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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337871

ABSTRACT

Prospective population-based studies investigating associations between reactive symptoms following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and serologic responses to vaccination are lacking. We therefore conducted such a study in 9003 adults from the United Kingdom (UK) general population receiving SARS-COV-2 vaccines as part of the national vaccination programme. Data relating to incidence and type of reactive symptoms after vaccination were captured using online questionnaires, along with information on 56 potential determinants of symptom risk. Titres of combined IgG/IgA/IgM responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein were determined in eluates of dried blood spots collected from all participants before and after vaccination. 4262 (47.3%) participants experienced systemic reactive symptoms after a first vaccine dose. Factors associating with lower risk of such symptoms included older age (aOR per additional 10 years of age 0.85, 95% CI 0.81–0.90), male vs. female sex (aOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.53–0.65) and receipt of an mRNA vaccine vs. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (0.29, 0.26–0.32 for BNT162b2;0.06, 0.01–0.26 for mRNA-1273). Higher risk of such symptoms was associated with a history of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection prior to vaccination (2.23, 1.78–2.81) and presence vs. absence of self-rated anxiety or depression at cohort enrolment (1.24, 1.12–1.39). Post-vaccination anti-S titres were higher among participants who experienced reactive symptoms after vaccination vs. those who did not (P < 0.001). We conclude that factors influencing risk of systemic symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination include demographic characteristics, pre-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 serostatus and vaccine type. Participants experiencing reactive symptoms following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination had higher post-vaccination titres of IgG/A/M anti-S antibodies. Improved public understanding of the frequency of reactogenic symptoms and their positive association with vaccine immunogenicity could potentially increase vaccine uptake.

2.
Age Ageing ; 51(5)2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccinations have been prioritised for high risk individuals. AIM: Determine individual-level risk factors for care home residents testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal observational cohort study using individual-level linked data from the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) databank. SETTING: Fourteen thousand seven hundred and eighty-six older care home residents (aged 65+) living in Wales between 1 September 2020 and 1 May 2021. Our dataset consisted of 2,613,341 individual-level daily observations within 697 care homes. METHODS: We estimated odds ratios (ORs [95% confidence interval]) using multilevel logistic regression models. Our outcome of interest was a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test. We included time-dependent covariates for the estimated community positive test rate of COVID-19, hospital inpatient status, vaccination status and frailty. Additional covariates were included for age, sex and specialist care home services. RESULTS: The multivariable regression model indicated an increase in age (OR 1.01 [1.00,1.01] per year), community positive test rate (OR 1.13 [1.12,1.13] per percent increase), hospital inpatients (OR 7.40 [6.54,8.36]), and residents in care homes with non-specialist dementia care (OR 1.42 [1.01,1.99]) had an increased odds of a positive test. Having a positive test prior to the observation period (OR 0.58 [0.49,0.68]) and either one or two doses of a vaccine (0.21 [0.17,0.25] and 0.05 [0.02,0.09], respectively) were associated with a decreased odds. CONCLUSIONS: Care providers need to remain vigilant despite the vaccination rollout, and extra precautions should be taken when caring for the most vulnerable. Minimising potential COVID-19 infection for care home residents when admitted to hospital should be prioritised.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Length of Stay , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Wales/epidemiology
3.
Br J Cancer ; 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic responses impacted behaviour and health services. We estimated the impact on incidence, stage and healthcare pathway to diagnosis for female breast, colorectal and non-small cell lung cancers at population level in Wales. METHODS: Cancer e-record and hospital admission data linkage identified adult cases, stage and healthcare pathway to diagnosis (population ~2.5 million). Using multivariate Poisson regressions, we compared 2019 and 2020 counts and estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR). RESULTS: Cases decreased 15.2% (n = -1011) overall. Female breast annual IRR was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.76-0.86, p < 0.001), colorectal 0.80 (95% CI: 0.79-0.81, p < 0.001) and non-small cell lung 0.91 (95% CI: 0.90-0.92, p < 0.001). Decreases were largest in 50-69 year olds for female breast and 80+ year olds for all cancers. Stage I female breast cancer declined 41.6%, but unknown stage increased 55.8%. Colorectal stages I-IV declined (range 26.6-29.9%), while unknown stage increased 803.6%. Colorectal Q2-2020 GP-urgent suspected cancer diagnoses decreased 50.0%, and 53.9% for non-small cell lung cancer. Annual screen-detected female breast and colorectal cancers fell 47.8% and 13.3%, respectively. Non-smal -cell lung cancer emergency presentation diagnoses increased 9.5% (Q2-2020) and 16.3% (Q3-2020). CONCLUSION: Significantly fewer cases of three common cancers were diagnosed in 2020. Detrimental impacts on outcomes varied between cancers. Ongoing surveillance with health service optimisation will be needed to mitigate impacts.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330891

