risk for COVID-19. Conclusions: Physicians have stronger trust in government sources and their employers for information about COVID-19 vaccines compared with nurses, pharmacists, and advanced practice providers. Strategies such as role modeling, tailored messaging, or talking points with standard language may help providers to communicate accurate COVID-19 vaccine information to patients, and these strategies may also be used with providers with lower levels of trust in reputable information sources.

5.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586912

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has had a serious impact on the world. In this study, small RNAs from the blood of COVID-19 patients with moderate or severe symptoms were extracted for high-throughput sequencing and analysis. Interestingly, the levels of a special group of tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs) were found to be dramatically upregulated after SARS-CoV-2 infection, particularly in COVID-19 patients with severe symptoms. In particular, the 3'CCA tsRNAs from Gly-tRNA were highly consistent with the inflammation indicator C-reactive protein (CRP). In addition, we found that the majority of significantly changed microRNAs (miRNAs) were associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/unfolded protein response (UPR) sensors, which may lead to the induction of proinflammatory cytokine and immune responses. This study found that SARS-CoV-2 infection caused significant changes in the levels of stress-associated small RNAs in patient blood and their potential functions. Our research revealed that the cells of COVID-19 patients undergo tremendous stress and respond, which can be reflected or regulated by sncRNAs, thus providing potential thought for therapeutic intervention in COVID-19 by modulating small RNA levels or activities.

6.
BMJ ; 375: e068848, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583187

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of the mRNA-1273 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 variants and assess its effectiveness against the delta variant by time since vaccination. DESIGN: Test negative case-control study. SETTING: Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC), an integrated healthcare system. PARTICIPANTS: Adult KPSC members with a SARS-CoV-2 positive test sent for whole genome sequencing or a negative test from 1 March 2021 to 27 July 2021. INTERVENTIONS: Two dose or one dose vaccination with mRNA-1273 (Moderna covid-19 vaccine) ≥14 days before specimen collection versus no covid-19 vaccination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes included infection with SARS-CoV-2 and hospital admission with covid-19. In pre-specified analyses for each variant type, test positive cases were matched 1:5 to test negative controls on age, sex, race/ethnicity, and specimen collection date. Conditional logistic regression was used to compare odds of vaccination among cases versus controls, with adjustment for confounders. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated as (1-odds ratio)×100%. RESULTS: The study included 8153 cases and their matched controls. Two dose vaccine effectiveness was 86.7% (95% confidence interval 84.3% to 88.7%) against infection with the delta variant, 98.4% (96.9% to 99.1%) against alpha, 90.4% (73.9% to 96.5%) against mu, 96-98% against other identified variants, and 79.9% (76.9% to 82.5%) against unidentified variants (that is, specimens that failed sequencing). Vaccine effectiveness against hospital admission with the delta variant was 97.5% (92.7% to 99.2%). Vaccine effectiveness against infection with the delta variant declined from 94.1% (90.5% to 96.3%) 14-60 days after vaccination to 80.0% (70.2% to 86.6%) 151-180 days after vaccination. Waning was less pronounced for non-delta variants. Vaccine effectiveness against delta infection was lower among people aged ≥65 years (75.2%, 59.6% to 84.8%) than those aged 18-64 years (87.9%, 85.5% to 89.9%). One dose vaccine effectiveness was 77.0% (60.7% to 86.5%) against infection with delta. CONCLUSIONS: Two doses of mRNA-1273 were highly effective against all SARS-CoV-2 variants, especially against hospital admission with covid-19. However, vaccine effectiveness against infection with the delta variant moderately declined with increasing time since vaccination.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , /administration & dosage , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , California , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
7.
Preprint | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296665

