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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 709759, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450807

ABSTRACT

The clinical features of SARS-CoV-2 infection range from asymptomatic to severe disease with life-threatening complications. Understanding the persistence of immune responses in asymptomatic individuals merit special attention because of their importance in controlling the spread of the infections. We here studied the antibody and T cell responses, and a wide range of inflammation markers, in 56 SARS-CoV-2 antibody-positive individuals, identified by a population screen after the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These, mostly asymptomatic individuals, were reanalyzed 7-8 months after their infection together with 115 age-matched seronegative controls. We found that 7-8 months after the infection their antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid (N) protein declined whereas we found no decrease in the antibodies to Spike receptor-binding domain (S-RBD) when compared to the findings at seropositivity identification. In contrast to antibodies to N protein, the antibodies to S-RBD correlated with the viral neutralization capacity and with CD4+ T cell responses as measured by antigen-specific upregulation of CD137 and CD69 markers. Unexpectedly we found the asymptomatic antibody-positive individuals to have increased serum levels of S100A12, TGF-alpha, IL18, and OSM, the markers of activated macrophages-monocytes, suggesting long-term persistent inflammatory effect associated with the viral infection in asymptomatic individuals. Our results support the evidence for the long-term persistence of the inflammation process and the need for post-infection clinical monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 infected asymptomatic individuals.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Interleukin-18/blood , Macrophages/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , Oncostatin M/blood , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Protein Domains/immunology , S100A12 Protein/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Transforming Growth Factor alpha/blood
2.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 54(1): 63-71, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406440

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In a country-wide seroprevalence study of COVID-19 in Estonia, we aimed to determine the seroprevalence and the dynamics of IgG against SARS-CoV-2 after vaccination or positive PCR-test. METHODS: Leftover blood samples were selected between 8 February and 25 March 2021, by SYNLAB Estonia from all counties and age groups (0-9, 10-19, 20-59, 60-69, 70-79 and 80-100 years) proportionally to the whole Estonian population and tested for IgG against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain (anti-S-RBD IgG) using Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant assay. Antibody levels after positive PCR-test or vaccination were described by exponential increase-decrease models. RESULTS: According to total of 2517 samples, overall seroprevalence (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 20.1% (18.5-21.7%), similar in all age groups, but varied between counties. If individuals vaccinated with the first dose at least 14 d before antibody measurement were assumed to be seronegative, the overall seroprevalence was 15.8% (14.4-17.3%), 4.0-fold larger than the proportion of PCR-confirmed COVID-19 cases. Of seropositive individuals (n = 506) 194 (38.3%; 33.8-43.1%) had not had positive PCR-test or been vaccinated. According to exponential increase-decrease model, the peak of anti-S-RBD IgG in a 52-year-old (median age of PCR-positive and/or vaccinated individuals) was significantly higher after vaccination compared with positive PCR-test (22,082 (12,897-26,875) vs. 6732 (2321-8243) AU/mL), but half-life was similar (26.5 (6.9-46.1) vs. 38.3 (8.2-68.5) d). CONCLUSIONS: One year after the start of COVID-19 pandemic the actual prevalence of infection is still underestimated compared with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 cases. Older compared with younger individuals have lower anti-S-RBD IgG level after vaccination, but similar decline rate.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Estonia , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Young Adult
3.
Vaccine ; 39(38): 5376-5384, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340875

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In Estonia, during the first wave of COVID-19 total number of cases confirmed by PCR was 13.3/10,000, similar in most regions, including capital Tallinn, but in the hotspot of Estonian epidemic, an island Saaremaa, the cumulative incidence was 166.1/10,000. We aimed to determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in these two regions, symptoms associated with infection and factors associated with antibody concentrations. METHODS: Participants were selected using stratified (formed by age decades) random sampling and recruited by general practitioners. IgG or neutralizing antibodies were determined from sera by four assays. Symptoms associated with seropositivity were analyzed by multiple correspondence analysis, antibody concentrations by multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Total of 3608 individual were invited and 1960 recruited from May 8 to July 31, 2020. Seroprevalence was 1.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9-2.5) and 6.3% (95% CI 5.0-7.9), infection fatality rate 0.1% (95% CI 0.0-0.2) and 1.3% (95% CI 0.4-2.1) in Tallinn and Saaremaa, respectively. Of seropositive subjects 19.2% (14/73) had acute respiratory illness. Fever, diarrhea and the absence of cough and runny nose were associated with seropositivity in individuals aged 50 or more years. IgG, but not neutralizing antibodies concentrations were higher if fever, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, chest pain or diarrhea was present, or hospitalization required. CONCLUSION: Similarly to other European countries the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in Estonia was low even in the hotspot region Saaremaa suggesting that majority of population is susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Focusing only on respiratory symptoms may delay accurate diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Estonia/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies
4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 93: 268-276, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172

ABSTRACT

Viral diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Virus-specific vaccines and antiviral drugs are the most powerful tools to combat viral diseases. However, broad-spectrum antiviral agents (BSAAs, i.e. compounds targeting viruses belonging to two or more viral families) could provide additional protection of the general population from emerging and re-emerging viral diseases, reinforcing the arsenal of available antiviral options. Here, we review discovery and development of BSAAs and summarize the information on 120 safe-in-man agents in a freely accessible database (https://drugvirus.info/). Future and ongoing pre-clinical and clinical studies will increase the number of BSAAs, expand the spectrum of their indications, and identify drug combinations for treatment of emerging and re-emerging viral infections as well as co-infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Drug Development , Drug Discovery , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
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