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D metabolites support innate immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and other respiratory pathogens. Randomized controlled trials of vitamin D to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) have not yet reported. METHODS: We randomly assigned 6200 U.K. adults to receive an offer of a postal finger-prick 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) test with provision of a 6-month supply of higher-dose vitamin D (3200 IU/d, n=1550) or lower-dose vitamin D (800 IU/d, n=1550) to those with blood 25(OH)D concentration <75 nmol/L, vs. no offer of testing or supplementation (n=3100). The primary outcome was the proportion of participants experiencing at least one swab test- or doctor-confirmed acute respiratory infection (ARI) of any cause at six months. Secondary outcomes included incidence of swab test-confirmed Covid-19. RESULTS: Of 3100 participants offered testing, 2958 (95.4%) accepted, and 2690 (86.8%) had 25(OH)D <75 nmol/L and were sent vitamin D supplements (1356 higher-dose, 1334 lower-dose). 76 (5.0%) vs. 87 (5.7%) vs. 136 (4.6%) participants in higher-dose vs. lower-dose vs. no-offer groups experienced at least one ARI of any cause (odds ratio [OR] for higher-dose vs. no-offer 1.09, 95% CI 0.82-1.46;lower-dose vs. no-offer 1.26, 0.96-1.66). 45 (3.0%) vs. 55 (3.6%) vs. 78 (2.6%) participants in higher-dose vs. lower-dose vs. no-offer groups developed Covid-19 (OR for higher-dose vs. no-offer 1.13, 0.78-1.63;lower-dose vs. no-offer 1.39, 0.98-1.97). CONCLUSIONS: Among adults with a high baseline prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency, implementation of a test-and-treat approach to vitamin D replacement did not reduce risk of all-cause ARI or Covid-19.

5.
Int J Popul Data Sci ; 5(4): 1697, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1754159

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 risk prediction algorithms can be used to identify at-risk individuals from short-term serious adverse COVID-19 outcomes such as hospitalisation and death. It is important to validate these algorithms in different and diverse populations to help guide risk management decisions and target vaccination and treatment programs to the most vulnerable individuals in society. Objectives: To validate externally the QCOVID risk prediction algorithm that predicts mortality outcomes from COVID-19 in the adult population of Wales, UK. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using routinely collected individual-level data held in the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) Databank. The cohort included individuals aged between 19 and 100 years, living in Wales on 24th January 2020, registered with a SAIL-providing general practice, and followed-up to death or study end (28th July 2020). Demographic, primary and secondary healthcare, and dispensing data were used to derive all the predictor variables used to develop the published QCOVID algorithm. Mortality data were used to define time to confirmed or suspected COVID-19 death. Performance metrics, including R2 values (explained variation), Brier scores, and measures of discrimination and calibration were calculated for two periods (24th January-30th April 2020 and 1st May-28th July 2020) to assess algorithm performance. Results: 1,956,760 individuals were included. 1,192 (0.06%) and 610 (0.03%) COVID-19 deaths occurred in the first and second time periods, respectively. The algorithms fitted the Welsh data and population well, explaining 68.8% (95% CI: 66.9-70.4) of the variation in time to death, Harrell's C statistic: 0.929 (95% CI: 0.921-0.937) and D statistic: 3.036 (95% CI: 2.913-3.159) for males in the first period. Similar results were found for females and in the second time period for both sexes. Conclusions: The QCOVID algorithm developed in England can be used for public health risk management for the adult Welsh population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Algorithms , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Wales/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330349

ABSTRACT

Background Little is known about the relative influence of demographic, behavioural, and vaccine-related factors on risk of post-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to identify risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection after primary and booster vaccinations. Methods We undertook a prospective population-based study in UK adults (≥16 years) vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2, including data from Jan 12, 2021, to Feb 21, 2022. We modelled risk of post-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 infection separately for participants who had completed a primary course of vaccination (two-dose or, in the immunosuppressed, three-dose course of either ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 [ChAdOx1] or BNT1262b2) and for those who had additionally received a booster dose (BNT1262b2 or mRNA-1273). Cox regression models were used to explore associations between sociodemographic, behavioural, clinical, pharmacological, and nutritional factors and breakthrough infection, defined as a self-reported positive result on a lateral flow or reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2. Models were further adjusted for weekly SARS-CoV-2 incidence at the local (lower tier local authority) level. Findings 14,713 participants were included in the post-primary analysis and 10,665 in the post-booster analysis, with a median follow-up of 203 days (IQR 195–216) in the post-primary cohort and 85 days (66–103) in the post-booster cohort. 1051 (7.1%) participants in the post-primary cohort and 1009 (9.4%) participants in the post-booster cohort reported a breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection. A primary course of ChAdOx1 ( vs BNT182b2) was associated with higher risk of infection, both in the post-primary cohort (adjusted hazard ratio 1.63, 95% CI 1.41–1.88) and in the post-booster cohort after boosting with mRNA-1273 (1.29 [1.03–1.61] vs BNT162b2 primary plus BNT162b2 booster). A lower risk of breakthrough infection was associated with older age (post-primary: 0.96 [0.96–0.97] per year;post-booster: 0.97 [0.96–0.98]), whereas a higher risk of breakthrough infection was associated with lower levels of education (post-primary: 1.66 [1.35–2.06] for primary or secondary vs postgraduate;post-booster: 1.36 [1.08–1.71]) and at least three weekly visits to indoor public places (post-primary: 1.38 [1.15–1.66] vs none;post-booster: 1.33 [1.10–1.60]). Conclusions Vaccine type, socioeconomic status, age, and behaviours affect risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection following a primary schedule and a booster dose. Research in context Evidence before this study We searched PubMed, medRxiv, and Google Scholar for papers published up to Feb 18, 2022, using the search terms (breakthrough OR post-vaccin*) AND (SARS-CoV-2 OR COVID) AND (disease OR infection) AND (determinant OR “risk factor” OR associat*), with no language restrictions. Existing studies on risk factors for breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection among vaccinated individuals have found associations with age, comorbidities, vaccine type, and previous infection;however, findings have been inconsistent across studies. Most studies have been limited to specific subgroups or have focused on severe outcomes, and very few have considered breakthrough infections after a booster dose or have adjusted for behaviours affecting exposure to other people. Added value of this study This study is among the first to provide a detailed analysis of a wide range of risk factors for breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection, both after the primary course of vaccination and after a booster dose. Our large study size and detailed data have allowed us to investigate associations with various sociodemographic, clinical, pharmacological, and nutritional factors. Monthly follow-up data have additionally given us the opportunity to consider the effects of behaviours that may have changed across the pandemic, while adjusting for local SARS-CoV-2 incidence. Implications of all the available evidence Our findings add to growing evidence that risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infecti n after primary or booster vaccinations can differ to those in unvaccinated populations, with effects attenuated for previously observed risk factors such as body-mass index and Asian ethnicity. The clear difference we observed between the efficacies of ChAdOx1 and BNT162b2 as the primary course of vaccination appears to have been reduced by the use of BNT162b2 boosters, but not by mNRA-1273 boosters. As more countries introduce booster vaccinations, future population-based studies with longer follow-up will be needed to investigate our findings further.

