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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337701

ABSTRACT

Background Paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) is a rare but serious condition temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using the Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program (CPSP), a national surveillance system, we aimed to 1) study the impact of SARS-CoV-2 linkage on clinical and laboratory characteristics, and outcomes in hospitalized children with PIMS across Canada 2) identify risk factors for ICU admission, and 3) establish the minimum national incidence of hospitalizations due to PIMS and compare it to acute COVID-19. Methods Weekly online case reporting was distributed to the CPSP network of more than 2800 pediatricians, from March 2020 to May 2021. Comparisons were made between cases with respect to SARS-CoV-2 linkage. Multivariable modified Poisson regression was used to identify risk factors for ICU admission and Minimum incidence proportions were calculated. Findings In total, 406 PIMS cases were analyzed, of whom 202 (49· 8%) had a positive SARS-CoV-2 linkage, 106 (26· 1%) had a negative linkage, and 98 (24· 1%) had an unknown linkage. The median age was 5· 4 years (IQR 2· 5–9· 8), 60% were male, and 83% had no identified comorbidities. Compared to cases with a negative SARS-CoV-2 linkage, children with a positive SARS-CoV-2 linkage were older (8· 1 years [IQR 4· 2–11· 9] vs. 4· 1 years [IQR 1· 7–7· 7];p<0· 001), had more cardiac involvement (58· 8% vs. 37· 4%;p<0· 001), gastrointestinal symptoms (88· 6% vs. 63· 2%;p<0· 001), and shock (60· 9% vs. 16· 0%;p<0· 001). At–risk groups for ICU admission include children ≥ 6 years and those with a positive SARS-CoV-2 linkage. No deaths were reported. The minimum incidence of PIMS hospitalizations during the study period was 5· 6 hospitalizations per 100,000 population <18 years. Interpretation While PIMS is rare, almost 1 in 3 hospitalized children required ICU admission and respiratory/hemodynamic support, particularly those ≥ 6 years and with a positive SARS-CoV-2 linkage. Funding Financial support for the CPSP was received from the Public Health Agency of Canada.

2.
Paediatr Child Health ; 27(Suppl 1): S22-S26, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853149

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Rapid identification and isolation of SARS-CoV-2 cases are priorities in school and child care settings to prevent further outbreaks. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infections among preschool (<5 years) versus school-aged (≥5 years) children diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and, specifically, the probability of presenting with an isolated symptom, such rhinorrhea or sore throat. Methods: Retrospective study of children (≤18 years of age) diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 in the outpatient COVID-19 clinic or the Emergency Department at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine (Montreal, Quebec, Canada) February through May 2020. Results: Of 3,789 children tested, 105 (3%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, and 104 included in the analysis (n=49 age <5 years and n=55 age ≥5 years). While fever was the most common presenting symptom across both age groups, in the absence of fever, the presence of a combination of two or more symptoms identified the majority (92%) of cases. Isolated single symptom presentations were uncommon (<5% of cases). Most importantly, not a single child in either age group presented with isolated rhinorrhea or sore throat. Conclusions: While there are differences in the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 in preschool- versus school-aged children, in both age groups, isolated rhinorrhea was not a manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results could help further guide testing criteria and exclusion criteria in child care and school settings.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322894

ABSTRACT

Recently, COVID-19 has affected a variety of real-life aspects of the world and led to dreadful consequences. More and more tweets about COVID-19 has been shared publicly on Twitter. However, the plurality of those Tweets are uninformative, which is challenging to build automatic systems to detect the informative ones for useful AI applications. In this paper, we present our results at the W-NUT 2020 Shared Task 2: Identification of Informative COVID-19 English Tweets. In particular, we propose our simple but effective approach using the transformer-based models based on COVID-Twitter-BERT (CT-BERT) with different fine-tuning techniques. As a result, we achieve the F1-Score of 90.94\% with the third place on the leaderboard of this task which attracted 56 submitted teams in total.