ABSTRACT

Background: We conducted a prospective cohort study at Kaiser Permanente Southern California to study the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of mRNA-1273 over time and during the emergence of the Delta variant. Methods: The cohort for this planned interim analysis consisted of individuals aged ≥18 years receiving 2 doses of mRNA-1273 through June 2021, matched 1:1 to randomly selected unvaccinated individuals by age, sex, and race/ethnicity, with follow-up through September 2021. Outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 infection, and COVID-19 hospitalization and hospital death. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing outcomes in the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. Adjusted VE (%) was calculated as (1-aHR)x100. HRs and VEs were also estimated for SARS-CoV-2 infection by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and during the Delta period (June-September 2021). VE against SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 hospitalization was estimated at 0-<2, 2-<4, 4-<6, and 6-<8 months post-vaccination. Results: 927,004 recipients of 2 doses of mRNA-1273 were matched to 927,004 unvaccinated individuals. VE (95% CI) was 82.8% (82.2-83.3%) against SARS-CoV-2 infection, 96.1% (95.5-96.6%) against COVID-19 hospitalization, and 97.2% (94.8-98.4%) against COVID-19 hospital death. VE against SARS-CoV-2 infection was similar by age, sex, and race/ethnicity, and was 86.5% (84.8-88.0%) during the Delta period. VE against SARS-CoV-2 infection decreased from 88.0% at 0-<2 months to 75.5% at 6-<8 months. Conclusions: These interim results provide continued evidence for protection of 2 doses of mRNA-1273 against SARS-CoV-2 infection over 8 months post-vaccination and during the Delta period, and against COVID-19 hospitalization and hospital death.

8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572477

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic has been confirmed as the largest scale outbreak of atypical pneumonia since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 and it has become a public health emergency of international concern. It exacerbated public confusion and anxiety, and the impact of COVID-19 on people needs to be better understood. Indeed, prior studies that conducted meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort research compared mental health before versus during the COVID-19 pandemic and proved that public health polices (e.g., city lockdowns, quarantines, avoiding gatherings, etc.) and COVID-19-related information that circulates on new media platforms directly affected citizen's mental health and well-being. Hence, this research aims to explore Taiwanese people's health status, anxiety, media sources for obtaining COVID-19 information, subjective well-being, and safety-seeking behavior during the COVID-19 epidemic and how they are associated. Online surveys were conducted through new media platforms, and 342 responses were included in the analysis. The research results indicate that the participants experienced different aspects of COVID-19 anxiety, including COVID-19 worry and perceived COVID-19 risk. Among the given media sources, the more participants searched for COVID-19 information on new media, the greater they worried about COVID-19. Furthermore, COVID-19 worry was positively related to safety-seeking behavior, while perceived COVID-19 risk was negatively related to subjective well-being. This paper concludes by offering some suggestions for future studies and pointing out limitations of the present study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Anxiety/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Environ Pollut ; : 118633, 2021 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559180

ABSTRACT

In January 2020, China implemented strict lockdown measures due to the invasion of the new coronavirus, which led to a sharp decline in the contribution of anthropogenic fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The special period of COVID-19, especially in Hubei where the epidemic was the most severe, provides excellent research conditions for studying the contribution of anthropogenic activities to PM2.5 concentrations. We used an optimized deep learning model to predict PM2.5 concentration during the epidemic period in the cities of Hubei Province. The contributions of local anthropogenic activities to PM2.5 pollution were obtained by contrasting the predicted results with actual site observations. However, a strange phenomenon was revealed that Yichang, a city with low local anthropogenic contribution to PM2.5, was found to have severe haze in winter conflicting with our previous expectations. After further research, we found that an increased conversion of secondary aerosols caused by long-distance transport of pollutant gases from the northern region is the main cause of winter haze pollution in this city. This finding highlights the importance of joint regional prevention and control of air pollution.

10.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296370

ABSTRACT

In January 2020, China adopted strict lockdown measures due to the invasion of the new coronavirus, which led to a sharp decline in the contribution of anthropogenic PM2.5. The special period of COVID-19, especially in Hubei where the epidemic was the most severe, provides excellent research conditions for studying the contribution of anthropogenic activities to PM2.5 concentrations. We used an optimized deep learning model to predict the PM2.5 concentration during the epidemic period in the cities of Hubei Province. The contributions of local anthropogenic activities to PM2.5 pollution were obtained by comparing the predicted results with actual site observations. Among the contributions of anthropogenic activities on PM2.5 during the COVID-19 lockdown, Huanggang, the city with the largest decline, decreased by 34.40%;the most severely affected area, Wuhan, decreased by 26.38%;and Hubei Province decreased by 22.61% on average. However, a strange phenomenon was discovered. Xiangyang and Yichang are the second and third largest cities in Hubei Province in terms of industrial output value. Severe smog is observed every winter, but low local anthropogenic contributions to PM2.5 were found in these cities, conflicting with our previous expectations. Through an analysis of backward air-mass trajectory and an analysis of changes in the main pollution components, we believe that an increased conversion of secondary aerosols caused by long-distance transmission of pollutant gases from the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is the main cause of winter haze pollution in these two cities. This finding highlights the importance of joint regional prevention and control of air pollution.

