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Crit Care Med ; 50(1): e40-e51, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1584019

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Multicenter data on the characteristics and outcomes of children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are limited. Our objective was to describe the characteristics, ICU admissions, and outcomes among children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 using Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study: Coronavirus Disease 2019 registry. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Society of Critical Care Medicine Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (Coronavirus Disease 2019) registry. PATIENTS: Children (< 18 yr) hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 at participating hospitals from February 2020 to January 2021. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was ICU admission. Secondary outcomes included hospital and ICU duration of stay and ICU, hospital, and 28-day mortality. A total of 874 children with coronavirus disease 2019 were reported to Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry from 51 participating centers, majority in the United States. Median age was 8 years (interquartile range, 1.25-14 yr) with a male:female ratio of 1:2. A majority were non-Hispanic (492/874; 62.9%). Median body mass index (n = 817) was 19.4 kg/m2 (16-25.8 kg/m2), with 110 (13.4%) overweight and 300 (36.6%) obese. A majority (67%) presented with fever, and 43.2% had comorbidities. A total of 238 of 838 (28.2%) met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 404 of 874 (46.2%) were admitted to the ICU. In multivariate logistic regression, age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and pre-existing seizure disorder were independently associated with a greater odds of ICU admission. Hospital mortality was 16 of 874 (1.8%). Median (interquartile range) duration of ICU (n = 379) and hospital (n = 857) stay were 3.9 days (2-7.7 d) and 4 days (1.9-7.5 d), respectively. For patients with 28-day data, survival was 679 of 787, 86.3% with 13.4% lost to follow-up, and 0.3% deceased. CONCLUSIONS: In this observational, multicenter registry of children with coronavirus disease 2019, ICU admission was common. Older age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and seizure disorder were independently associated with ICU admission, and mortality was lower among children than mortality reported in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
6.
BMJ Health Care Inform ; 28(1)2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476575

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To implement a unified non-emergency medical transportation (NEMT) service across a large integrated healthcare delivery network. METHODS: We assessed needs among key organisational stakeholders, then reviewed proposals. We selected a single NEMT vendor best aligned with organisational priorities and implemented this solution system-wide. RESULTS: Our vendor's hybrid approach combined rideshares with contracted vehicles able to serve patients with equipment and other needs. After 6195 rides in the first year, we observed shorter wait times and lower costs compared with our prior state. DISCUSSION: Essential lessons included (1) understanding user and patient needs, (2) obtaining complete, accurate and comprehensive baseline data and (3) adapting existing workflows-rather than designing de novo-whenever possible. CONCLUSIONS: Our implementation of a single-vendor NEMT solution validates the need for NEMT at large healthcare organisations, geographical challenges to establishing NEMT organisation-wide, and the importance of baseline data and stakeholder engagement.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Transportation of Patients , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/organization & administration , Humans , Transportation of Patients/organization & administration
7.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(12): 1377-1386, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466986

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have been postulated to present with distinct respiratory subphenotypes. However, most phenotyping schema have been limited by sample size, disregard for temporal dynamics, and insufficient validation. We aimed to identify respiratory subphenotypes of COVID-19-related ARDS using unbiased data-driven approaches. METHODS: PRoVENT-COVID was an investigator-initiated, national, multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study at 22 intensive care units (ICUs) in the Netherlands. Consecutive patients who had received invasive mechanical ventilation for COVID-19 (aged 18 years or older) served as the derivation cohort, and similar patients from two ICUs in the USA served as the replication cohorts. COVID-19 was confirmed by positive RT-PCR. We used latent class analysis to identify subphenotypes using clinically available respiratory data cross-sectionally at baseline, and longitudinally using 8-hourly data from the first 4 days of invasive ventilation. We used group-based trajectory modelling to evaluate trajectories of individual variables and to facilitate potential clinical translation. The PRoVENT-COVID study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04346342. FINDINGS: Between March 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020, 1007 patients were admitted to participating ICUs in the Netherlands, and included in the derivation cohort. Data for 288 patients were included in replication cohort 1 and 326 in replication cohort 2. Cross-sectional latent class analysis did not identify any underlying subphenotypes. Longitudinal latent class analysis identified two distinct subphenotypes. Subphenotype 2 was characterised by higher mechanical power, minute ventilation, and ventilatory ratio over the first 4 days of invasive mechanical ventilation than subphenotype 1, but PaO2/FiO2, pH, and compliance of the respiratory system did not differ between the two subphenotypes. 185 (28%) of 671 patients with subphenotype 1 and 109 (32%) of 336 patients with subphenotype 2 had died at day 28 (p=0·10). However, patients with subphenotype 2 had fewer ventilator-free days at day 28 (median 0, IQR 0-15 vs 5, 0-17; p=0·016) and more frequent venous thrombotic events (109 [32%] of 336 patients vs 176 [26%] of 671 patients; p=0·048) compared with subphenotype 1. Group-based trajectory modelling revealed trajectories of ventilatory ratio and mechanical power with similar dynamics to those observed in latent class analysis-derived trajectory subphenotypes. The two trajectories were: a stable value for ventilatory ratio or mechanical power over the first 4 days of invasive mechanical ventilation (trajectory A) or an upward trajectory (trajectory B). However, upward trajectories were better independent prognosticators for 28-day mortality (OR 1·64, 95% CI 1·17-2·29 for ventilatory ratio; 1·82, 1·24-2·66 for mechanical power). The association between upward ventilatory ratio trajectories (trajectory B) and 28-day mortality was confirmed in the replication cohorts (OR 4·65, 95% CI 1·87-11·6 for ventilatory ratio in replication cohort 1; 1·89, 1·05-3·37 for ventilatory ratio in replication cohort 2). INTERPRETATION: At baseline, COVID-19-related ARDS has no consistent respiratory subphenotype. Patients diverged from a fairly homogenous to a more heterogeneous population, with trajectories of ventilatory ratio and mechanical power being the most discriminatory. Modelling these parameters alone provided prognostic value for duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality. FUNDING: Amsterdam UMC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
ATS Sch ; 2(2): 176-184, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365984

