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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2326-2329, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054899

ABSTRACT

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) was detected in 2 refugees living in a refugee settlement in Kikuube district, Uganda. Investigations revealed a CCHF IgG seroprevalence of 71.3% (37/52) in goats within the refugee settlement. This finding highlights the need for a multisectoral approach to controlling CCHF in humans and animals in Uganda.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo , Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean , Refugees , Animals , Humans , Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean/veterinary , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Uganda/epidemiology , Pandemics , Disease Outbreaks , Goats , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2290-2293, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054898

ABSTRACT

Rift Valley fever, endemic or emerging throughout most of Africa, causes considerable risk to human and animal health. We report 7 confirmed Rift Valley fever cases, 1 fatal, in Kiruhura District, Uganda, during 2021. Our findings highlight the importance of continued viral hemorrhagic fever surveillance, despite challenges associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rift Valley Fever , Rift Valley fever virus , Animals , Humans , Rift Valley Fever/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Uganda/epidemiology , Pandemics , Disease Outbreaks
4.
Virus Evol ; 8(1): veac005, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874000

ABSTRACT

Influenza type-A viruses (IAVs) present a global burden of human respiratory infections and mortality. Genome reassortment is an important mechanism through which epidemiologically novel influenza viruses emerge and a core step in the safe reassortment-incompetent live-attenuated influenza vaccine development. Currently, there are no data on the rate, spatial and temporal distribution, and role of reassortment in the evolution and diversification of IAVs circulating in Africa. We aimed to detect intra-subtype reassortment among Africa pandemic H1N1pdm09 (2009-10), seasonal H1N1pdm09 (2011-20), and seasonal H3N2 viruses and characterize the genomic architecture and temporal and spatial distribution patterns of the resulting reassortants. Our study was nested within the Uganda National Influenza Surveillance Programme. Next-generation sequencing was used to generate whole genomes (WGs) from 234 H1N1pdm09 (n = 116) and H3N2 (n = 118) viruses sampled between 2010 and 2018 from seven districts in Uganda. We combined our newly generated WGs with 658 H1N1pdm09 and 1131 H3N2 WGs sampled between 1994 and 2020 across Africa and identified reassortants using an automated Graph Incompatibility Based Reassortment Finder software. Viral reassortment rates were estimated using a coalescent reassortant constant population model. Phylogenetic analysis was used to assess the effect of reassortment on viral genetic evolution. We observed a high frequency of intra-subtype reassortment events, 12 · 4 per cent (94/758) and 20 · 9 per cent (256/1,224), and reassortants, 13 · 3 per cent (101/758) and 38 · 6 per cent (472/1,224), among Africa H1N1pdm09 and H3N2 viruses, respectively. H1N1pdm09 reassorted at higher rates (0.1237-0.4255) than H3N2 viruses (0 · 00912-0.0355 events/lineage/year), a case unique to Uganda. Viral reassortants were sampled in 2009 through 2020, except in 2012. 78 · 2 per cent (79/101) of H1N1pdm09 reassortants acquired new non-structural, while 57 · 8 per cent (273/472) of the H3N2 reassortants had new hemagglutinin (H3) genes. Africa H3N2 viruses underwent more reassortment events involving larger reassortant sets than H1N1pdm09 viruses. Viruses with a specific reassortment architecture circulated for up to five consecutive years in specific countries and regions. The Eastern (Uganda and Kenya) and Western Africa harboured 84 · 2 per cent (85/101) and 55 · 9 per cent (264/472) of the continent's H1N1pdm09 and H3N2 reassortants, respectively. The frequent reassortment involving multi-genes observed among Africa IAVs showed the intracontinental viral evolution and diversification possibly sustained by viral importation from outside Africa and/or local viral genomic mixing and transmission. Novel reassortant viruses emerged every year, and some persisted in different countries and regions, thereby presenting a risk of influenza outbreaks in Africa. Our findings highlight Africa as part of the global influenza ecology and the advantage of implementing routine whole-over partial genome sequencing and analyses to monitor circulating and detect emerging viruses. Furthermore, this study provides evidence and heightens our knowledge on IAV evolution, which is integral in directing vaccine strain selection and the update of master donor viruses used in recombinant vaccine development.