7.
Age Ageing ; 51(5)2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740783

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: defining features of the COVID-19 pandemic in many countries were the tragic extent to which care home residents were affected and the difficulty in preventing the introduction and subsequent spread of infection. Management of risk in care homes requires good evidence on the most important transmission pathways. One hypothesised route at the start of the pandemic, prior to widespread testing, was the transfer of patients from hospitals that were experiencing high levels of nosocomial events. METHODS: we tested the hypothesis that hospital discharge events increased the intensity of care home cases using a national individually linked health record cohort in Wales, UK. We monitored 186,772 hospital discharge events over the period from March to July 2020, tracking individuals to 923 care homes and recording the daily case rate in the homes populated by 15,772 residents. We estimated the risk of an increase in case rates following exposure to a hospital discharge using multi-level hierarchical logistic regression and a novel stochastic Hawkes process outbreak model. FINDINGS: in regression analysis, after adjusting for care home size, we found no significant association between hospital discharge and subsequent increases in care home case numbers (odds ratio: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.82, 1.90). Risk factors for increased cases included care home size, care home resident density and provision of nursing care. Using our outbreak model, we found a significant effect of hospital discharge on the subsequent intensity of cases. However, the effect was small and considerably less than the effect of care home size, suggesting the highest risk of introduction came from interaction with the community. We estimated that approximately 1.8% of hospital discharged patients may have been infected. INTERPRETATION: there is growing evidence in the UK that the risk of transfer of COVID-19 from the high-risk hospital setting to the high-risk care home setting during the early stages of the pandemic was relatively small. Although access to testing was limited to initial symptomatic cases in each care home at this time, our results suggest that reduced numbers of discharges, selection of patients and action taken within care homes following transfer all may have contributed to the mitigation. The precise key transmission routes from the community remain to be quantified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Nursing Homes , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Discharge , United Kingdom/epidemiology
8.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 2031774, 2022 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722106

ABSTRACT

Vaccination programs against COVID-19 vary globally with estimates of vaccine effectiveness (VE) affected by vaccine type, schedule, strain, outcome, and recipient characteristics. This study assessed VE of BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 vaccines against PCR positive SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospital admission, and death among adults aged 50 years and older in Wales, UK during the period 7 December 2020 to 18 July 2021, when Alpha, followed by Delta, were the predominant variants. We used individual-level linked routinely collected data within the Secure Anonymized Information Linkage (SAIL) Databank. Data were available for 1,262,689 adults aged 50 years and over; coverage of one dose of any COVID-19 vaccine in this population was 92.6%, with coverage of two doses 90.4%. VE against PCR positive infection at 28-days or more post first dose of any COVID-19 vaccine was 16.0% (95%CI 9.6-22.0), and 42.0% (95%CI 36.5-47.1) seven or more days after a second dose. VE against hospital admission was higher at 72.9% (95%CI 63.6-79.8) 28 days or more post vaccination with one dose of any vaccine type, and 84.9% (95%CI 78.2-89.5) at 7 or more days post two doses. VE for one dose against death was estimated to be 80.9% (95%CI 72.1-86.9). VE against PCR positive infection and hospital admission was higher for BNT162b2 compared to ChAdOx1. In conclusion, vaccine uptake has been high among adults in Wales and VE estimates are encouraging, with two doses providing considerable protection against severe outcomes. Continued roll-out of the vaccination programme within Wales, and globally, is crucial in our fight against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Wales/epidemiology
9.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264023, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714774

