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1.
Minerva Med ; 2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Collective risk factors such as climate and pollution impact on the risk of acute cardiovascular events, including ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). There is limited data however on the precise temporal and independent association between these factors and STEMI, and the potentially interacting role of government policies against Coronavrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially for Latin America. METHODS: We retrospectively collected aggregate data on daily STEMI admissions at 10 tertiary care centers in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area, Argentina, from January 1, 2017 to November 30, 2020. Daily measurements for temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind direction, wind speed, and rainfall, as well as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter <10 µm (PM10), were retrieved. Exploratory analyses focused on key COVID-19-related periods (eg first case, first lockdown), and stringency index quantifying the intensity of government policy response against COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 1498 STEMI occurred over 1430 days, for an average of 0.12 STEMI per center (decreasing from 0.130 in 2018 to 0.102 in 2020, p=0.016). Time series analysis showed that lower temperature and higher concentration of CO and PM10 were all significantly associated with an increased rate of STEMI (all p<0.05), whereas COVID-19 outbreak, lockdown, and stringency of government policies were all inversely associated with STEMI (all p<0.05). Notably, environmental features impacted as early as 28 days before the event (all p<0.05), even if same or prior day associations proved stronger (all p<0.05). Multivariable analysis suggested that maximum temperature (p=0.001) and PM10 (p=0.033) were the strongest predictor of STEMI, even after accounting for COVID-19-related countermeasures (p=0.043). CONCLUSIONS: Lower temperature and higher concentrations of CO and PM10 are associated with significant increases in the rate of STEMI in a large Latin American metropolitan area. The reduction in STEMI cases seen during the COVID-19 pandemic is at least in part mediated by improvements in pollution, especially reductions in PM10.

2.
Int J Stroke ; 16(5): 573-584, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic led to profound changes in the organization of health care systems worldwide. AIMS: We sought to measure the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the volumes for mechanical thrombectomy, stroke, and intracranial hemorrhage hospitalizations over a three-month period at the height of the pandemic (1 March-31 May 2020) compared with two control three-month periods (immediately preceding and one year prior). METHODS: Retrospective, observational, international study, across 6 continents, 40 countries, and 187 comprehensive stroke centers. The diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes and/or classifications in stroke databases at participating centers. RESULTS: The hospitalization volumes for any stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, and mechanical thrombectomy were 26,699, 4002, and 5191 in the three months immediately before versus 21,576, 3540, and 4533 during the first three pandemic months, representing declines of 19.2% (95%CI, -19.7 to -18.7), 11.5% (95%CI, -12.6 to -10.6), and 12.7% (95%CI, -13.6 to -11.8), respectively. The decreases were noted across centers with high, mid, and low COVID-19 hospitalization burden, and also across high, mid, and low volume stroke/mechanical thrombectomy centers. High-volume COVID-19 centers (-20.5%) had greater declines in mechanical thrombectomy volumes than mid- (-10.1%) and low-volume (-8.7%) centers (p < 0.0001). There was a 1.5% stroke rate across 54,366 COVID-19 hospitalizations. SARS-CoV-2 infection was noted in 3.9% (784/20,250) of all stroke admissions. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of overall stroke hospitalizations, mechanical thrombectomy procedures, and intracranial hemorrhage admission volumes. Despite geographic variations, these volume reductions were observed regardless of COVID-19 hospitalization burden and pre-pandemic stroke/mechanical thrombectomy volumes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Global Health , Hospitalization/trends , Intracranial Hemorrhages/therapy , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, High-Volume/trends , Hospitals, Low-Volume/trends , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnosis , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Time Factors
3.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, decreased volumes of stroke admissions and mechanical thrombectomy were reported. The study's objective was to examine whether subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions demonstrated similar declines. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective, observational study across 6 continents, 37 countries and 140 comprehensive stroke centres. Patients with the diagnosis of SAH, aneurysmal SAH, ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions and COVID-19 were identified by prospective aneurysm databases or by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes. The 3-month cumulative volume, monthly volumes for SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling procedures were compared for the period before (1 year and immediately before) and during the pandemic, defined as 1 March-31 May 2020. The prior 1-year control period (1 March-31 May 2019) was obtained to account for seasonal variation. FINDINGS: There was a significant decline in SAH hospitalisations, with 2044 admissions in the 3 months immediately before and 1585 admissions during the pandemic, representing a relative decline of 22.5% (95% CI -24.3% to -20.7%, p<0.0001). Embolisation of ruptured aneurysms declined with 1170-1035 procedures, respectively, representing an 11.5% (95%CI -13.5% to -9.8%, p=0.002) relative drop. Subgroup analysis was noted for aneurysmal SAH hospitalisation decline from 834 to 626 hospitalisations, a 24.9% relative decline (95% CI -28.0% to -22.1%, p<0.0001). A relative increase in ruptured aneurysm coiling was noted in low coiling volume hospitals of 41.1% (95% CI 32.3% to 50.6%, p=0.008) despite a decrease in SAH admissions in this tertile. INTERPRETATION: There was a relative decrease in the volume of SAH hospitalisations, aneurysmal SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm embolisations during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings in SAH are consistent with a decrease in other emergencies, such as stroke and myocardial infarction.