5.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0265334, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833638

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of seven antigen rapid diagnostic tests (Ag RDTs) in a clinical setting to identify those that could be recommended for use in the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Uganda. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional prospective study. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected consecutively from COVID-19 PCR positive and COVID-19 PCR negative participants at isolation centers and points of entry, and tested with the SARS-CoV-2 Ag RDTs. Test sensitivity and specificity were generated by comparing results against qRT-PCR results (Berlin Protocol) at a cycle threshold (Ct) cut-off of ≤39. Sensitivity was also calculated at Ct cut-offs ≤29 and ≤33. RESULTS: None of the Ag RDTs had a sensitivity of ≥80% at Ct cut-off values ≤33 and ≤39. Two kits, Panbio™ COVID-19 Ag and VivaDiag™ SARS-CoV-2 Ag had a sensitivity of ≥80% at a Ct cut-off value of ≤29. Four kits: BIOCREDIT COVID -19 Ag, COVID-19 Ag Respi-Strip, MEDsan® SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test and Panbio™ COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test had a specificity of ≥97%. CONCLUSIONS: This evaluation identified one Ag RDT, Panbio™ COVID-19 Ag with a performance at high viral load (Ct value ≤29) reaching that recommended by WHO. This kit was recommended for screening of patients with COVID -19-like symptoms presenting at health facilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Uganda/epidemiology
6.
Tegally, Houriiyah, San, James, Cotten, Matthew, Tegomoh, Bryan, Mboowa, Gerald, Martin, Darren, Baxter, Cheryl, Moir, Monika, Lambisia, Arnold, Diallo, Amadou, Amoako, Daniel, Diagne, Moussa, Sisay, Abay, Zekri, Abdel-Rahman, Barakat, Abdelhamid, Gueye, Abdou Salam, Sangare, Abdoul, Ouedraogo, Abdoul-Salam, Sow, Abdourahmane, Musa, Abdualmoniem, Sesay, Abdul, Lagare, Adamou, Kemi, Adedotun-Sulaiman, Abar, Aden Elmi, Johnson, Adeniji, Fowotade, Adeola, Olubusuyi, Adewumi, Oluwapelumi, Adeyemi, Amuri, Adrienne, Juru, Agnes, Ramadan, Ahmad Mabrouk, Kandeil, Ahmed, Mostafa, Ahmed, Rebai, Ahmed, Sayed, Ahmed, Kazeem, Akano, Balde, Aladje, Christoffels, Alan, Trotter, Alexander, Campbell, Allan, Keita, Alpha Kabinet, Kone, Amadou, Bouzid, Amal, Souissi, Amal, Agweyu, Ambrose, Gutierrez, Ana, Page, Andrew, Yadouleton, Anges, Vinze, Anika, Happi, Anise, Chouikha, Anissa, Iranzadeh, Arash, Maharaj, Arisha, Batchi-Bouyou, Armel Landry, Ismail, Arshad, Sylverken, Augustina, Goba, Augustine, Femi, Ayoade, Sijuwola, Ayotunde Elijah, Ibrahimi, Azeddine, Marycelin, Baba, Salako, Babatunde Lawal, Oderinde, Bamidele, Bolajoko, Bankole, Dhaala, Beatrice, Herring, Belinda, Tsofa, Benjamin, Mvula, Bernard, Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie, Marondera, Blessing, Khaireh, Bouh Abdi, Kouriba, Bourema, Adu, Bright, Pool, Brigitte, McInnis, Bronwyn, Brook, Cara, Williamson, Carolyn, Anscombe, Catherine, Pratt, Catherine, Scheepers, Cathrine, Akoua-Koffi, Chantal, Agoti, Charles, Loucoubar, Cheikh, Onwuamah, Chika Kingsley, Ihekweazu, Chikwe, Malaka, Christian Noël, Peyrefitte, Christophe, Omoruyi, Chukwuma Ewean, Rafaï, Clotaire Donatien, Morang’a, Collins, Nokes, James, Lule, Daniel Bugembe, Bridges, Daniel, Mukadi-Bamuleka, Daniel, Park, Danny, Baker, David, Doolabh, Deelan, Ssemwanga, Deogratius, Tshiabuila, Derek, Bassirou, Diarra, Amuzu, Dominic S. Y.; Goedhals, Dominique, Grant, Donald, Omuoyo, Donwilliams, Maruapula, Dorcas, Wanjohi, Dorcas Waruguru, Foster-Nyarko, Ebenezer, Lusamaki, Eddy, Simulundu, Edgar, Ong’era, Edidah, Ngabana, Edith, Abworo, Edward, Otieno, Edward, Shumba, Edwin, Barasa, Edwine, Ahmed, El Bara, Kampira, Elizabeth, Fahime, Elmostafa El, Lokilo, Emmanuel, Mukantwari, Enatha, Cyril, Erameh, Philomena, Eromon, Belarbi, Essia, Simon-Loriere, Etienne, Anoh, Etilé, Leendertz, Fabian, Taweh, Fahn, Wasfi, Fares, Abdelmoula, Fatma, Takawira, Faustinos, Derrar, Fawzi, Ajogbasile, Fehintola, Treurnicht, Florette, Onikepe, Folarin, Ntoumi, Francine, Muyembe, Francisca, Ngiambudulu, Francisco, Zongo Ragomzingba, Frank Edgard, Dratibi, Fred Athanasius, Iyanu, Fred-Akintunwa, Mbunsu, Gabriel, Thilliez, Gaetan, Kay, Gemma, Akpede, George, George, Uwem, van Zyl, Gert, Awandare, Gordon, Schubert, Grit, Maphalala, Gugu, Ranaivoson, Hafaliana, Lemriss, Hajar, Omunakwe, Hannah, Onywera, Harris, Abe, Haruka, Karray, Hela, Nansumba, Hellen, Triki, Henda, Adje Kadjo, Herve Albéric, Elgahzaly, Hesham, Gumbo, Hlanai, mathieu, Hota, Kavunga-Membo, Hugo, Smeti, Ibtihel, Olawoye, Idowu, Adetifa, Ifedayo, Odia, Ikponmwosa, Boubaker, Ilhem Boutiba-Ben, Ssewanyana, Isaac, Wurie, Isatta, Konstantinus, Iyaloo, Afiwa Halatoko, Jacqueline Wemboo, Ayei, James, Sonoo, Janaki, Lekana-Douki, Jean Bernard, Makangara, Jean-Claude, Tamfum, Jean-Jacques, Heraud, Jean-Michel, Shaffer, Jeffrey, Giandhari, Jennifer, Musyoki, Jennifer, Uwanibe, Jessica, Bhiman, Jinal, Yasuda, Jiro, Morais, Joana, Mends, Joana, Kiconco, Jocelyn, Sandi, John Demby, Huddleston, John, Odoom, John Kofi, Morobe, John, Gyapong, John, Kayiwa, John, Okolie, Johnson, Xavier, Joicymara Santos, Gyamfi, Jones, Kofi Bonney, Joseph Humphrey, Nyandwi, Joseph, Everatt, Josie, Farah, Jouali, Nakaseegu, Joweria, Ngoi, Joyce, Namulondo, Joyce, Oguzie, Judith, Andeko, Julia, Lutwama, Julius, O’Grady, Justin, Siddle, Katherine, Victoir, Kathleen, Adeyemi, Kayode, Tumedi, Kefentse, Carvalho, Kevin Sanders, Mohammed, Khadija Said, Musonda, Kunda, Duedu, Kwabena, Belyamani, Lahcen, Fki-Berrajah, Lamia, Singh, Lavanya, Biscornet, Leon, Le.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334191

