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1.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911652

ABSTRACT

Antigenic imprinting, which describes the bias of the antibody response due to previous immune history, can influence vaccine effectiveness. While this phenomenon has been reported for viruses such as influenza, there is little understanding of how prior immune history affects the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2. This study provides evidence for antigenic imprinting through immunization with two Sarbecoviruses, the subgenus that includes SARS-CoV-2. Mice were immunized subsequently with two antigenically distinct Sarbecovirus strains, namely SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2. We found that sequential heterologous immunization induced cross-reactive binding antibodies for both viruses and delayed the emergence of neutralizing antibody responses against the booster strain. Our results provide fundamental knowledge about the immune response to Sarbecovirus and important insights into the development of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines and guiding therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
Immunity ; 55(6): 1105-1117.e4, 2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889505

ABSTRACT

Global research to combat the COVID-19 pandemic has led to the isolation and characterization of thousands of human antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, providing an unprecedented opportunity to study the antibody response to a single antigen. Using the information derived from 88 research publications and 13 patents, we assembled a dataset of ∼8,000 human antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein from >200 donors. By analyzing immunoglobulin V and D gene usages, complementarity-determining region H3 sequences, and somatic hypermutations, we demonstrated that the common (public) responses to different domains of the spike protein were quite different. We further used these sequences to train a deep-learning model to accurately distinguish between the human antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and those to influenza hemagglutinin protein. Overall, this study provides an informative resource for antibody research and enhances our molecular understanding of public antibody responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Humans , Pandemics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
Clin Exp Optom ; : 1-5, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606296

ABSTRACT

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Understanding the impact of home confinement on axial length in myopic children undergoing orthokeratology (OK) treatment facilitates the management of myopia control during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown. BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 and the corresponding home confinement measures have brought a considerable challenge to myopia control. The study aimed to investigate the influence of home quarantine on axial length in myopic children with OK treatment. METHODS: Axial length measurements during and before COVID-19 home confinement were retrospectively collected from the myopic children treated with OK, and the children were prospectively followed up after finishing the quarantine. The monthly axial length growth before, during and after confinement was calculated and compared in the full dataset and subgroups stratified by age. Influencing factors for monthly axial length growth during confinement were analysed. RESULTS: Ninety-two myopic children with OK treatment were enrolled in this study. In the full dataset, covariates adjusted (gender, time interval, baseline axial length and age) monthly axial length growth during confinement was not significantly different from that before (P = 0.213) or after the home confinement (P = 1.000). Multiple linear regression showed that the monthly axial length growth during confinement was negatively correlated with age (P = 0.002). Subgroup analysis based on age demonstrated that the adjusted monthly axial length growth was not significantly different among three periods (P > 0.05) for younger children. For children older than 12-year-old, the adjusted monthly axial length growth during home confinement was significantly slower than before the confinement (P = 0.011), but not the monthly axial length growth after the confinement (P = 1.000). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 home confinement does not increase the myopic axial length elongation in children with OK treatment.

4.
Pathogens ; 10(10)2021 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444291

ABSTRACT

Viral transcription is an essential step of SARS-CoV-2 infection after invasion into the target cells. Antiviral drugs such as remdesivir, which is used to treat COVID-19 patients, targets the viral RNA synthesis. Understanding the mechanism of viral transcription may help to develop new therapeutic treatment by perturbing virus replication. In this study, we established 28 ddPCR assays and designed specific primers/probe sets to detect the RNA levels of 15 NSP, 9 ORF, and 4 structural genes of SARS-CoV-2. The transcriptional kinetics of these viral genes were determined longitudinally from the beginning of infection to 12 h postinfection in Caco-2 cells. We found that SARS-CoV-2 takes around 6 h to hijack the cells before the initiation of viral transcription process in human cells. Our results may contribute to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

5.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(9): 2296-2305, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258058

ABSTRACT

The increasing numbers of infected cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses serious threats to public health and the global economy. Most SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies target the receptor binding domain (RBD) and some the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the spike protein, which is the major antigen of SARS-CoV-2. While the antibody response to RBD has been extensively characterized, the antigenicity and immunogenicity of the NTD protein are less well studied. Using 227 plasma samples from COVID-19 patients, we showed that SARS-CoV-2 NTD-specific antibodies could be induced during infection. As compared to the results of SARS-CoV-2 RBD, the serological response of SARS-CoV-2 NTD is less cross-reactive with SARS-CoV, a pandemic strain that was identified in 2003. Furthermore, neutralizing antibodies are rarely elicited in a mice model when NTD is used as an immunogen. We subsequently demonstrate that NTD has an altered antigenicity when expressed alone. Overall, our results suggest that while NTD offers a supplementary strategy for serology testing, it may not be suitable as an immunogen for vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pandemics/prevention & control , Protein Binding/immunology , Sf9 Cells , Vero Cells
6.
Cell Rep ; 35(8): 109173, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227991