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: School-based COVID-19 mitigation strategies have greatly impacted the primary school day (children aged 3-11) including: wearing face coverings, two metre distancing, no mixing of children, and no breakfast clubs or extra-curricular activities. This study examines these mitigation measures and association with COVID-19 infection, respiratory infection, and school staff wellbeing between October to December 2020 in Wales, UK. METHODS: A school staff survey captured self-reported COVID-19 mitigation measures in the school, participant anxiety and depression, and open-text responses regarding experiences of teaching and implementing measures. These survey responses were linked to national-scale COVID-19 test results data to examine association of measures in the school and the likelihood of a positive (staff or pupil) COVID-19 case in the school (clustered by school, adjusted for school size and free school meals using logistic regression). Linkage was conducted through the SAIL (Secure Anonymised Information Linkage) Databank. RESULTS: Responses were obtained from 353 participants from 59 primary schools within 15 of 22 local authorities. Having more direct non-household contacts was associated with a higher likelihood of COVID-19 positive case in the school (1-5 contacts compared to none, OR 2.89 (1.01, 8.31)) and a trend to more self-reported cold symptoms. Staff face covering was not associated with a lower odds of school COVID-19 cases (mask vs. no covering OR 2.82 (1.11, 7.14)) and was associated with higher self-reported cold symptoms. School staff reported the impacts of wearing face coverings on teaching, including having to stand closer to pupils and raise their voices to be heard. 67.1% were not able to implement two metre social distancing from pupils. We did not find evidence that maintaining a two metre distance was associated with lower rates of COVID-19 in the school. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing, adhering to and evaluating COVID-19 mitigation guidelines is challenging in primary school settings. Our findings suggest that reducing non-household direct contacts lowers infection rates. There was no evidence that face coverings, two metre social distancing or stopping children mixing was associated with lower odds of COVID-19 or cold infection rates in the school. Primary school staff found teaching challenging during COVID-19 restrictions, especially for younger learners and those with additional learning needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Students , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Wales/epidemiology
10.
PLoS Med ; 19(2): e1003927, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705011

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several countries restricted the administration of ChAdOx1 to older age groups in 2021 over safety concerns following case reports and observed versus expected analyses suggesting a possible association with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). Large datasets are required to precisely estimate the association between Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination and CVST due to the extreme rarity of this event. We aimed to accomplish this by combining national data from England, Scotland, and Wales. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We created data platforms consisting of linked primary care, secondary care, mortality, and virological testing data in each of England, Scotland, and Wales, with a combined cohort of 11,637,157 people and 6,808,293 person years of follow-up. The cohort start date was December 8, 2020, and the end date was June 30, 2021. The outcome measure we examined was incident CVST events recorded in either primary or secondary care records. We carried out a self-controlled case series (SCCS) analysis of this outcome following first dose vaccination with ChAdOx1 and BNT162b2. The observation period consisted of an initial 90-day reference period, followed by a 2-week prerisk period directly prior to vaccination, and a 4-week risk period following vaccination. Counts of CVST cases from each country were tallied, then expanded into a full dataset with 1 row for each individual and observation time period. There was a combined total of 201 incident CVST events in the cohorts (29.5 per million person years). There were 81 CVST events in the observation period among those who a received first dose of ChAdOx1 (approximately 16.34 per million doses) and 40 for those who received a first dose of BNT162b2 (approximately 12.60 per million doses). We fitted conditional Poisson models to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Vaccination with ChAdOx1 was associated with an elevated risk of incident CVST events in the 28 days following vaccination, IRR = 1.93 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20 to 3.11). We did not find an association between BNT162b2 and CVST in the 28 days following vaccination, IRR = 0.78 (95% CI 0.34 to 1.77). Our study had some limitations. The SCCS study design implicitly controls for variables that are constant over the observation period, but also assumes that outcome events are independent of exposure. This assumption may not be satisfied in the case of CVST, firstly because it is a serious adverse event, and secondly because the vaccination programme in the United Kingdom prioritised the clinically extremely vulnerable and those with underlying health conditions, which may have caused a selection effect for individuals more prone to CVST. Although we pooled data from several large datasets, there was still a low number of events, which may have caused imprecision in our estimates. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed a small elevated risk of CVST events following vaccination with ChAdOx1, but not BNT162b2. Our analysis pooled information from large datasets from England, Scotland, and Wales. This evidence may be useful in risk-benefit analyses of vaccine policies and in providing quantification of risks associated with vaccination to the general public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United Kingdom , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Wales
11.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 87, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prospective population-based studies investigating multiple determinants of pre-vaccination antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 are lacking. METHODS: We did a prospective population-based study in SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-naive UK adults recruited between May 1 and November 2, 2020, without a positive swab test result for SARS-CoV-2 prior to enrolment. Information on 88 potential sociodemographic, behavioural, nutritional, clinical and pharmacological risk factors was obtained through online questionnaires, and combined IgG/IgA/IgM responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein were determined in dried blood spots obtained between November 6, 2020, and April 18, 2021. We used logistic and linear regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and adjusted geometric mean ratios (aGMRs) for potential determinants of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity (all participants) and antibody titres (seropositive participants only), respectively. RESULTS: Of 11,130 participants, 1696 (15.2%) were seropositive. Factors independently associated with  higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity included frontline health/care occupation (aOR 1.86, 95% CI 1.48-2.33), international travel (1.20, 1.07-1.35), number of visits to shops and other indoor public places (≥ 5 vs. 0/week: 1.29, 1.06-1.57, P-trend = 0.01), body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 vs. < 25 kg/m2 (1.24, 1.11-1.39), South Asian vs. White ethnicity (1.65, 1.10-2.49) and alcohol consumption ≥15 vs. 0 units/week (1.23, 1.04-1.46). Light physical exercise associated with  lower risk (0.80, 0.70-0.93, for ≥ 10 vs. 0-4 h/week). Among seropositive participants, higher titres of anti-Spike antibodies associated with factors including BMI ≥ 30 vs. < 25 kg/m2 (aGMR 1.10, 1.02-1.19), South Asian vs. White ethnicity (1.22, 1.04-1.44), frontline health/care occupation (1.24, 95% CI 1.11-1.39), international travel (1.11, 1.05-1.16) and number of visits to shops and other indoor public places (≥ 5 vs. 0/week: 1.12, 1.02-1.23, P-trend = 0.01); these associations were not substantially attenuated by adjustment for COVID-19 disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: Higher alcohol consumption and lower light physical exercise represent new modifiable risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Recognised associations between South Asian ethnic origin and obesity and higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity were independent of other sociodemographic, behavioural, nutritional, clinical, and pharmacological factors investigated. Among seropositive participants, higher titres of anti-Spike antibodies in people of South Asian ancestry and in obese people were not explained by greater COVID-19 disease severity in these groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , United Kingdom , Vaccination
12.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e050062, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691320