ABSTRACT

Investment in Africa over the past year with regards to SARS-CoV-2 genotyping has led to a massive increase in the number of sequences, exceeding 100,000 genomes generated to track the pandemic on the continent. Our results show an increase in the number of African countries able to sequence within their own borders, coupled with a decrease in sequencing turnaround time. Findings from this genomic surveillance underscores the heterogeneous nature of the pandemic but we observe repeated dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 variants within the continent. Sustained investment for genomic surveillance in Africa is needed as the virus continues to evolve, particularly in the low vaccination landscape. These investments are very crucial for preparedness and response for future pathogen outbreaks. One-Sentence Summary Expanding Africa SARS-CoV-2 sequencing capacity in a fast evolving pandemic.

7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(5): 1021-1025, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760189

ABSTRACT

Genomic surveillance in Uganda showed rapid replacement of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 over time by variants, dominated by Delta. However, detection of the more transmissible Omicron variant among travelers and increasing community transmission highlight the need for near-real-time genomic surveillance and adherence to infection control measures to prevent future pandemic waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Uganda/epidemiology
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(2): e0010205, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731578

ABSTRACT

Uganda established a domestic Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) testing capacity in 2010 in response to the increasing occurrence of filovirus outbreaks. In July 2018, the neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) experienced its 10th Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak and for the duration of the outbreak, the Ugandan Ministry of Health (MOH) initiated a national EVD preparedness stance. Almost one year later, on 10th June 2019, three family members who had contracted EVD in the DRC crossed into Uganda to seek medical treatment. Samples were collected from all the suspected cases using internationally established biosafety protocols and submitted for VHF diagnostic testing at Uganda Virus Research Institute. All samples were initially tested by RT-PCR for ebolaviruses, marburgviruses, Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus. Four people were identified as being positive for Zaire ebolavirus, marking the first report of Zaire ebolavirus in Uganda. In-country Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and phylogenetic analysis was performed for the first time in Uganda, confirming the outbreak as imported from DRC at two different time point from different clades. This rapid response by the MoH, UVRI and partners led to the control of the outbreak and prevention of secondary virus transmission.