ABSTRACT

Individuals with the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) show varying severity of the disease, ranging from asymptomatic to requiring intensive care. Although monoclonal antibodies specific to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been identified, we still lack an understanding of the overall landscape of B cell receptor (BCR) repertoires in individuals with COVID-19. We use high-throughput sequencing of bulk and plasma B cells collected at multiple time points during infection to characterize signatures of the B cell response to SARS-CoV-2 in 19 individuals. Using principled statistical approaches, we associate differential features of BCRs with different disease severity. We identify 38 significantly expanded clonal lineages shared among individuals as candidates for responses specific to SARS-CoV-2. Using single-cell sequencing, we verify the reactivity of BCRs shared among individuals to SARS-CoV-2 epitopes. Moreover, we identify the natural emergence of a BCR with cross-reactivity to SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 in some individuals. Our results provide insights important for development of rational therapies and vaccines against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cross Reactions , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , Epitopes , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Severity of Illness Index , Sf9 Cells , Single-Cell Analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
7.
J Clin Invest ; 130(10): 5235-5244, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969923

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent for coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Little is known about the kinetics, tissue distribution, cross-reactivity, and neutralization antibody response in patients with COVID-19. Two groups of patients with RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled in this study: 12 severely ill patients in intensive care units who needed mechanical ventilation and 11 mildly ill patients in isolation wards. Serial clinical samples were collected for laboratory detection. Results showed that most of the severely ill patients had viral shedding in a variety of tissues for 20-40 days after onset of disease (8/12, 66.7%), while the majority of mildly ill patients had viral shedding restricted to the respiratory tract and had no detectable virus RNA 10 days after onset (9/11, 81.8%). Mildly ill patients showed significantly lower IgM response compared with that of the severe group. IgG responses were detected in most patients in both the severe and mild groups at 9 days after onset, and remained at a high level throughout the study. Antibodies cross-reactive to SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 were detected in patients with COVID-19 but not in patients with MERS. High levels of neutralizing antibodies were induced after about 10 days after onset in both severely and mildly ill patients which were higher in the severe group. SARS-CoV-2 pseudotype neutralization test and focus reduction neutralization test with authentic virus showed consistent results. Sera from patients with COVID-19 inhibited SARS-CoV-2 entry. Sera from convalescent patients with SARS or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) did not. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S and N IgG levels exhibited a moderate correlation with neutralization titers in patients' plasma. This study improves our understanding of immune response in humans after SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Viral Load , Virus Shedding , Adult , Aged , Antibody Specificity , COVID-19 , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
8.
ArXiv ; 2020 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-887871

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients show varying severity of the disease ranging from asymptomatic to requiring intensive care. Although a number of monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 have been identified, we still lack an understanding of the overall landscape of B-cell receptor (BCR) repertoires in COVID-19 patients. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing of BCR repertoires collected over multiple time points during an infection to characterize statistical and dynamical signatures of the B-cell response to SARS-CoV-2 in 19 patients with different disease severities. Based on principled statistical approaches, we determined differential sequence features of BCRs associated with different disease severity. We identified 34 significantly expanded rare clonal lineages shared among patients as candidates for a specific response to SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, we identified natural emergence of a BCR with cross-reactivity to SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 in a number of patients. Overall, our results provide important insights for development of rational therapies and vaccines against COVID-19.

