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1.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273389, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has rapidly emerged as a global public health threat with infections recorded in nearly every country. Responses to COVID-19 have varied in intensity and breadth, but generally have included domestic and international travel limitations, closure of non-essential businesses, and repurposing of health services. While these interventions have focused on testing, treatment, and mitigation of COVID-19, there have been reports of interruptions to diagnostic, prevention, and treatment services for other public health threats. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a scoping review to characterize the early impact of COVID-19 on HIV, tuberculosis, malaria, sexual and reproductive health, and malnutrition. METHODS: A scoping literature review was completed using searches of PubMed and preprint servers (medRxiv/bioRxiv) from November 1st, 2019 to October 31st, 2020, using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms related to SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 and HIV, tuberculosis, malaria, sexual and reproductive health, and malnutrition. Empiric studies reporting original data collection or mathematical models were included, and available data synthesized by region. Studies were excluded if they were not written in English. RESULTS: A total of 1604 published papers and 205 preprints were retrieved in the search. Overall, 8.0% (129/1604) of published studies and 10.2% (21/205) of preprints met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review: 7.3% (68/931) on HIV, 7.1% (24/339) on tuberculosis, 11.6% (26/224) on malaria, 7.8% (19/183) on sexual and reproductive health, and 9.8% (13/132) on malnutrition. Thematic results were similar across competing health risks, with substantial indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and response on diagnostic, prevention, and treatment services for HIV, tuberculosis, malaria, sexual and reproductive health, and malnutrition. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 emerged in the context of existing public health threats that result in millions of deaths every year. Thus, effectively responding to COVID-19 while minimizing the negative impacts of COVID-19 necessitates innovation and integration of existing programs that are often siloed across health systems. Inequities have been a consistent driver of existing health threats; COVID-19 has worsened disparities, reinforcing the need for programs that address structural risks. The data reviewed here suggest that effective strengthening of health systems should include investment and planning focused on ensuring the continuity of care for both rapidly emergent and existing public health threats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Malaria , Malnutrition , Tuberculosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 196, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has highlighted consistent inequities in incidence, disease severity, and mortality across racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States (US) and beyond. While similar patterns have been observed with previous viral respiratory pathogens, to date, no systematic review has comprehensively documented these disparities or potential contributing factors. In response, this review aims to synthesize data on racial and ethnic disparities in morbidity and mortality due to viral acute respiratory infections (ARI) other than SARS-CoV-2. This review will focus on understanding structural health and social factors to contextualize race and ethnicity driving these disparities in the US. METHODS: We will conduct a systematic review of studies published from January 1, 2002, onward. Our search will include PubMed/MEDLINE, EBSCO Host-CINAHL Plus, PsycInfo, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases to identify relevant articles. We will include studies of any design that describe racial/ethnic disparities associated with viral ARI conducted in the US. Primary outcomes include incidence, disease severity or complication, hospitalization, or death attributed to ARI. Secondary outcomes include uptake of preventive interventions including vaccination, handwashing, social distancing, and wearing masks. Two reviewers will independently screen all citations, full-text articles, and abstract relevant data. Data characterizing individual-, community-, and structural-level factors associated with these disparities will be abstracted to better understand the underlying structural inequities contributing to racial disparities in ARI. We will assess the methodological quality of all studies and will conduct meta-analyses using random effects models if appropriate. DISCUSSION: Findings from this systematic review will shed light on patterns of racial and ethnic disparities in viral ARI in the United States to support mathematical modeling of epidemic trajectories, intervention impact, and structural drivers of transmission, including structural racism. Moreover, data emerging from this review may reignite pandemic preparedness focused on communities with specific vulnerabilities related to living and working conditions given prevailing structural inequities, thus facilitating improved future pandemic responses to novel or endemic viral respiratory pathogens. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020219771.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Minority Groups , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic , United States/epidemiology
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