4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(6): 105731, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142090

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the potential usefulness of delayed-phase, low-dose, non-gated, chest spectral CT scans (DSCT) for the early triage of cardioembolic (CE) sources in patients admitted with acute ischemic stroke (AIS), and for the simultaneous detection of myocardial disease and thrombotic complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Since July 2020 and promoted by the COVID-19 pandemic, we implemented the use of DSCT after cerebrovascular CT angiography (CTA) among patients with AIS using a dual-layer spectral CT. We explored the presence of CE sources, as well as late myocardium iodine enhancement (LIE) and pulmonary thromboembolism. Among patients further undergoing transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) or cardiac CTA, we explored the diagnostic performance. RESULTS: Fifty consecutive patients with AIS who underwent DSCT after cerebrovascular CTA comprised the patient population. The confidence degree for excluding cardiac thrombi was significantly higher than for LIE (4.4±0.8 vs. 3.4±1.3, p<0.0001). DSCT identified a CE source in 4 (8%) and LIE in 24 (48%) patients. The iodine ratio of CE sources was significantly lower compared to the left atrial appendage of patients with no CE sources (0.25±0.1 mg/mL vs. 0.91±0.2 mg/mL, p<0.0001). TEE/cardiac CT, performed in 20 (40%) patients, identified a CE source in 5 (25%) cases, whereas DSCT identified 4 (20%), leading to a sensitivity and specificity of 80% (95% CI 28-99%) and 100% (95% CI 78-100%) respectively (kappa 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, we identified DSCT as a potential unsophisticated approach for the early triage of CE sources among patients with AIS undergoing CTA upon admission.


Subject(s)
Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Triage/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Embolism/therapy , Female , Heart Diseases/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Admission , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thorax
5.
Minerva Cardiol Angiol ; 69(5): 606-618, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128288

ABSTRACT

During the pandemic context, diagnostic algorithms had to be adapted considering the decimated medical personnel, local technical resources, and the likelihood of contamination. Given the higher probability of thrombotic complications related to COVID-19 and the availability of a dual-layer spectral computed tomography (CT) scanner, we have recently adopted the use of low-dose, non-gated, chest CT scans performed five minutes after contrast administration among patients admitted with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) undergoing cerebrovascular CT angiography. Dual-layer spectral CT comprises a single X-ray source and two-layer detector with different photon-absorption capabilities. In addition to conventional images, the two distinct energy datasets obtained enable multiparametric spectral analysis without need to change the original scanning protocol. The two spectral features that emerge as most useful for patients with AIS are virtual monoenergetic imaging and iodine-based results. Aside from the evaluation of lung parenchyma, this novel strategy enables ruling out cardioembolic sources and simultaneously providing evidence of pulmonary and myocardial injury in a single session and immediately after CT cerebrovascular angiography. Furthermore, it involves a non-invasive, seemingly accurate, unsophisticated, safer (very low radiation dose and no contrast administration), and cheaper tool for ruling out cardioembolic sources compared to transesophageal echocardiogram and cardiac CT. Accordingly, we sought to standardize the technical aspects and overview the usefulness of delayed-phase, low-dose chest spectral CT in patients admitted with AIS.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal-To-Noise Ratio , Stroke/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 12(8): 726-730, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-629793

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This survey was focused on the provision of neurointerventional services, the current practices of managing patients under COVID-19 conditions, and the expectations for the future. METHODS: Invitations for this survey were sent out as a collaborative effort of the European Society of Minimally Invasive Neurological Therapy (ESMINT), the Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery (SNIS), the Sociedad Iberolatinoamericana de Neuroradiologia Diagnostica y Terapeutica (SILAN), the Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology (SVIN), and the World Federation of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology (WFITN). RESULTS: Overall, 475 participants from 61 countries responded (six from Africa (1%), 81 from Asia (17%), 156 from Europe (33%), 53 from Latin America (11%), and 172 from North America (11%)). The majority of participants (96%) reported being able to provide emergency services, though 26% of these reported limited resources. A decrease in emergency procedures was reported by 69% of participants (52% in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, 11% ischemic, and 6% hemorrhagic stroke alone). Only 4% reported an increase in emergency cases. The emerging need for social distancing and the rapid adoption of remote communication was reflected in the interest in establishing case discussion forums (43%), general online forums (37%), and access to angio video streaming for live mentoring and support (33%). CONCLUSION: Neurointerventional emergency services are available in almost all centers, while the number of emergency patients is markedly decreased. Half of the participants have abandoned neurointerventions in non-emergent situations. There are considerable variations in the management of neurointerventions and in the expectations for the future.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Neurosurgical Procedures , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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