9.
Science ; 369(6508): 1210-1220, 2020 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704393

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents a global crisis, yet major knowledge gaps remain about human immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We analyzed immune responses in 76 COVID-19 patients and 69 healthy individuals from Hong Kong and Atlanta, Georgia, United States. In the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of COVID-19 patients, we observed reduced expression of human leukocyte antigen class DR (HLA-DR) and proinflammatory cytokines by myeloid cells as well as impaired mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and interferon-α (IFN-α) production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. By contrast, we detected enhanced plasma levels of inflammatory mediators-including EN-RAGE, TNFSF14, and oncostatin M-which correlated with disease severity and increased bacterial products in plasma. Single-cell transcriptomics revealed a lack of type I IFNs, reduced HLA-DR in the myeloid cells of patients with severe COVID-19, and transient expression of IFN-stimulated genes. This was consistent with bulk PBMC transcriptomics and transient, low IFN-α levels in plasma during infection. These results reveal mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Cytokines/blood , DNA, Bacterial/blood , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Female , Flow Cytometry , HLA-DR Antigens/analysis , Humans , Immunity , Immunity, Innate , Immunoglobulins/blood , Immunoglobulins/immunology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/blood , Male , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Myeloid Cells/metabolism , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Single-Cell Analysis , Systems Biology , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic , Transcriptome
10.
Eur J Immunol ; 50(7): 939-943, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-327069

ABSTRACT

Vaccine development against SARS-CoV-2 has drawn attention around the globe due to the exploding pandemic. Although COVID-19 is caused by a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, previous research on other coronavirus vaccines, such as FIPV, SARS, and MERS, has provided valuable information for the rapid development of COVID-19 vaccine. However, important knowledge gaps remain - some are specific to SARS-CoV-2, others are fundamental to immunology and vaccinology. Here, we discuss areas that need to be addressed for COVID-19 vaccine development, and what can be learned from examples of vaccine development in the past. Since the beginning of the outbreak, the research progress on COVID-19 has been remarkable. We are therefore optimistic about the rapid development of COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Drug Development , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Cell Rep ; 31(9): 107725, 2020 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276452

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization has declared the ongoing outbreak of COVID-19, which is caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, a pandemic. There is currently a lack of knowledge about the antibody response elicited from SARS-CoV-2 infection. One major immunological question concerns antigenic differences between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. We address this question by analyzing plasma from patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV and from infected or immunized mice. Our results show that, although cross-reactivity in antibody binding to the spike protein is common, cross-neutralization of the live viruses may be rare, indicating the presence of a non-neutralizing antibody response to conserved epitopes in the spike. Whether such low or non-neutralizing antibody response leads to antibody-dependent disease enhancement needs to be addressed in the future. Overall, this study not only addresses a fundamental question regarding antigenicity differences between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV but also has implications for immunogen design and vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Reactions/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Sf9 Cells , Vero Cells , Viral Vaccines/immunology
12.
Euro Surveill ; 25(16)2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108708

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has major impacts on health systems, the economy and society. Assessing infection attack rates in the population is critical for estimating disease severity and herd immunity which is needed to calibrate public health interventions. We have previously shown that it is possible to achieve this in real time to impact public health decision making.AimOur objective was to develop and evaluate serological assays applicable in large-scale sero-epidemiological studies.MethodsWe developed an ELISA to detect IgG and IgM antibodies to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We evaluated its sensitivity and specificity in combination with confirmatory microneutralisation (MN) and 90% plaque reduction neutralisation tests (PRNT90) in 51 sera from 24 patients with virologically confirmed COVID-19 and in age-stratified sera from 200 healthy controls.ResultsIgG and IgM RBD ELISA, MN and PRNT90 were reliably positive after 29 days from illness onset with no detectable cross-reactivity in age-stratified controls. We found that PRNT90 tests were more sensitive in detecting antibody than MN tests carried out with the conventional 100 tissue culture infectious dose challenge. Heparinised plasma appeared to reduce the infectivity of the virus challenge dose and may confound interpretation of neutralisation test.ConclusionUsing IgG ELISA based on the RBD of the spike protein to screen sera for SARS-CoV-2 antibody, followed by confirmation using PRNT90, is a valid approach for large-scale sero-epidemiology studies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serologic Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Chlorocebus aethiops , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Vero Cells , Young Adult
13.
Science ; 368(6491): 630-633, 2020 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-31567

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has now become a pandemic, but there is currently very little understanding of the antigenicity of the virus. We therefore determined the crystal structure of CR3022, a neutralizing antibody previously isolated from a convalescent SARS patient, in complex with the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein at 3.1-angstrom resolution. CR3022 targets a highly conserved epitope, distal from the receptor binding site, that enables cross-reactive binding between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. Structural modeling further demonstrates that the binding epitope can only be accessed by CR3022 when at least two RBDs on the trimeric S protein are in the "up" conformation and slightly rotated. These results provide molecular insights into antibody recognition of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Epitopes , SARS Virus/chemistry , SARS Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Affinity , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites , Cross Reactions , Crystallography, X-Ray , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/immunology , Models, Molecular , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/immunology , Receptors, Coronavirus , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
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