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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2023 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Literature on long-term real-world vaccine effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 booster vaccines (up to and beyond 360 days) is scarce. We report estimates of protection against symptomatic infection, emergency department (ED) attendances and hospitalizations up to and beyond 360 days post-receipt of booster mRNA vaccines amongst Singaporeans aged ≥60 years during an Omicron XBB wave. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study including all Singaporeans aged ≥60 years with no documented prior SARS-CoV-2 infection who had previously received ≥3 doses of mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2/mRNA-1273), over a 4-month period during transmission of Omicron XBB. We reported the adjusted incidence-rate-ratio (IRR) for symptomatic infections, ED attendances and hospitalizations at different time-intervals from both first and second boosters, using Poisson regression; with the reference group being those who received their first booster 90 to 179 days prior. RESULTS: 506,856 boosted adults were included, contributing 55,846,165 person-days of observation. Protection against symptomatic infections among those who received a third vaccine dose (first booster) waned after 180 days with increasing adjusted IRRs; however, protection against ED attendances and hospitalizations held up, with comparable adjusted IRRs with increasing time from third vaccine doses [≥360 days from third dose: adjusted IRR (ED attendances) = 0.73, 95%CI = 0.62-0.85; adjusted IRR (hospitalization) = 0.58, 95%CI = 0.49-0.70]. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the benefit of a booster dose in reducing ED attendances and hospitalizations amongst older adults aged ≥60 years with no documented prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, during an Omicron XBB wave; up to and beyond 360 days post-booster. A second booster provided further reduction.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Waning antibody levels post-vaccination and the emergence of variants of concern (VOCs) capable of evading protective immunity has raised the need for booster vaccinations. However, which combination of COVID-19 vaccines offers the strongest immune response against Omicron variant is unknown. METHODS: This randomized, subject-blinded, controlled trial assessed the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of different COVID-19 vaccine booster combinations. 100 BNT162b2-vaccinated individuals were enrolled and randomized 1: 1 to either homologous (BNT162b2 + BNT162b2 + BNT162b2; 'BBB') or heterologous mRNA booster vaccine (BNT162b2 + BNT162b2 + mRNA-1273; 'BBM'). Primary endpoint was the level of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and VOCs at Day 28. RESULTS: 51 participants were allocated to BBB and 49 to BBM; 50 and 48 respectively were analyzed for safety and immunogenicity outcomes. At Day 28 post-boost, mean SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody titers were lower with BBB (22,382  IU/mL 95% CI, 18,210 to 27,517) vs BBM (29,751  IU/mL 95% CI, 25,281 to 35,011, p = 0.034) as was the median level of neutralizing antibodies: BBB 99.0% (IQR 97.9 to 99.3%) vs BBM 99.3% (IQR 98.8 to 99.5%, p = 0.021). On sub-group analysis, significant differences in mean spike antibody titer and live Omicron neutralization titer was only observed in older adults. Median surrogate neutralizing antibody level against all VOCs was also significantly higher with BBM in older adults, and against Omicron was BBB 72.8% (IQR 54.0 to 84.7%) vs BBM 84.3% (IQR 78.1 to 88.7%, p = 0.0073). Both vaccines were well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: Heterologous mRNA-1273 booster vaccination induced a stronger neutralizing response against the Omicron variant in older individuals compared with homologous BNT123b2.

3.
Commun Med (Lond) ; 3(1): 62, 2023 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319821

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, is a threat to public health. Evidence suggests increased neutrophil activation and endothelial glycocalyx (EG) damage are independently associated with severe COVID-19. Here, we hypothesised that an increased level of blood neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) is associated with soluble EG breakdown, and inhibiting MPO activity may reduce EG damage. METHODS: Analysing a subset of acute and convalescent COVID-19 plasma, 10 from severe and 15 from non-severe COVID-19 cases, and 9 from pre-COVID-19 controls, we determined MPO levels, MPO activity and soluble EG proteins (syndecan-1 and glypican-1) levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In vitro primary human aortic endothelial cells were cultured with plasma untreated or treated with specific MPO inhibitors (MPO-IN-28, AZD5904) to determine EG shedding. We then investigated whether inhibiting MPO activity decreased EG degradation. RESULTS: In COVID-19 plasma, MPO levels, MPO activity and levels of soluble EG proteins are significantly raised compared to controls, and concentrations increase in proportion to disease severity. Despite clinical recovery, protein concentrations remain significantly elevated. Interestingly, there is a trend of increasing MPO activity in convalescent plasma in both severe and non-severe groups. MPO levels and MPO activity correlate significantly with soluble EG levels and inhibiting MPO activity leads to reduced syndecan-1 shedding, in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Neutrophil MPO may increase EG shedding in COVID-19, and inhibiting MPO activity may protect against EG degradation. Further research is needed to evaluate the utility of MPO inhibitors as potential therapeutics against severe COVID-19.