4.
CMAJ ; 193(46): E1774-E1785, 2021 11 22.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666788

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTE: Les facteurs de risque de complications graves de l'infection par le SRAS-CoV-2 n'ont pas été bien établis chez les enfants. Nous avons voulu décrire les hospitalisations pédiatriques associées au SRAS-CoV-2 au Canada et identifier les facteurs de risque de maladie grave. MÉTHODES: Nous avons procédé à une étude prospective nationale en utilisant l'infrastructure du Programme canadien de surveillance pédiatrique (PCSP). Les hospitalisations d'enfants ayant contracté une infection par le SRAS-CoV-2 confirmée en laboratoire de microbiologie ont été rapportées du 8 avril au 31 décembre 2020 au moyen de questionnaires hebdomadaires en ligne distribués au réseau du PCSP, qui compte plus de 2800 pédiatres. Nous avons catégorisé les hospitalisations comme suit : liées à la COVID-19, infections découvertes fortuitement, ou hospitalisations pour des raisons sociales ou de contrôle des infections, et dégagé les facteurs de risque associés à la gravité de la maladie chez les patients hospitalisés. RÉSULTATS: Sur les 264 hospitalisations d'enfants ayant contracté le SRAS-CoV-2 au cours de la période de l'étude de 9 mois, 150 (56,8 %) ont été associées à la COVID-19 et 100 (37,9 %) étaient des cas découverts fortuitement (admission pour d'autres raisons et découverte fortuite du SRAS-CoV-2 par dépistage positif). Les nourrissons (37,3 %) et les adolescents (29,6 %) représentaient la majorité des cas. Parmi les hospitalisations liées à la COVID-19, 52 patients (34,7 %) étaient atteints d'une forme grave de la maladie, dont 42 (28,0 % des cas liés à la COVID-19) ont eu besoin d'une forme d'assistance respiratoire ou hémodynamique, et 59 (39,3 %) présentaient au moins 1 comorbidité sous-jacente. Les enfants atteints d'obésité, de maladies neurologiques chroniques ou de maladies pulmonaires chroniques, à l'exclusion de l'asthme, étaient plus susceptibles de présenter une forme grave ou critique de la COVID-19. INTERPRÉTATION: Parmi les enfants hospitalisés au Canada chez lesquels on a diagnostiqué une infection par le SRAS-CoV-2 au début de la pandémie de COVID-19, la découverte fortuite du SRAS-CoV-2 a été fréquente. Chez les enfants hospitalisés pour une COVID-19 aiguë, l'obésité et les comorbidités neurologiques et respiratoires ont été associées à une gravité accrue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Canada , Child , Hospitalization , Humans
5.
CMAJ ; 193(38): E1483-E1493, 2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448587

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk factors for severe outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection are not well established in children. We sought to describe pediatric hospital admissions associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Canada and identify risk factors for more severe disease. METHODS: We conducted a national prospective study using the infrastructure of the Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program (CPSP). Cases involving children who were admitted to hospital with microbiologically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were reported from Apr. 8 to Dec. 31 2020, through weekly online questionnaires distributed to the CPSP network of more than 2800 pediatricians. We categorized hospital admissions as related to COVID-19, incidental, or for social or infection control reasons and determined risk factors for disease severity in hospital. RESULTS: Among 264 hospital admissions involving children with SARS-CoV-2 infection during the 9-month study period, 150 (56.8%) admissions were related to COVID-19 and 100 (37.9%) were incidental infections (admissions for other reasons and found to be positive for SARS-CoV-2 on screening). Infants (37.3%) and adolescents (29.6%) represented most cases. Among hospital admissions related to COVID-19, 52 (34.7%) had critical disease, 42 (28.0%) of whom required any form of respiratory or hemodynamic support, and 59 (39.3%) had at least 1 underlying comorbidity. Children with obesity, chronic neurologic conditions or chronic lung disease other than asthma were more likely to have severe or critical COVID-19. INTERPRETATION: Among children who were admitted to hospital with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Canada during the early COVID-19 pandemic period, incidental SARS-CoV-2 infection was common. In children admitted with acute COVID-19, obesity and neurologic and respiratory comorbidities were associated with more severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Severity of Illness Index , Acute Disease , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Incidental Findings , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Prospective Studies , Public Health Surveillance , Risk Factors
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 650331, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156125

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection represents a global health crisis. Immune cell activation via pattern recognition receptors has been implicated as a driver of the hyperinflammatory response seen in COVID-19. However, our understanding of the specific immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 remains limited. Mast cells (MCs) and eosinophils are innate immune cells that play pathogenic roles in many inflammatory responses. Here we report MC-derived proteases and eosinophil-associated mediators are elevated in COVID-19 patient sera and lung tissues. Stimulation of viral-sensing toll-like receptors in vitro and administration of synthetic viral RNA in vivo induced features of hyperinflammation, including cytokine elevation, immune cell airway infiltration, and MC-protease production-effects suppressed by an anti-Siglec-8 monoclonal antibody which selectively inhibits MCs and depletes eosinophils. Similarly, anti-Siglec-8 treatment reduced disease severity and airway inflammation in a respiratory viral infection model. These results suggest that MC and eosinophil activation are associated with COVID-19 inflammation and anti-Siglec-8 antibodies are a potential therapeutic approach for attenuating excessive inflammation during viral infections.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD/immunology , Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Eosinophils/immunology , Lectins/immunology , Mast Cells/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antigens, CD/genetics , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Eosinophils/drug effects , Eosinophils/metabolism , Eosinophils/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lectins/antagonists & inhibitors , Lectins/genetics , Lectins/metabolism , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/metabolism , Mast Cells/virology , Mice, Transgenic , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
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