ABSTRACT

Qualitative research methods are important and have become increasingly prominent in medical education and research. The reason is simple: many pressing questions in these fields require qualitative approaches to elicit nuanced insights and additional meaning beyond standard quantitative measurements in surveys or observatons. Among the most common qualitative data collection methods are structured or semistructured in-person interviews and focus groups, in which participants describe their experiences relevant to the research question at hand. In the era of physical and social distancing because of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, little guidance exists for strategies for conducting focus groups or semistructured interviews. Here we describe our experience with, and recommendations for, conducting remote focus groups and/or interviews in the era of social distancing. Specifically, we discuss best practice recommendations for researchers using video teleconferencing programs to continue qualitative research during the COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
Crit Care Med ; 50(1): e40-e51, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356720

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Multicenter data on the characteristics and outcomes of children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are limited. Our objective was to describe the characteristics, ICU admissions, and outcomes among children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 using Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study: Coronavirus Disease 2019 registry. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Society of Critical Care Medicine Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (Coronavirus Disease 2019) registry. PATIENTS: Children (< 18 yr) hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 at participating hospitals from February 2020 to January 2021. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was ICU admission. Secondary outcomes included hospital and ICU duration of stay and ICU, hospital, and 28-day mortality. A total of 874 children with coronavirus disease 2019 were reported to Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry from 51 participating centers, majority in the United States. Median age was 8 years (interquartile range, 1.25-14 yr) with a male:female ratio of 1:2. A majority were non-Hispanic (492/874; 62.9%). Median body mass index (n = 817) was 19.4 kg/m2 (16-25.8 kg/m2), with 110 (13.4%) overweight and 300 (36.6%) obese. A majority (67%) presented with fever, and 43.2% had comorbidities. A total of 238 of 838 (28.2%) met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 404 of 874 (46.2%) were admitted to the ICU. In multivariate logistic regression, age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and pre-existing seizure disorder were independently associated with a greater odds of ICU admission. Hospital mortality was 16 of 874 (1.8%). Median (interquartile range) duration of ICU (n = 379) and hospital (n = 857) stay were 3.9 days (2-7.7 d) and 4 days (1.9-7.5 d), respectively. For patients with 28-day data, survival was 679 of 787, 86.3% with 13.4% lost to follow-up, and 0.3% deceased. CONCLUSIONS: In this observational, multicenter registry of children with coronavirus disease 2019, ICU admission was common. Older age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and seizure disorder were independently associated with ICU admission, and mortality was lower among children than mortality reported in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
10.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(4): 539-552, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172015

ABSTRACT

There are limited data on longitudinal outcomes for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalizations that account for transitions between clinical states over time. Using electronic health record data from a hospital network in the St. Louis, Missouri, region, we performed multistate analyses to examine longitudinal transitions and outcomes among hospitalized adults with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 with respect to 15 mutually exclusive clinical states. Between March 15 and July 25, 2020, a total of 1,577 patients in the network were hospitalized with COVID-19 (49.9% male; median age, 63 years (interquartile range, 50-75); 58.8% Black). Overall, 34.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 26.4, 41.8) had an intensive care unit admission and 12.3% (95% CI: 8.5, 16.1) received invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The risk of decompensation peaked immediately after admission; discharges peaked around days 3-5, and deaths plateaued between days 7 and 16. At 28 days, 12.6% (95% CI: 9.6, 15.6) of patients had died (4.2% (95% CI: 3.2, 5.2) had received IMV) and 80.8% (95% CI: 75.4, 86.1) had been discharged. Among those receiving IMV, 35.1% (95% CI: 28.2, 42.0) remained intubated after 14 days; after 28 days, 37.6% (95% CI: 30.4, 44.7) had died and only 37.7% (95% CI: 30.6, 44.7) had been discharged. Multistate methods offer granular characterizations of the clinical course of COVID-19 and provide essential information for guiding both clinical decision-making and public health planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
11.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(4): 539-552, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990555

ABSTRACT

There are limited data on longitudinal outcomes for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalizations that account for transitions between clinical states over time. Using electronic health record data from a hospital network in the St. Louis, Missouri, region, we performed multistate analyses to examine longitudinal transitions and outcomes among hospitalized adults with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 with respect to 15 mutually exclusive clinical states. Between March 15 and July 25, 2020, a total of 1,577 patients in the network were hospitalized with COVID-19 (49.9% male; median age, 63 years (interquartile range, 50-75); 58.8% Black). Overall, 34.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 26.4, 41.8) had an intensive care unit admission and 12.3% (95% CI: 8.5, 16.1) received invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The risk of decompensation peaked immediately after admission; discharges peaked around days 3-5, and deaths plateaued between days 7 and 16. At 28 days, 12.6% (95% CI: 9.6, 15.6) of patients had died (4.2% (95% CI: 3.2, 5.2) had received IMV) and 80.8% (95% CI: 75.4, 86.1) had been discharged. Among those receiving IMV, 35.1% (95% CI: 28.2, 42.0) remained intubated after 14 days; after 28 days, 37.6% (95% CI: 30.4, 44.7) had died and only 37.7% (95% CI: 30.6, 44.7) had been discharged. Multistate methods offer granular characterizations of the clinical course of COVID-19 and provide essential information for guiding both clinical decision-making and public health planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
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