11.
Brief Bioinform ; 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545907

ABSTRACT

Vaccines have made gratifying progress in preventing the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. However, the emergence of variants, especially the latest delta variant, has brought considerable challenges to human health. Hence, the development of robust therapeutic approaches, such as anti-COVID-19 drug design, could aid in managing the pandemic more efficiently. Some drug design strategies have been successfully applied during the COVID-19 pandemic to create and validate related lead drugs. The computational drug design methods used for COVID-19 can be roughly divided into (i) structure-based approaches and (ii) artificial intelligence (AI)-based approaches. Structure-based approaches investigate different molecular fragments and functional groups through lead drugs and apply relevant tools to produce antiviral drugs. AI-based approaches usually use end-to-end learning to explore a larger biochemical space to design antiviral drugs. This review provides an overview of the two design strategies of anti-COVID-19 drugs, the advantages and disadvantages of these strategies and discussions of future developments.

12.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; : 100134, 2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540824

ABSTRACT

Background: Phase 3 trials found mRNA-1273 was highly effective in preventing COVID-19. We conducted a prospective cohort study at Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) to determine the real-world vaccine effectiveness (VE) of mRNA-1273 in preventing COVID-19 infection and severe disease. Methods: For this planned interim analysis, individuals aged ≥18 years receiving 2 doses of mRNA-1273 ≥24 days apart (18/12/2020-31/03/2021) were 1:1 matched to randomly selected unvaccinated individuals by age, sex, and race/ethnicity, with follow-up through 30/06/2021. Outcomes were COVID-19 infection (SARS-CoV-2 positive molecular test or COVID-19 diagnosis code) or severe disease (COVID-19 hospitalization and COVID-19 hospital death). Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and confidence intervals (CI) for COVID-19 outcomes comparing vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models accounting for multiple comparisons. Adjusted VE was calculated as (1-aHR)x100. Whole genome sequencing was performed on SARS-CoV-2 positive specimens from the KPSC population. Findings: This analysis included 352,878 recipients of 2 doses of mRNA-1273 matched to 352,878 unvaccinated individuals. VE (99·3% CI) against COVID-19 infection was 87·4% (84·8-89·6%). VE against COVID-19 hospitalization and hospital death was 95·8% (90·7-98·1%) and 97·9% (66·9-99·9%), respectively. VE was higher against symptomatic (88·3% [98·3% CI: 86·1-90·2%]) than asymptomatic COVID-19 (72·7% [53·4-84·0%]), but was generally similar across age, sex, and racial/ethnic subgroups. VE among individuals with history of COVID-19 ranged from 8·2-33·6%. The most prevalent variants were Alpha (41·6%), Epsilon (17·5%), Delta (11·5%), and Gamma (9·1%), with Delta increasing to 54·0% of variants by June 2021. Interpretation: These interim results provide reassuring evidence of the VE of 2 doses of mRNA-1273 across age, sex, and racial/ethnic subgroups, and against asymptomatic and symptomatic COVID-19, and severe COVID-19 outcomes. Among individuals with history of COVID-19, mRNA-1273 vaccination may offer added protection beyond immunity acquired from prior infection. Longer follow-up is needed to fully evaluate VE of mRNA-1273 against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Funding: Moderna Inc.

13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488546

ABSTRACT

Internet media may exacerbate public confusion and anxiety about COVID-19. New media health literacy (NMHL) is considered to play a protective role against health-related misinformation from the media for individuals to maintain their health. The current study aims to examine the relationship among Taiwanese adults' NMHL, health status, anxiety, and prevention behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional study was conducted through an online survey, and 342 responses were included in the analysis. The survey tools include Health Status, COVID-19-Related New Media Health Literacy, COVID-19 Anxiety, and COVID-19 Preventive Behaviors. The research showed that both functional and critical prosuming literacy had positive relationships with health status. Functional consumption literacy had a weak negative correlation with COVID-19 anxiety. Furthermore, critical consumption literacy had a positive relationship with COVID-19 preventive behaviors. Therefore, individuals' health, anxiety, and prevention behaviors are affected by different aspects of COVID-19-related new media health literacy. Compared to their consuming media literacy, Taiwanese adults have insufficient prosuming media literacy in regard to COVID-19 health issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Status , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taiwan/epidemiology
14.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 13: 1747-1758, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477666