COVID-19 can result in severe disease and is potentially fatal. Neutrophils, the most abundant white blood cells in circulation, secrete antimicrobials that have been linked to severe COVID-19 development. The endothelial glycocalyx (EG) is a carbohydrate rich layer that coats the inner surface of the vasculature and damage to the EG is observed in severe COVID-19. Here, we investigate whether myeloperoxidase, an antimicrobial released by neutrophils, is associated with EG damage in COVID-19 patients. We also determine whether reducing myeloperoxidase activity prevents damage to the EG. Our results suggest myeloperoxidase is associated with EG damage and severe COVID-19. We also demonstrated that a reduction in myeloperoxidase activity may protect against EG degradation. Further studies to evaluate the utility of MPO inhibitors as a therapy against severe COVID-19 are warranted.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 383(19): 1813-1826, 2020 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although several therapeutic agents have been evaluated for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), no antiviral agents have yet been shown to be efficacious. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous remdesivir in adults who were hospitalized with Covid-19 and had evidence of lower respiratory tract infection. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either remdesivir (200 mg loading dose on day 1, followed by 100 mg daily for up to 9 additional days) or placebo for up to 10 days. The primary outcome was the time to recovery, defined by either discharge from the hospital or hospitalization for infection-control purposes only. RESULTS: A total of 1062 patients underwent randomization (with 541 assigned to remdesivir and 521 to placebo). Those who received remdesivir had a median recovery time of 10 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 9 to 11), as compared with 15 days (95% CI, 13 to 18) among those who received placebo (rate ratio for recovery, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.49; P<0.001, by a log-rank test). In an analysis that used a proportional-odds model with an eight-category ordinal scale, the patients who received remdesivir were found to be more likely than those who received placebo to have clinical improvement at day 15 (odds ratio, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2 to 1.9, after adjustment for actual disease severity). The Kaplan-Meier estimates of mortality were 6.7% with remdesivir and 11.9% with placebo by day 15 and 11.4% with remdesivir and 15.2% with placebo by day 29 (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.52 to 1.03). Serious adverse events were reported in 131 of the 532 patients who received remdesivir (24.6%) and in 163 of the 516 patients who received placebo (31.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that remdesivir was superior to placebo in shortening the time to recovery in adults who were hospitalized with Covid-19 and had evidence of lower respiratory tract infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; ACTT-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04280705.).


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Aged , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Young Adult , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
5.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 23(7): 799-805, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283427

