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Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(6): 707-714, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282177


OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of COVID-19 on acute cerebrovascular disease care across 9 comprehensive stroke centers throughout Los Angeles County (LAC). METHODS: Volume of emergency stroke code activations, patient characteristics, stroke severity, reperfusion rates, treatment times, and outcomes from February 1 to April 30, 2020, were compared against the same time period in 2019. Demographic data were provided by each participating institution. RESULTS: There was a 17.3% decrease in stroke code activations across LAC in 2020 compared to 2019 (1,786 vs. 2,159, respectively, χ2 goodness of fit test p < 0.0001) across 9 participating comprehensive stroke centers. Patients who did not receive any reperfusion therapy decreased by 16.6% in 2020 (1,527) compared to 2019 (1,832). Patients who received only intravenous thrombolytic (IVT) therapy decreased by 31.8% (107 vs. 157). Patients who received only mechanical thrombectomy (MT) increased by 3% (102 vs. 99). Patients who received both IVT and MT decreased by 31.8% (45 vs. 66). Recanalization treatment times in 2020 were comparable to 2019. CSCs serving a higher proportion of Latinx populations in the eastern parts of LAC experienced a higher incidence of MT in 2020 compared to 2019. Mild increase in stroke severity was seen in 2020 compared to 2019 (8.95 vs. 8.23, p = 0.046). A higher percentage of patients were discharged home in 2020 compared to 2019 (59.5 vs. 56.1%, p = 0.034), a lower percentage of patients were discharged to skilled nursing facility (16.1 vs. 20.7%, p = 0.0004), and a higher percentage of patients expired (8.6 vs. 6.3%, p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: LAC saw a decrease in overall stroke code activations in 2020 compared to 2019. Reperfusion treatment times remained comparable to prepandemic metrics. There has been an increase in severe stroke incidence and higher volume of thrombectomy treatments in Latinx communities within LAC during the pandemic of 2020. More patients were discharged home, less patients discharged to skilled nursing facilities, and more patients expired in 2020, compared to the same time frame in 2019.

Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Humans , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombectomy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
Stroke ; 51(9): 2613-2614, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696158
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104982, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343281


We report a case of ophthalmic artery occlusion (OAO) in a young patient with COVID-19 infection that was on therapeutic anticoagulation with apixaban for deep venous thrombosis (DVT). A 48-year-old man with obesity was hospitalized with a severe form of COVID-19 infection, complicated with acute respiratory failure, septic shock, dilated cardiomyopathy and fungemia. Despite treatment with prophylactic enoxaparin (initial D-Dimer 1.14 µg/ml FEU (normal < 0.05 µg/ml FEU), D-Dimer increased to above 20 µg/ml FEU and patient continued to spike high fevers. This prompted further investigations and upper and lower extremities DVTs were confirmed and managed with enoxaparin 1 mg/kg twice daily. D-dimer level decreased to 4.98 µg/ml FEU while on therapeutic anticoagulation. Three weeks later pending hospital discharge, the anticoagulation was switched to oral apixaban 10 mg twice daily. Patient developed acute severe right eye visual loss of no light perception and was diagnosed with incomplete OAO. D-Dimer was elevated at 2.13 µg/ml FEU. Stroke etiological work-up found no embolic sources, resolution of the dilated cardiomyopathy and negative antiphospholipid antibodies. Treatment was changed to enoxaparin and no thrombotic events were encountered to date. Ocular vascular complications have not yet been reported in COVID-19. Controversy exists on the best management algorithm for the hypercoagulable state associated to COVID-19 Either direct oral anticoagulants or low-molecular-weight-heparin are considered appropriate at discharge for patients with venous thromboembolism. The optimum regimen for ischemic stroke prevention and the significance of D-Dimer for anticoagulation monitoring in COVID-19 remain unclear.

Arterial Occlusive Diseases/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Ophthalmic Artery , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Substitution , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ophthalmic Artery/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyridones/adverse effects , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/virology