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1.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 693196, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809431

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis (IB) virus (IBV) causes considerable economic losses to poultry production. The data on transmission dynamics of IBV in China are limited. The complete genome sequences of 212 IBV isolates in China during 1985-2020 were analyzed as well as the characteristics of the phylogenetic tree, recombination events, dN/dS ratios, temporal dynamics, and phylogeographic relationships. The LX4 type (GI-19) was found to have the highest dN/dS ratios and has been the most dominant genotype since 1999, and the Taiwan-I type (GI-7) and New type (GVI-1) showed an increasing trend. A total of 59 recombinants were identified, multiple recombination events between the field and vaccine strains were found in 24 isolates, and the 4/91-type (GI-13) isolates were found to be more prone to being involved in the recombination. Bayesian phylogeographic analyses indicated that the Chinese IBVs originated from Liaoning province in the early 1900s. The LX4-type viruses were traced back to Liaoning province in the late 1950s and had multiple transmission routes in China and two major transmission routes in the world. Viral phylogeography identified three spread regions for IBVs (including LX4 type) in China: Northeastern China (Heilongjiang, Liaoning, and Jilin), north and central China (Beijing, Hebei, Shanxi, Shandong, and Jiangsu), and Southern China (Guangxi and Guangdong). Shandong has been the epidemiological center of IBVs (including LX4 type) in China. Overall, our study highlighted the reasons why the LX4-type viruses had become the dominant genotype and its origin and transmission routes, providing more targeted strategies for the prevention and control of IB in China.

2.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 90, 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) leads to huge economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The high levels of mutations of IBV render vaccines partially protective. Therefore, it is urgent to explore an effective antiviral drug or agent. The present study aimed to investigate the in vivo anti-IBV activity of a mixture of plant essential oils (PEO) of cinnamaldehyde (CA) and glycerol monolaurate (GML), designated as Jin-Jing-Zi. RESULTS: The antiviral effects were evaluated by clinical signs, viral loads, immune organ indices, antibody levels, and cytokine levels. The infection rates in the PEO-M (middle dose) and PEO-H (high dose) groups were significantly lower than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L (low dose) groups. The cure rates in the PEO-M and PEO-H groups were significantly higher than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups, and the PEO-M group had the highest cure rate of 92.31%. The symptom scores and IBV mRNA expression levels were significantly reduced in the PEO-M group. PEO significantly improved the immune organ indices and IBV-specific antibody titers of infected chickens. The anti-inflammatory factor levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the PEO-M group maintained high concentrations for a long time. The IL-6 levels in the PEO-M group were lower than those in prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups. CONCLUSION: The PEO had remarkable inhibition against IBV and the PEO acts by inhibiting virus multiplication and promoting immune function, suggesting that the PEO has great potential as a novel anti-IBV agent for inhibiting IBV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Oils, Volatile , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Poultry Diseases/drug therapy , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
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