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite a large proportion of the population having been vaccinated and infected, Singapore had SARS-CoV-2 waves driven by the BA.5 and XBB sublineages of the omicron (B.1.1.529) variant. Data on the protective immunity against medically attended, symptomatic reinfections with omicron BA.4, BA.5, and XBB conferred by previous SARS-CoV-2 infections and vaccinations are scarce. We therefore aimed to derive information from Singapore's experience as one of the first countries with an XBB-driven wave. METHODS: For this retrospective national cohort study, we used information from official databases of the Ministry of Health of Singapore to assess hybrid immunity (obtained from previous infection and vaccination) against medically attended, symptomatic BA.4 and BA.5 reinfections from Oct 1, 2022, to Nov 1, 2022, and medically attended, symptomatic XBB reinfections from Oct 18, 2022, to Nov 1, 2022, among Singapore citizens and permanent residents aged at least 18 years. All individuals with acute respiratory symptoms who presented at any health-care facility in Singapore between the stated dates were tested for SARS-CoV-2. Individuals were grouped into SARS-CoV-2-naive, pre-omicron, omicron BA.1, and omicron BA.2 groups according to their previous infection status. Data were also stratified by time from first infection to analyse the waning of immunity. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were measured by generalised linear Poisson regressions, with SARS-CoV-2-naive individuals as the reference group, and protective immunity was calculated as one minus the risk ratio multiplied by 100. FINDINGS: 2 456 791 individuals were included in the study, contributing 53·1 million person-days of observation for the SARS-CoV-2-naive group, 3·4 million person-days for the pre-omicron group, 6·6 million person-days for the BA.1 group, and 13·7 million person-days for the BA.2 group between Oct 1, 2022, and Nov 1, 2022. Compared with SARS-CoV-2-naive individuals, first infections with pre-omicron variants did not confer protection against reinfection with BA.4 or BA.5 (IRR 0·87 [95% CI 0·73-1·05] for pre-omicron infection with booster vaccination) or XBB (IRR 1·29 [1·23-1·35] for pre-omicron infection with booster vaccination). Previous BA.2 infection with booster provided the greatest protection against reinfection, but this was lower against reinfection with XBB (protective immunity 51%; 95% CI 49-53) than against reinfection with BA.4 or BA.5 (78%; 74-82). Protection conferred by previous BA.2 infection against XBB reinfection waned faster over time from first infection (from 74% [72-75] at 3-6 months to 49% [47-52] at 7-8 months) than protection against BA.4 or BA.5 reinfection (from 87% [82-90] at 3-6 months to 74% [66-80] at 7-8 months). INTERPRETATION: Protection against XBB reinfection conferred by a previous omicron infection with vaccination was lower and waned faster than protection against BA.4 or BA.5 reinfection, which is indicative of the greater immune evasiveness of the XBB sublineage. Although severe COVID-19 is uncommon, populations remain vulnerable to future reinfection waves from emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants despite high rates of vaccination and infection, as reflected by substantially higher reinfection rates during Singapore's XBB wave than during the previous BA.5-driven wave. Policy makers could consider emerging public health interventions, such as omicron-adapted bivalent vaccines, to maintain population immunity against COVID-19. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Reinfection , Cohort Studies , Retrospective Studies , Singapore/epidemiology
6.
J Med Virol ; : e28258, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244711

ABSTRACT

Waning antibody levels against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the emergence of variants of concern highlight the need for booster vaccinations. This is particularly important for the elderly population, who are at a higher risk of developing severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease. While studies have shown increased antibody responses following booster vaccination, understanding the changes in T and B cell compartments induced by a third vaccine dose remains limited. We analyzed the humoral and cellular responses in subjects who received either a homologous messenger RNA(mRNA) booster vaccine (BNT162b2 + BNT162b2 + BNT162b2; ''BBB") or a heterologous mRNA booster vaccine (BNT162b2 + BNT162b2 + mRNA-1273; ''BBM") at Day 0 (prebooster), Day 7, and Day 28 (postbooster). Compared with BBB, elderly individuals (≥60 years old) who received the BBM vaccination regimen display higher levels of neutralizing antibodies against the Wuhan and Delta strains along with a higher boost in immunoglobulin G memory B cells, particularly against the Omicron variant. Circulating T helper type 1(Th1), Th2, Th17, and T follicular helper responses were also increased in elderly individuals given the BBM regimen. While mRNA vaccines increase antibody, T cell, and B cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 1 month after receiving the third dose booster, the efficacy of the booster vaccine strategies may vary depending on age group and regimen combination.

9.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236103

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We compared the vaccine effectiveness over time of the primary series and booster against infection and severe disease with the Delta, Omicron BA.1, and BA.2 variants in Singapore, an Asian setting with high vaccination coverage. METHODS: We conducted a test-negative case-control study on all adult residents in Singapore who underwent PCR testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in acute hospitals. Individuals with a negative PCR from 1 September, 2021, to 30 November, 2021, and 1 December, 2021, to 25 April, 2022, served as controls for the Delta and Omicron variants respectively, and PCR-positive individuals within these two time periods served as cases. Associations between vaccination status and severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe disease with the Delta or Omicron variants were measured using Poisson regressions. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated by taking 1 minus risk ratio. RESULTS: There were 68 114 individuals comprising 58 495 controls and 9619 cases for the Delta period, of whom 53 093 completed the primary series and 9161 were boosted. For the Omicron period, 104 601 individuals comprising 80 428 controls, 8643 BA.1 cases, and 15 530 BA.2 cases were included, of whom 29 183 and 71 513 were vaccinated with the primary series and boosted, respectively. The primary series provided greater protection against infection with Delta (45%, 95% CI 40-50%) than against infection with Omicron (21%, 95% CI 7-34% for BA.1; 18%, 95% CI 6-29% for BA.2) at <2 months from vaccination. Vaccine effectiveness of the booster was similar against infection with BA.1 (44%, 95% CI 38-50%) and BA.2 (40%, 95% CI 35-40%). Protection against severe disease by the booster for BA.1 (83%, 95% CI 76-88%) and BA.2 (78%, 95% CI 73-82%) was comparable to that by the primary series for Delta (80%, 95% CI 73-85%). CONCLUSION: Our findings support the use of a booster dose to reduce the risk of severe disease and mitigate the impact on the healthcare system in an Omicron-predominant epidemic.