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which emerged in December 2019, has caused millions of deaths and severe illness worldwide. Numerous vaccines are currently under development of which a few have now been authorised for population-level administration by several countries. As of 20 September 2021, over 48 million people have received their first vaccine dose and over 44 million people have received their second vaccine dose across the UK. We aim to assess the uptake rates, effectiveness, and safety of all currently approved COVID-19 vaccines in the UK. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will use prospective cohort study designs to assess vaccine uptake, effectiveness and safety against clinical outcomes and deaths. Test-negative case-control study design will be used to assess vaccine effectiveness (VE) against laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Self-controlled case series and retrospective cohort study designs will be carried out to assess vaccine safety against mild-to-moderate and severe adverse events, respectively. Individual-level pseudonymised data from primary care, secondary care, laboratory test and death records will be linked and analysed in secure research environments in each UK nation. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models will be carried out to estimate vaccine uptake levels in relation to various population characteristics. VE estimates against laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection will be generated using a generalised additive logistic model. Time-dependent Cox models will be used to estimate the VE against clinical outcomes and deaths. The safety of the vaccines will be assessed using logistic regression models with an offset for the length of the risk period. Where possible, data will be meta-analysed across the UK nations. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: We obtained approvals from the National Research Ethics Service Committee, Southeast Scotland 02 (12/SS/0201), the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage independent Information Governance Review Panel project number 0911. Concerning English data, University of Oxford is compliant with the General Data Protection Regulation and the National Health Service (NHS) Digital Data Security and Protection Policy. This is an approved study (Integrated Research Application ID 301740, Health Research Authority (HRA) Research Ethics Committee 21/HRA/2786). The Oxford-Royal College of General Practitioners Clinical Informatics Digital Hub meets NHS Digital's Data Security and Protection Toolkit requirements. In Northern Ireland, the project was approved by the Honest Broker Governance Board, project number 0064. Findings will be made available to national policy-makers, presented at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland/epidemiology , State Medicine
13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311502

ABSTRACT

Background: Lockdowns and health-system responses to the COVID-19 pandemic impacted citizen behaviour and cancer-related services. Modelling predicted excess cancer mortality, with limited observed cancer incidence data. We determined pandemic impacts on whole-population incidence, stage at diagnosis and referral route-to-diagnosis for: I) female breast (FBC), II) colorectal (CRC), and III) non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC).Methods: We linked cancer e-record and hospital admission data to identify incident cases, stage and referral route-to-diagnosis outcomes in the Welsh adult population (~2.5 million), imputed missing stage and compared 2019 and 2020 outcomes stratified by age, sex and deprivation, after accounting for seasonal variation.Findings: FBC incidence decreased -19.1% (n=-474);CRC -17.2% (n=-383);NSCLC -7.9% (n=-154);overall decrease -15.2% (n=-1011), greatest in 80+ year-olds and FBC screening-age women. Large incidence decreases started in April 2020. FBC recovered by September, CRC partially recovered, and NSCLC recovered by June, decreasing from October. Stage I FBC declined -33.5% (n=-341), CRC distribution changed little, and for NSCLC, stage II declined -31.4% (n=-71), stage IV by -12.4% (n=-100). CRC and NSCLC Q2 2020 primary care suspected cancer diagnoses decreased by approximately half. The small decline in FBC rebounded above 2019 diagnoses by Q3, followed by CRC in Q4. NSCLC only partially recovered. Annual screen-detected FBC and CRC fell -47.8% (n=-451) and -13.3% (n=-37), respectively. NSCLC emergency presentation diagnoses increased in Q2 and Q3 2020.Interpretation: Impacts differed between cancers, coinciding with dynamic pandemic responses. Large numbers of undiagnosed patients and the on-going pandemic will increase later-stage diagnoses and mortality from 2021 onwards, further impacting citizens and services. Optimising screening and transformation of cancer services and primary care referral will be required, with continued research and surveillance.Funding: This work was supported by Health Data Research UK funding to DATA-CAN, the UK’s Health Data Research Hub for Cancer and Cancer Research UK (C23434/A23706).Declaration of Interest: ML has received an unrestricted educational grant from Pfizer for research unrelated to this work. ML has received honoraria from Pfizer, EMF Serono, Roche and Carnall Farrar unrelated to this work. DWH has received research consultancy fees from Pfizer for research unrelated to this work and his department (Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Public Health Wales) has received analysis partnership funding from Macmillan Cancer Support for unrelated work. All other authors have declared no conflicts of interest.Ethical Approval: This study was approved by the SAIL independent Information Governance Review Panel (IGRP) project number 0911.