Subject(s)
Ebolavirus , Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo , Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Animals , Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Ebolavirus/genetics , Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean/epidemiology , Humans , Phylogeny , Uganda/epidemiology
9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317738

ABSTRACT

Back ground: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID 19) in Uganda was first reported in a male traveler from Dubai on 21 st March, 2020 shortly after WHO had announced the condition as a global pandemic. Timely laboratory diagnosis of COVID -19 for all samples from both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients was observed as key in containing the pandemic and breaking the chain of transmission. However, there was a challenge of limited resources required for testing SARS-COV-2 in low and middle income countries. To mitigate this, a study was conducted to evaluate a sample pooling strategy for COVI-19 using real time PCR. The cost implication and the turn around time of pooled sample testing versus individual sample testing were also compared. Methods: : In this study, 1260 randomly selected samples submitted to Uganda Virus Research Institute for analysis were batched in pools of 5, 10, and 15. The pools were then extracted using a Qiagen kit. Both individual and pooled RNA were screened for the SARS-COV-2 E gene using a Berlin kit. Results: : Out of 1260 samples tested, 21 pools were positive in pools of 5 samples, 16 were positive in pools of 10 and 14 were positive in pools of 15 samples. The study also revealed that the pooling strategy helps to save a lot on resources, time and expands diagnostic capabilities without affecting the sensitivity of the test in areas with low SARS-COV-2 prevalence. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the pooling strategy for COVID-19 reduced on the turnaround time and there was a substantial increase in the overall testing capacity with limited resources as compared to individual testing.

10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 112: 281-287, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654535

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Serological testing is needed to better understand the epidemiology of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have been developed to detect specific antibodies, IgM and IgG, to the virus. The performance of 25 of these RDTs was evaluated. METHODS: A serological reference panel of 50 positive and 100 negative plasma specimens was developed from SARS-CoV-2 PCR and antibody positive patients and pre-pandemic SARS-CoV-2-negative specimens collected in 2016. Test performance of the 25 RDTs was evaluated against this panel. RESULTS: A total of 10 RDTs had a sensitivity ≥98%, while 13 RDTs had a specificity ≥98% to anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. Four RDTs (Boson, MultiG, Standard Q, and VivaDiag) had both sensitivity and specificity ≥98% to anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. Only three RDTs had a sensitivity ≥98%, while 10 RDTs had a specificity ≥98% to anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM antibodies. Three RDTs (Autobio, MultiG, and Standard Q) had sensitivity and specificity ≥98% to combined IgG/IgM. The RDTs that performed well also had perfect or almost perfect inter-reader agreement. CONCLUSIONS: This evaluation identified three RDTs with a sensitivity and specificity to IgM/IgG antibodies of ≥98% with the potential for widespread antibody testing in Uganda.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Academies and Institutes , Antibodies, Viral , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Sensitivity and Specificity , Uganda/epidemiology
11.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(3): 740-744, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348743

ABSTRACT

Among a prospective cohort of children and adults admitted to a national COVID-19 treatment unit in Uganda from March to December 2020, we characterized the epidemiology of and risk factors for severe illness. Across two epidemic phases differentiated by varying levels of community transmission, the proportion of patients admitted with WHO-defined severe COVID-19 ranged from 5% (7/146; 95% CI: 2-10) to 33% (41/124; 95% CI: 25-42); 21% (26/124; 95% CI: 14-29%) of patients admitted during the peak phase received oxygen therapy. Severe COVID-19 was associated with older age, male sex, and longer duration of illness before admission. Coinfection with HIV was not associated with illness severity; malaria or tuberculosis coinfection was rare. No patients died during admission. Despite low mortality, hospital incidence of severe COVID-19 during the first epidemic peak in Uganda was substantial. Improvements in vaccine deployment and acute care capacity, including oxygen delivery, are urgently needed to prevent and manage severe COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Uganda/epidemiology
12.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(4): 495-505, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262334