10.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228890

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Singapore offered the BNT162b2 vaccine (tozinameran; Pfizer-BioNTech) to adolescents aged 12-17 years in May 18, 2021, and extended booster vaccines to this group in Jan 21, 2022. Literature on the effectiveness of primary series and booster vaccination among adolescents is scarce outside of Europe and North America. We aimed to determine primary series and booster vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalisation among adolescents in Singapore. METHODS: For this national cohort study, we assessed the incidence of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalisation among adolescents aged 12-17 years vaccinated with BNT162b2 in Singapore from Sept 1 to Dec 15, 2021, during the delta (B.1.617.2) variant wave, and from Jan 21 to April 28, 2022, during the omicron (B.1.1.529) variant wave. Data were collected from official databases maintained by the Ministry of Health of Singapore. Individuals were classified as partly vaccinated (those who had received one dose and those who had received the second dose no more than 7 days previously), fully vaccinated (8 days after receiving a second dose), or boosted (8 days after receiving a third dose) and compared with unvaccinated individuals. FINDINGS: 249 763 individuals aged 12-17 years were included in the study, contributing over 56·2 million person-days of observation. Compared with unvaccinated individuals, two vaccine doses achieved vaccine effectiveness of 66% (95% CI 63-69) against infection with the delta variant and 25% (21-29) against infection with the omicron variant, and 83% (74-89) against delta variant-associated hospitalisation and 75% (56-86) against omicron variant-associated hospitalisation. Booster vaccination with a third dose achieved vaccine effectiveness of 56% (53-58) against infection with the omicron variant and 94% (86-97) against omicron-associated hospitalisation, compared with unvaccinated adolescents. Vaccine effectiveness against infection for both variants after two doses waned over time, whereas vaccine effectiveness against hospitalisation for both variants remained stable; both were increased after three doses. INTERPRETATION: Among adolescents aged 12-17 years, vaccine effectiveness against confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection after two doses of BNT162b2 decreased over time and increased after a third dose. Boosted adolescents were also the most protected from hospitalisation compared with fully vaccinated, partly vaccinated, and unvaccinated adolescents. Therefore, the booster dose of BNT162b2 can help to reduce the burden on the health-care system and individual morbidity during an omicron wave. FUNDING: None.

12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 950666, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113954

ABSTRACT

The on-going COVID-19 pandemic has given rise to SARS-CoV-2 clades and variants with differing levels of symptoms and severity. To this end, we aim to systematically elucidate the changes in the pathogenesis as SARS-CoV-2 evolved from ancestral to the recent Omicron VOC, on their mechanisms (e.g. cytokine storm) resulting in tissue damage, using the established K18-hACE2 murine model. We reported that among the SARS-CoV-2 viruses tested, infection profiles were initially similar between viruses from early clades but started to differ greatly starting from VOC Delta, where the trend continues in Omicron. VOCs Delta and Omicron both accumulated a significant number of mutations, and when compared to VOCs Alpha, Beta, and earlier predecessors, showed reduced neurotropism and less apparent gene expression in cytokine storm associated pathways. They were shown to leverage on other pathways to cause tissue damage (or lack of in the case of Omicron). Our study highlighted the importance of elucidating the response profiles of individual SARS-CoV-2 iterations, as their propensity of severe infection via pathways like cytokine storm changes as more variant evolves. This will then affect the overall threat assessment of each variant as well as the use of immunomodulatory treatments as management of severe infections of each variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Mice , COVID-19/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Lung/pathology , Pandemics
13.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(11): 100793, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061977