14.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327687

ABSTRACT

Summary Background Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination vary for reasons that remain poorly understood. Methods We tested for presence of combined IgG, IgA and IgM (IgGAM) anti-spike antibodies before and after administration of two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (ChAdOx1, Oxford-AstraZeneca) or BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) in UK adults participating in a population-based longitudinal study who received their first dose of vaccine from December 15, 2020 to July 10, 2021. Information on sixty-six potential sociodemographic, behavioural, clinical, pharmacological and nutritional determinants of serological response to vaccination was captured using serial online questionnaires. We used logistic regression to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for associations between independent variables and risk of seronegativity following two vaccine doses. Participants who were seronegative after receiving two vaccine doses were offered an additional antibody test following subsequent administration of a ‘booster’ dose of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) from September 23 to December 12, 2021. Findings Serology results following two vaccine doses were available for 9,101 participants, of whom 5,770 (63.4%) received ChAdOx1 and 3,331 (36.6%) received BNT162b2. Anti-spike IgGAM was undetectable in 378 (4.2%) participants at a median of 8.6 weeks (IQR 6.4-10.7 weeks) after their second dose of vaccine. Seronegativity following two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was associated with administration of ChAdOx1 vs BNT162b2 (aOR 7.03, 95% CI 4.39-11.24), shorter interval between first and second vaccine doses (aOR 2.37, 1.06-5.26, for <6 weeks vs >10 weeks;aOR 1.59, 1.18-2.13, for 6-10 weeks vs >10 weeks), poorer self-assessed general health (aOR 3.33, 1.49-7.46, for poor vs excellent), immunodeficiencies (aOR 6.75, 2.63-17.35) and prescription of systemic immunosuppressants (aOR 3.76, 2.44-5.78). By contrast, pre-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity (aOR 0.16, 0.04-0.70, for symptomatic seropositives vs seronegatives) and supplemental vitamin D intake (aOR 0.73, 0.53-0.99) were associated with reduced risk of post-vaccination seronegativity. 247/378 (65.3%) of participants who were seronegative after two doses of ChAdOx1 vs BNT162b2 provided a third sample at a median of 7.8 weeks (IQR 5.8-10.4) after receiving a booster dose of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273: eight (3.2%) of them remained seronegative after three vaccine doses, all of whom either had a primary immunodeficiency or were taking systemic immunosuppressant drugs. Interpretation We identify multiple determinants of antibody responses to two doses of ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2, many of which are potentially modifiable. Booster doses of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 were highly effective in achieving seroconversion in those who failed to mount antibody responses following two doses of ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2. Study registration https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04330599 Funding Barts Charity, Fischer Family Trust, The Exilarch’s Foundation, DSM Nutritional Products, Health Data Research UK Research in context Evidence before this study We searched PubMed, medRxiv, and Google Scholar for papers published from January 1, 2020, to February 1, 2022, using the search terms (antibody OR humoral OR serologic* OR immunogenic*) AND (SARS-CoV-2 vaccine OR ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 coronavirus), with no language restrictions. Population-based studies investigating multiple potential determinants of vaccine immunogenicity in people with known pre-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 serostatus are lacking. Added value of this study This large population-based study, conducted in a population with known pre-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 serostatus, examines a comprehensive range of potential sociodemographic, behavioural, clinical, pharmacological and nutritional determinants of antibody responses to administration of two major SARS-CoV-2 vaccines (i.e., ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2), many of which have not previously been investigated. It is also the first population-based study to characterise antibody responses to booster doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in adults who were seronegative after their primary course of vaccination. Implications of all the available evidence Increased risk of seronegativity following two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines was associated with administration of ChAdOx1 vs BNT162b2, shorter interval between first and second vaccine doses, poorer self-assessed general health, immunocompromise and SARS-CoV-2 seronegativity pre-vaccination. Regular intake of vitamin D supplements was associated with reduced risk of post-vaccination seronegativity. Randomised controlled trials are now needed to test for causality. Booster doses of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 were highly effective in achieving seroconversion in the majority of people who failed to mount antibody responses following a primary course of vaccination, the few exceptions being a subset of those with primary immunodeficiency or systemic immunosuppressant drugs.