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Influenza surveillance helps time prevention and control interventions especially where complex seasonal patterns exist. We assessed influenza surveillance sustainability in Africa where influenza activity varies and external funds for surveillance have decreased. METHODS: We surveyed African Network for Influenza Surveillance and Epidemiology (ANISE) countries about 2011-2017 surveillance system characteristics. Data were summarized with descriptive statistics and analyzed with univariate and multivariable analyses to quantify sustained or expanded influenza surveillance capacity in Africa. RESULTS: Eighteen (75%) of 24 ANISE members participated in the survey; their cumulative population of 710 751 471 represent 56% of Africa's total population. All 18 countries scored a mean 95% on WHO laboratory quality assurance panels. The number of samples collected from severe acute respiratory infection case-patients remained consistent between 2011 and 2017 (13 823 vs 13 674 respectively) but decreased by 12% for influenza-like illness case-patients (16 210 vs 14 477). Nine (50%) gained capacity to lineage-type influenza B. The number of countries reporting each week to WHO FluNet increased from 15 (83%) in 2011 to 17 (94%) in 2017. CONCLUSIONS: Despite declines in external surveillance funding, ANISE countries gained additional laboratory testing capacity and continued influenza testing and reporting to WHO. These gains represent important achievements toward sustainable surveillance and epidemic/pandemic preparedness.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Africa/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Global Health ; 16(1): 114, 2020 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On March 13, 2020, Uganda instituted COVID-19 symptom screening at its international airport, isolation and SARS-CoV-2 testing for symptomatic persons, and mandatory 14-day quarantine and testing of persons traveling through or from high-risk countries. On March 21, 2020, Uganda reported its first SARS-CoV-2 infection in a symptomatic traveler from Dubai. By April 12, 2020, 54 cases and 1257 contacts were identified. We describe the epidemiological, clinical, and transmission characteristics of these cases. METHODS: A confirmed case was laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during March 21-April 12, 2020 in a resident of or traveler to Uganda. We reviewed case-person files and interviewed case-persons at isolation centers. We identified infected contacts from contact tracing records. RESULTS: Mean case-person age was 35 (±16) years; 34 (63%) were male. Forty-five (83%) had recently traveled internationally ('imported cases'), five (9.3%) were known contacts of travelers, and four (7.4%) were community cases. Of the 45 imported cases, only one (2.2%) was symptomatic at entry. Among all case-persons, 29 (54%) were symptomatic at testing and five (9.3%) were pre-symptomatic. Among the 34 (63%) case-persons who were ever symptomatic, all had mild disease: 16 (47%) had fever, 13 (38%) reported headache, and 10 (29%) reported cough. Fifteen (28%) case-persons had underlying conditions, including three persons with HIV. An average of 31 contacts (range, 4-130) were identified per case-person. Five (10%) case-persons, all symptomatic, infected one contact each. CONCLUSION: The first 54 case-persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Uganda primarily comprised incoming air travelers with asymptomatic or mild disease. Disease would likely not have been detected in these persons without the targeted testing interventions implemented in Uganda. Transmission was low among symptomatic persons and nonexistent from asymptomatic persons. Routine, systematic screening of travelers and at-risk persons, and thorough contact tracing will be needed for Uganda to maintain epidemic control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Mass Screening/methods , Pandemics , Travel , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Child , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Uganda/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 282-286, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898982

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There is a high demand for SARS-CoV-2 testing to identify COVID-19 cases. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) is the recommended diagnostic test but a number of constraints prevent its widespread implementation, including cost. The aim of this study was to evaluate a low cost and easy to use rapid antigen test for diagnosing COVID-19 at the point of care. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs from suspected COVID-19 cases and low-risk volunteers were tested with the STANDARD Q COVID-19 Ag Test and the results were compared with the qRT-PCR results. RESULTS: In total, 262 samples were collected, including 90 qRT-PCR positives. The majority of samples were from males (89%) with a mean age of 34 years and only 13 (14%) of the positives were mildly symptomatic. The sensitivity and specificity of the antigen test were 70.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 60-79) and 92% (95% CI: 87-96), respectively, and the diagnostic accuracy was 84% (95% CI: 79-88). The antigen test was more likely to be positive for samples with qRT-PCR Ct values ≤29, with a sensitivity of 92%. CONCLUSIONS: The STANDARD Q COVID-19 Ag Test performed less than optimally in this evaluation. However, the test may still have an important role to play early in infection when timely access to molecular testing is not available but the results should be confirmed by qRT-PCR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , Point-of-Care Systems , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Uganda
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(10): 2411-2415, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-625963

ABSTRACT

We established rapid local viral sequencing to document the genomic diversity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 entering Uganda. Virus lineages closely followed the travel origins of infected persons. Our sequence data provide an important baseline for tracking any further transmission of the virus throughout the country and region.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Air Travel , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Genetic Variation , Genome , Health Policy , Humans , Mass Screening , Motor Vehicles , Phylogeography , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Uganda/epidemiology
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