ABSTRACT

Objective: There is an increasing amount of evidence exploring the adverse effects of perceived stress or anxiety and depression independently on sleep quality during the COVID-19 outbreak, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the current study was to explore the role of anxiety and depression as a potential mediator between perceived stress and sleep quality among health care workers. Methods: Data were collected through an online survey using the snowball sampling method and comprised 588 current health care workers in Zhejiang and Hubei provinces, China, from February to March 2020. We administered the Sleep Quality Questionnaire (SQQ), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4) and the sociodemographic characteristics and COVID-19-related characteristics questionnaire. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to examine the direct and indirect relationships between perceived stress, anxiety and depression, and sleep quality. Results: The average scores for sleep quality and perceived stress were 16.01 (95% CI [15.40, 16.57]) and 15.46 (95% CI [15.05, 15.87]), respectively. The positive rates of anxiety and depression symptom tests were 9.86% and 10.37%, respectively. The SEM results indicated that the original relationship between perceived stress and sleep quality was beta = 0.52 (P < 0.001) and reduced to beta = 0.25 (P = 0.045) while introducing anxiety and depression as mediating variables. Perceived stress was positively associated with anxiety and depression (beta = 0.78, P = 0.014), and anxiety and depression were positively associated with sleep quality (beta = 0.42, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Poor sleep quality and high perceived stress were common during the COVID-19 crisis. Reducing perceived stress could help reduce anxiety and depression symptoms, thereby improving sleep quality among health care workers. In an attempt to promote psychological resources, we should perhaps take multiple measures, including personal tailored intervention and organizational humanistic concern.

15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 435, 2021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366811

ABSTRACT

Crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic are known to exacerbate depression and anxiety, though their temporal trajectories remain under-investigated. The present study aims to investigate fluctuations in depression and anxiety using the COVID-19 pandemic as a model crisis. A total of 1512 adults living in the United States enrolled in this online study beginning April 2, 2020 and were assessed weekly for 10 weeks (until June 4, 2020). We measured depression and anxiety using the Zung Self-Rating Depression scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (state subscale), respectively, along with demographic and COVID-related surveys. Linear mixed-effects models were used to examine factors contributing to longitudinal changes in depression and anxiety. We found that depression and anxiety levels were high in early April, but declined over time. Being female, younger age, lower-income, and previous psychiatric diagnosis correlated with higher overall levels of anxiety and depression; being married additionally correlated with lower overall levels of depression, but not anxiety. Importantly, worsening of COVID-related economic impact and increase in projected pandemic duration exacerbated both depression and anxiety over time. Finally, increasing levels of informedness correlated with decreasing levels of depression, while increased COVID-19 severity (i.e., 7-day change in cases) and social media use were positively associated with anxiety over time. These findings not only provide evidence for overall emotional adaptation during the initial weeks of the pandemic, but also provide insight into overlapping, yet distinct, factors contributing to depression and anxiety throughout the first wave of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Emotional Adjustment , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
16.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 3123-3128, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315920

ABSTRACT

Objective: Patients with rheumatic immune diseases were more likely to develop severe or critical COVID-19. We aimed to determine whether rheumatoid factor antibodies were present in COVID patients and the level and type of rheumatoid factor antibodies produced in COVID-19 patients were related to the degree of the patient's condition. The study also aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of rheumatoid factor antibodies in patients with COVID-19. Methods: Sera collected from 129 patients with COVID-19 were tested for rheumatoid factor antibodies by ELISA. Five patients were tracked for several months to monitor dynamic changes of these antibodies. Results: Rheumatoid-associated autoantibodies were detected in 20.16% of patients (26/129) following infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In addition, IgM-RF was primarily present in critically ill patients, while IgA-RF was mainly present in mild patients. Five patients were able to track for several months to monitor dynamic changes of these antibodies. Rheumatoid factor antibodies peaks in the later phase of the disease and last for longer time. Anti-Jo-1 antibody was found in one of the five patients. Conclusion: This was the case series report that rheumatoid-associated autoantibodies are present in patients with COVID-19. The clinical significance of these antibodies was not fully understood and needed further characterization. These autoantibodies are related to the severity of the patient's disease and exist for a long time in the patient's body, while their impact on the patient's health is unknown.