15.
Vaccine ; 40(8): 1180-1189, 2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621088

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While population estimates suggest high vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection, the protection for health care workers, who are at higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure, is less understood. METHODS: We conducted a national cohort study of health care workers in Wales (UK) from 7 December 2020 to 30 September 2021. We examined uptake of any COVID-19 vaccine, and the effectiveness of BNT162b2 mRNA (Pfizer-BioNTech) against polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. We used linked and routinely collected national-scale data within the SAIL Databank. Data were available on 82,959 health care workers in Wales, with exposure extending to 26 weeks after second doses. RESULTS: Overall vaccine uptake was high (90%), with most health care workers receiving theBNT162b2 vaccine (79%). Vaccine uptake differed by age, staff role, socioeconomic status; those aged 50-59 and 60+ years old were 1.6 times more likely to get vaccinated than those aged 16-29. Medical and dental staff, and Allied Health Practitioners were 1.5 and 1.1 times more likely to get vaccinated, compared to nursing and midwifery staff. The effectiveness of the BNT162b2 vaccine was found to be strong and consistent across the characteristics considered; 52% three to six weeks after first dose, 86% from two weeks after second dose, though this declined to 53% from 22 weeks after the second dose. CONCLUSIONS: With some variation in rate of uptake, those who were vaccinated had a reduced risk of PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, compared to those unvaccinated. Second dose has provided stronger protection for longer than first dose but our study is consistent with waning from seven weeks onwards.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Cohort Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Wales/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
Age Ageing ; 51(1)2022 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: vaccinations for COVID-19 have been prioritised for older people living in care homes. However, vaccination trials included limited numbers of older people. AIM: we aimed to study infection rates of SARS-CoV-2 for older care home residents following vaccination and identify factors associated with increased risk of infection. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: we conducted an observational data-linkage study including 14,104 vaccinated older care home residents in Wales (UK) using anonymised electronic health records and administrative data. METHODS: we used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection following vaccination, after landmark times of either 7 or 21 days post-vaccination. We adjusted HRs for age, sex, frailty, prior SARS-CoV-2 infections and vaccination type. RESULTS: we observed a small proportion of care home residents with positive polymerase chain reaction (tests following vaccination 1.05% (N = 148), with 90% of infections occurring within 28 days. For the 7-day landmark analysis we found a reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection for vaccinated individuals who had a previous infection; HR (95% confidence interval) 0.54 (0.30, 0.95). For the 21-day landmark analysis, we observed high HRs for individuals with low and intermediate frailty compared with those without; 4.59 (1.23, 17.12) and 4.85 (1.68, 14.04), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: increased risk of infection after 21 days was associated with frailty. We found most infections occurred within 28 days of vaccination, suggesting extra precautions to reduce transmission risk should be taken in this time frame.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Cohort Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Wales/epidemiology
17.
Thorax ; 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541926

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk factors for severe COVID-19 include older age, male sex, obesity, black or Asian ethnicity and underlying medical conditions. Whether these factors also influence susceptibility to developing COVID-19 is uncertain. METHODS: We undertook a prospective, population-based cohort study (COVIDENCE UK) from 1 May 2020 to 5 February 2021. Baseline information on potential risk factors was captured by an online questionnaire. Monthly follow-up questionnaires captured incident COVID-19. We used logistic regression models to estimate multivariable-adjusted ORs (aORs) for associations between potential risk factors and odds of COVID-19. RESULTS: We recorded 446 incident cases of COVID-19 in 15 227 participants (2.9%). Increased odds of developing COVID-19 were independently associated with Asian/Asian British versus white ethnicity (aOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.33 to 3.91), household overcrowding (aOR per additional 0.5 people/bedroom 1.26, 1.11 to 1.43), any versus no visits to/from other households in previous week (aOR 1.31, 1.06 to 1.62), number of visits to indoor public places (aOR per extra visit per week 1.05, 1.02 to 1.09), frontline occupation excluding health/social care versus no frontline occupation (aOR 1.49, 1.12 to 1.98) and raised body mass index (BMI) (aOR 1.50 (1.19 to 1.89) for BMI 25.0-30.0 kg/m2 and 1.39 (1.06 to 1.84) for BMI >30.0 kg/m2 versus BMI <25.0 kg/m2). Atopic disease was independently associated with decreased odds (aOR 0.75, 0.59 to 0.97). No independent associations were seen for age, sex, other medical conditions, diet or micronutrient supplement use. CONCLUSIONS: After rigorous adjustment for factors influencing exposure to SARS-CoV-2, Asian/Asian British ethnicity and raised BMI were associated with increased odds of developing COVID-19, while atopic disease was associated with decreased odds. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT04330599).