ABSTRACT

Unlike mRNA vaccines based only on the spike protein, inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines should induce a diversified T cell response recognizing distinct structural proteins. Here, we perform a comparative analysis of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in healthy individuals following vaccination with inactivated SARS-CoV-2 or mRNA vaccines. Relative to spike mRNA vaccination, inactivated vaccines elicit a lower magnitude of spike-specific T cells, but the combination of membrane, nucleoprotein, and spike-specific T cell response is quantitatively comparable with the sole spike T cell response induced by mRNA vaccine, and they efficiently tolerate the mutations characterizing the Omicron lineage. However, this multi-protein-specific T cell response is not mediated by a coordinated CD4 and CD8 T cell expansion but by selective priming of CD4 T cells. These findings can help in understanding the role of CD4 and CD8 T cells in the efficacy of the different vaccines to control severe COVID-19 after Omicron infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Viral Vaccines/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control
14.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(11): 1756-1761, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050395

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (B.1.1.529 lineage) escapes antibodies that neutralize the ancestral virus. We tested human serum panels from participants with differing infection and vaccination status using a multiplex surrogate virus neutralization assay targeting 20 sarbecoviruses. We found that bat and pangolin sarbecoviruses showed significantly less neutralization escape than the Omicron variant. We propose that SARS-CoV-2 variants have emerged under immune selection pressure and are evolving differently from animal sarbecoviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins , Antibodies, Viral , Membrane Glycoproteins
15.
The Lancet. Infectious diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2045202

ABSTRACT

Background Singapore offered the BNT162b2 vaccine (tozinameran;Pfizer-BioNTech) to adolescents aged 12–17 years in May 18, 2021, and extended booster vaccines to this group in Jan 21, 2022. Literature on the effectiveness of primary series and booster vaccination among adolescents is scarce outside of Europe and North America. We aimed to determine primary series and booster vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalisation among adolescents in Singapore. Methods For this national cohort study, we assessed the incidence of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalisation among adolescents aged 12–17 years vaccinated with BNT162b2 in Singapore from Sept 1 to Dec 15, 2021, during the delta (B.1.617.2) variant wave, and from Jan 21 to April 28, 2022, during the omicron (B.1.1.529) variant wave. Data were collected from official databases maintained by the Ministry of Health of Singapore. Individuals were classified as partly vaccinated (those who had received one dose and those who had received the second dose no more than 7 days previously), fully vaccinated (8 days after receiving a second dose), or boosted (8 days after receiving a third dose) and compared with unvaccinated individuals. Findings 249 763 individuals aged 12–17 years were included in the study, contributing over 56·2 million person-days of observation. Compared with unvaccinated individuals, two vaccine doses achieved vaccine effectiveness of 66% (95% CI 63–69) against infection with the delta variant and 25% (21–29) against infection with the omicron variant, and 83% (74–89) against delta variant-associated hospitalisation and 75% (56–86) against omicron variant-associated hospitalisation. Booster vaccination with a third dose achieved vaccine effectiveness of 56% (53–58) against infection with the omicron variant and 94% (86–97) against omicron-associated hospitalisation, compared with unvaccinated adolescents. Vaccine effectiveness against infection for both variants after two doses waned over time, whereas vaccine effectiveness against hospitalisation for both variants remained stable;both were increased after three doses. Interpretation Among adolescents aged 12–17 years, vaccine effectiveness against confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection after two doses of BNT162b2 decreased over time and increased after a third dose. Boosted adolescents were also the most protected from hospitalisation compared with fully vaccinated, partly vaccinated, and unvaccinated adolescents. Therefore, the booster dose of BNT162b2 can help to reduce the burden on the health-care system and individual morbidity during an omicron wave. Funding None.