17.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2365-2373, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217386

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging infectious disease. Our understanding of the clinical characteristics of liver damage and the relationship with disease severity in COVID-19 is still limited. To investigate the serum hepatic enzyme activities in different phenotypes of COVID-19 patients, evaluate their relationship with the illness severity and analyze the correlation of glycyrrhizin treatment and abnormal liver enzyme activities, one hundred and forty-seven patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in a retrospective study that investigated hepatic dysfunction. Liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), Y-glutamyl transferase (GGT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were analyzed in these patients. Patients with diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG) treatment were further investigated. Of the 147 patients, 56 (38.1%) had abnormal ALT activity and 80 (54.4%) had abnormal AST activity. The peak of abnormal hepatic enzyme activities occurred at 3 to 6 days after on admission. Serum AST and LDH levels were elevated, while the SOD level was decreased in severe and critical patients, compared with mild cases. DG treatment may alleviate the abnormal liver enzyme activities in non-critical COVID-19 patients. Abnormal liver functions may be observed in patients with COVID-19, and were associated with SARS-CoV-2-induced acute liver damage. Glycyrrhizin treatment may be an effective therapeutic approach for the outcome of abnormal hepatic enzyme activities in severe COVID-19 cases. Serum hepatic enzyme tests may reflect the illness severity and should be monitored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , Liver/enzymology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Superoxide Dismutase/blood , Young Adult
18.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(8): 1107-1119, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although several COVID-19 vaccines have been developed so far, they will not be sufficient to meet the global demand. Development of a wider range of vaccines, with different mechanisms of action, could help control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 globally. We developed a protein subunit vaccine against COVID-19 using a dimeric form of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein as the antigen. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine, ZF2001, and determine the appropriate dose and schedule for an efficacy study. METHODS: We did two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 and phase 2 trials. Phase 1 was done at two university hospitals in Chongqing and Beijing, China, and phase 2 was done at the Hunan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Xiangtan, China. Healthy adults aged 18-59 years, without a history of SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 infection, an RT-PCR-positive test result for SARS-CoV-2, a history of contact with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 cases, and severe allergies to any component of the vaccine were eligible for enrolment. In phase 1, participants were randomly assigned (2:2:1) to receive three doses of the vaccine (25 µg or 50 µg) or placebo intramuscularly, 30 days apart. In phase 2, participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1:1) to receive the vaccine (25 µg or 50 µg) or placebo intramuscularly, 30 days apart, in either a two-dose schedule or a three-dose schedule. Investigators, participants, and the laboratory team were masked to group allocation. For phase 1, the primary outcome was safety, measured by the occurrence of adverse events and serious adverse events. For phase 2, the primary outcome was safety and immunogenicity (the seroconversion rate and the magnitude, in geometric mean titres [GMTs], of SARS-CoV-2-neutralising antibodies). Analyses were done on an intention-to-treat and per-protocol basis. These trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04445194 and NCT04466085) and participant follow-up is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between June 22 and July 3, 2020, 50 participants were enrolled into the phase 1 trial and randomly assigned to receive three doses of placebo (n=10), the 25 µg vaccine (n=20), or the 50 µg vaccine (n=20). The mean age of participants was 32·6 (SD 9·4) years. Between July 12 and July 17, 2020, 900 participants were enrolled into the phase 2 trial and randomly assigned to receive two doses of placebo (n=150), 25 µg vaccine (n=150), or 50 µg vaccine (n=150), or three doses of placebo (n=150), 25 µg vaccine (n=150), or 50 µg vaccine (n=150). The mean age of participants was 43·5 (SD 9·2) years. In both phase 1 and phase 2, adverse events reported within 30 days after vaccination were mild or moderate (grade 1 or 2) in most cases (phase 1: six [60%] of ten participants in the placebo group, 14 [70%] of 20 in the 25 µg group, and 18 [90%] of 20 in the 50 µg group; phase 2: 37 [25%] of 150 in the two-dose placebo group, 43 [29%] of 150 in the two-dose 25 µg group, 50 [33%] of 150 in the two-dose 50 µg group, 47 [31%] of 150 in the three-dose placebo group, 72 [48%] of 150 in the three-dose 25 µg group, and 65 [43%] of 150 in the three-dose 50 µg group). In phase 1, two (10%) grade 3 or worse adverse events were reported in the 50 µg group. In phase 2, grade 3 or worse adverse events were reported by 18 participants (four [3%] in the two-dose 25 µg vaccine group, two [1%] in the two-dose 50 µg vaccine group, two [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, four [3%] in the three-dose 25 µg vaccine group, and six [4%] in the three-dose 50 µg vaccine group), and 11 were considered vaccine related (two [1%] in the two-dose 25 µg vaccine group, one [1%] in the two-dose 50 µg vaccine group, one [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, two [1%] in the three-dose 25 µg vaccine group, and five [3%] in the three-dose 50 µg vaccine group); seven participants reported serious adverse events (one [1%] in the two-dose 25 µg vaccine group, one [1%] in the two-dose 50 µg vaccine group, two [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, one [1%] in the three-dose 25 µg vaccine group, and two [1%] in the three-dose 50 µg vaccine group), but none was considered vaccine related. In phase 2, on the two-dose schedule, seroconversion rates of neutralising antibodies 14 days after the second dose were 76% (114 of 150 participants) in the 25 µg group and 72% (108 of 150) in the 50 µg group; on the three-dose schedule, seroconversion rates of neutralising antibodies 14 days after the third dose were 97% (143 of 148 participants) in the 25 µg group and 93% (138 of 148) in the 50 µg group. In the two-dose groups in phase 2, the SARS-CoV-2-neutralising GMTs 14 days after the second dose were 17·7 (95% CI 13·6-23·1) in the 25 µg group and 14·1 (10·8-18·3) in the 50 µg group. In the three-dose groups in phase 2, the SARS-CoV-2-neutralising GMTs 14 days after the third dose were 102·5 (95% CI 81·8-128·5) in the 25 µg group and 69·1 (53·0-90·0) in the 50 µg group. INTERPRETATION: The protein subunit vaccine ZF2001 appears to be well tolerated and immunogenic. The safety and immunogenicity data from the phase 1 and 2 trials support the use of the 25 µg dose in a three-dose schedule in an ongoing phase 3 trial for large-scale evaluation of ZF2001's safety and efficacy. FUNDING: National Program on Key Research Project of China, National Science and Technology Major Projects of Drug Discovery, Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Multimerization , Tandem Repeat Sequences , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
19.
Biomarkers in Medicine ; 14(17):1619-1619–1629, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1139121

