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Engineering (Beijing) ; 2023 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2178443


Recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector has been widely applied in vaccine development targeting infectious diseases, such as Ebola virus disease and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the high prevalence of preexisting anti-vector immunity compromises the immunogenicity of Ad5-based vaccines. Thus, there is a substantial unmet need to minimize preexisting immunity while improving the insert-induced immunity of Ad5 vectors. Herein, we address this need by utilizing biocompatible nanoparticles to modulate Ad5-host interactions. We show that positively charged human serum albumin nanoparticles ((+)HSAnp), which are capable of forming a complex with Ad5, significantly increase the transgene expression of Ad5 in both coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor-positive and -negative cells. Furthermore, in charge- and dose-dependent manners, Ad5/(+)HSAnp complexes achieve robust (up to 227-fold higher) and long-term (up to 60 days) transgene expression in the lungs of mice following intranasal instillation. Importantly, in the presence of preexisting anti-Ad5 immunity, complexed Ad5-based Ebola and COVID-19 vaccines significantly enhance antigen-specific humoral response and mucosal immunity. These findings suggest that viral aggregation and charge modification could be leveraged to engineer enhanced viral vectors for vaccines and gene therapies.

BMC Med Imaging ; 20(1): 118, 2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883568


BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global pandemic. According to the diagnosis and treatment guidelines of China, negative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the key criterion for discharging COVID-19 patients. However, repeated RT-PCR tests lead to medical waste and prolonged hospital stays for COVID-19 patients during the recovery period. Our purpose is to assess a model based on chest computed tomography (CT) radiomic features and clinical characteristics to predict RT-PCR negativity during clinical treatment. METHODS: From February 10 to March 10, 2020, 203 mild COVID-19 patients in Fangcang Shelter Hospital were retrospectively included (training: n = 141; testing: n = 62), and clinical characteristics were collected. Lung abnormalities on chest CT images were segmented with a deep learning algorithm. CT quantitative features and radiomic features were automatically extracted. Clinical characteristics and CT quantitative features were compared between RT-PCR-negative and RT-PCR-positive groups. Univariate logistic regression and Spearman correlation analyses identified the strongest features associated with RT-PCR negativity, and a multivariate logistic regression model was established. The diagnostic performance was evaluated for both cohorts. RESULTS: The RT-PCR-negative group had a longer time interval from symptom onset to CT exams than the RT-PCR-positive group (median 23 vs. 16 days, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the other clinical characteristics or CT quantitative features. In addition to the time interval from symptom onset to CT exams, nine CT radiomic features were selected for the model. ROC curve analysis revealed AUCs of 0.811 and 0.812 for differentiating the RT-PCR-negative group, with sensitivity/specificity of 0.765/0.625 and 0.784/0.600 in the training and testing datasets, respectively. CONCLUSION: The model combining CT radiomic features and clinical data helped predict RT-PCR negativity during clinical treatment, indicating the proper time for RT-PCR retesting.

Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitals, Special , Humans , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4081, 2020 08 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717117


The unprecedented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has created a worldwide public health emergency, and there is an urgent need to develop an effective vaccine to control this severe infectious disease. Here, we find that a single vaccination with a replication-defective human type 5 adenovirus encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (Ad5-nCoV) protect mice completely against mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 infection in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Additionally, a single vaccination with Ad5-nCoV protects ferrets from wild-type SARS-CoV-2 infection in the upper respiratory tract. This study suggests that the mucosal vaccination may provide a desirable protective efficacy and this delivery mode is worth further investigation in human clinical trials.

Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Design , Female , Genetic Vectors , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/genetics