18.
Trials ; 23(1): 498, 2022 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over 2021, COVID-19 vaccination programs worldwide focused on raising population immunity through the primary COVID-19 vaccine series. In Singapore, two mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273) and the inactivated vaccine CoronaVac are currently authorized under the National Vaccination Programme for use as the primary vaccination series. More than 90% of the Singapore population has received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine as of December 2021. With the demonstration that vaccine effectiveness wanes in the months after vaccination, and the emergence of Omicron which evades host immunity from prior infection and/or vaccination, attention in many countries has shifted to how best to maintain immunity through booster vaccinations. METHODS: The objectives of this phase 3, randomized, subject-blinded, controlled clinical trial are to assess the safety and immunogenicity of heterologous boost COVID-19 vaccine regimens (intervention groups 1-4) compared with a homologous boost regimen (control arm) in up to 600 adult volunteers. As non-mRNA vaccine candidates may enter the study at different time points depending on vaccine availability and local regulatory approval, participants will be randomized at equal probability to the available intervention arms at the time of randomization. Eligible participants will have received two doses of a homologous mRNA vaccine series with BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 at least 6 months prior to enrolment. Participants will be excluded if they have a history of confirmed SARS or SARS-CoV-2 infection, are immunocompromised, or are pregnant. Participants will be monitored for adverse events and serious adverse events by physical examinations, laboratory tests and self-reporting. Blood samples will be collected at serial time points [pre-vaccination/screening (day - 14 to day 0), day 7, day 28, day 180, day 360 post-vaccination] for assessment of antibody and cellular immune parameters. Primary endpoint is the level of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike immunoglobulins at day 28 post-booster and will be measured against wildtype SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern. Comprehensive immune profiling of the humoral and cellular immune response to vaccination will be performed. DISCUSSION: This study will provide necessary data to understand the quantity, quality, and persistence of the immune response to a homologous and heterologous third booster dose of COVID-19 vaccines. This is an important step in developing COVID-19 vaccination programs beyond the primary series. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05142319 . Registered on 2 Dec 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
19.
J Exp Med ; 219(8)2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901005

ABSTRACT

Recessive or dominant inborn errors of type I interferon (IFN) immunity can underlie critical COVID-19 pneumonia in unvaccinated adults. The risk of COVID-19 pneumonia in unvaccinated children, which is much lower than in unvaccinated adults, remains unexplained. In an international cohort of 112 children (<16 yr old) hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia, we report 12 children (10.7%) aged 1.5-13 yr with critical (7 children), severe (3), and moderate (2) pneumonia and 4 of the 15 known clinically recessive and biochemically complete inborn errors of type I IFN immunity: X-linked recessive TLR7 deficiency (7 children) and autosomal recessive IFNAR1 (1), STAT2 (1), or TYK2 (3) deficiencies. Fibroblasts deficient for IFNAR1, STAT2, or TYK2 are highly vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2. These 15 deficiencies were not found in 1,224 children and adults with benign SARS-CoV-2 infection without pneumonia (P = 1.2 × 10-11) and with overlapping age, sex, consanguinity, and ethnicity characteristics. Recessive complete deficiencies of type I IFN immunity may underlie ∼10% of hospitalizations for COVID-19 pneumonia in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Pneumonia , Adult , COVID-19/genetics , Child , Humans , Inheritance Patterns , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Am J Hematol ; 97(7): 915-923, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1888602

ABSTRACT

Sustained hypercoagulability and endotheliopathy are present in convalescent COVID-19 patients for up to 4 months from recovery. The hemostatic, endothelial, and inflammatory profiles of 39 recovered COVID-19 patients were evaluated up to 16 months after recovery from COVID-19. These values were compared with a control group of healthy volunteers (n = 124). 39 patients (71.8% males, median age 43 years) were reviewed at a mean of 12.7 ± 3.6 months following recovery. One patient without cardiovascular risk factors had post COVID-19 acute ischaemic limb. Elevated D-dimer and Factor VIII levels above normal ranges were noted in 17.9% (7/39) and 48.7% (19/39) of patients respectively, with a higher median D-dimer 0.34 FEU µg/mL (IQR 0.28, 0.46) (p < .001) and Factor VIII 150% (IQR 171, 203) (p = .004), versus controls. Thrombin generation (Thromboscreen) showed a higher median endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) of 1352 nM*min (IQR 1152, 1490) (p = .002) and a higher median peak height of 221.4 nM (IQR 170.2, 280.4) (p = 0.01) and delayed lag time 2.4 min (1.42-2.97) (p = 0.0002) versus controls. Raised vWF:Ag and ICAM-1 levels were observed in 17.9% (7/39) and 7.7% (3/39) of patients respectively, with a higher median VWF:Ag 117% (IQR 86, 154) (p = 0.02) and ICAM-1 54.1 ng/mL (IQR 43.8, 64.1) (p = .004) than controls. IL-6 was noted to be raised in 35.9% (14/39) of patients, with a higher median IL-6 of 1.5 pg/mL (IQR 0.6, 3.0) (p = 0.004) versus controls. Subgroup analysis stratifying patients by COVID-19 severity and COVID-19 vaccination preceding SARS-CoV-2 infection did not show statistically significant differences. Hypercoagulability, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation are still detectable in some patients approximately 1 year after recovery from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombophilia , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines , Factor VIII , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombin , Thrombophilia/etiology , von Willebrand Factor
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