ABSTRACT

Aim: The authors studied the role of soluble ST2 (sST2) in COVID-19 and its relationship with inflammatory status and disease severity. Materials & methods: Serum levels of sST2 and interleukin (IL)-33, C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid protein (SAA), IL-6 and procalcitonin (PCT), and T lymphocyte subsets from 80 subjects diagnosed with COVID-19 including 36 mild, 41 severe and three asymptomatic cases were tested. Results: Serum sST2 levels were significantly increased in COVID-19 patients, which were positively correlated with CRP, but negatively correlated with CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts. Serum sST2 levels in nonsurviving severe cases were persistently high during disease progression. Conclusion: Serum sST2 level test is helpful for reflecting inflammatory status and illness severity of COVID-19.

20.
Acta Haematol ; 144(5): 500-507, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125393

ABSTRACT

Patients receiving a hematopoietic cell transplant are thought to be at increased risk of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus infectious disease 2019. Transplant activities at our center continue, and notably, no patient has been infected with SARS-CoV-2. Indeed, social distancing, masking, and education for patients and donors are major pillars of prevention. We recommend potential transplant recipients and donors to be tested for SARS-CoV-2 with qRT-PCR, serum antibody detection, and a lung CT scan pretransplant. If possible, stem cells from HLA-matched unrelated donors by local processing laboratories should be cryopreserved and shipped before initiating pretransplant conditioning. An alternative HLA-haplotype-matched related donor should be identified and evaluated as a backup. The interval immediately after discharge is the time of greatest risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection because of travel and exposure to infected persons. We recommend self-isolation and minimal contact with family members. Nonessential clinic visits should be deferred or substituted with telemedicine consultations if possible. These recommendations are based on our experience at a major transplant center in China. Although some recommendations are evidence based, other recommendations are not and warrant validation in controlled trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Hematologic Diseases/diagnosis , Hematologic Diseases/epidemiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/psychology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tissue Donors/psychology
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