18.
Seizure ; 94: 39-42, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537076

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has increased mortality worldwide and those with chronic conditions may have been disproportionally affected. However, it is unknown whether the pandemic has changed mortality rates for people with epilepsy. We aimed to compare mortality rates in people with epilepsy in Wales during the pandemic with pre-pandemic rates. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study using individual-level linked population-scale anonymised electronic health records. We identified deaths in people with epilepsy (DPWE), i.e. those with a diagnosis of epilepsy, and deaths associated with epilepsy (DAE), where epilepsy was recorded as a cause of death on death certificates. We compared death rates in 2020 with average rates in 2015-2019 using Poisson models to calculate death rate ratios. RESULTS: There were 188 DAE and 628 DPWE in Wales in 2020 (death rates: 7.7/100,000/year and 25.7/100,000/year). The average rates for DAE and DPWE from 2015 to 2019 were 5.8/100,000/year and 23.8/100,000/year, respectively. Death rate ratios (2020 compared to 2015-2019) for DAE were 1.34 (95%CI 1.14-1.57, p<0.001) and for DPWE were 1.08 (0.99-1.17, p = 0.09). The death rate ratios for non-COVID deaths (deaths without COVID mentioned on death certificates) for DAE were 1.17 (0.99-1.39, p = 0.06) and for DPWE were 0.96 (0.87-1.05, p = 0.37). CONCLUSIONS: The significant increase in DAE in Wales during 2020 could be explained by the direct effect of COVID-19 infection. Non-COVID-19 deaths have not increased significantly but further work is needed to assess the longer-term impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Cause of Death , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Wales/epidemiology
19.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291602

ABSTRACT

Background: Prospective population-based studies investigating multiple determinants of pre-vaccination antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 are lacking.Methods: We did a prospective population-based study in SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-naive UK adults between May 1 and Nov 2, 2020. Information on 88 potential risk factors was obtained through online questionnaires, and combined IgG/IgA/IgM responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein were determined in dried blood spots. We used logistic and linear regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and adjusted geometric mean ratios (aGMRs) for potential determinants of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity (all participants) and antibody titres (seropositive participants only), respectively.Findings: 1696 (15.2%) of 11,130 participants were seropositive. Factors independently associated with increased risk included frontline health/care occupation (aOR 1.86, 95% CI 1.49–2.33), international travel (1.22, 1.08–1.37), BMI >30 vs <25 kg/m² (1.22, 1.05–1.42), Asian/Asian British vs White ethnicity (1.65, 1.10–2.47), and alcohol consumption ≥15 vs 0 units/week (1.26, 1.06–1.49). Light physical exercise associated with decreased risk (0.80, 0.69–0.93, for ≥10 vs 0–4 h/week). Higher titres associated with frontline health/care occupation (aGMR 1.26, 95% CI 1.13–1.41), international travel (1.10, 1.04–1.16), BMI >30 vs <25 kg/m² (1.09, 1.01–1.17), and Asian/Asian British vs White ethnicity (1.23, 1.03–1.46);these associations were not substantially attenuated by adjustment for disease severity.Interpretation: Higher alcohol consumption and reduced physical exercise represent new modifiable risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Recognised associations between Asian/Asian British ethnic origin and obesity and increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity were independent of other sociodemographic, clinical, or behavioural factors investigated.Funding: Barts Charity, Health Data Research UK.Declaration of Interest: JS declares receipt of payments from Reach plc for news stories written about recruitment to, and findings of, the COVIDENCE UK study. AS is a member of the Scottish Government Chief Medical Officer’s COVID-19 Advisory Group and its Standing Committee on Pandemics. He is also a member of the UK Government’s NERVTAG’s Risk Stratification Subgroup. ARM declares receipt of funding in the last 36 months to support vitamin D research from the following companies who manufacture or sell vitamin D supplements: Pharma Nord Ltd, DSM Nutritional Products Ltd, Thornton & Ross Ltd, Cytoplan Ltd and Hyphens Pharma Ltd. ARM also declares support for attending meetings from the following companies who manufacture or sell vitamin D supplements: Pharma Nord Ltd and Abiogen Pharma Ltd. ARM also declares participation on the Data and Safety Monitoring Board for the Chair, DSMB, VITALITY trial (Vitamin D for Adolescents with HIV to reduce musculoskeletal morbidity and immunopathology). ARM also declares unpaid work as a Programme Committee member for the Vitamin D Workshop. ARM also declares receipt of vitamin D capsules for clinical trial use from Pharma Nord Ltd, Synergy Biologics Ltd and Cytoplan Ltd.Ethical Approval: COVIDENCE UK was sponsored by Queen Mary University of London and approved by Leicester South Research Ethics Committee (ref 20/EM/0117). It is registered withClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04330599).

20.
BMJ ; 374: n2244, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430185

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To derive and validate risk prediction algorithms to estimate the risk of covid-19 related mortality and hospital admission in UK adults after one or two doses of covid-19 vaccination. DESIGN: Prospective, population based cohort study using the QResearch database linked to data on covid-19 vaccination, SARS-CoV-2 results, hospital admissions, systemic anticancer treatment, radiotherapy, and the national death and cancer registries. SETTINGS: Adults aged 19-100 years with one or two doses of covid-19 vaccination between 8 December 2020 and 15 June 2021. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was covid-19 related death. Secondary outcome was covid-19 related hospital admission. Outcomes were assessed from 14 days after each vaccination dose. Models were fitted in the derivation cohort to derive risk equations using a range of predictor variables. Performance was evaluated in a separate validation cohort of general practices. RESULTS: Of 6 952 440 vaccinated patients in the derivation cohort, 5 150 310 (74.1%) had two vaccine doses. Of 2031 covid-19 deaths and 1929 covid-19 hospital admissions, 81 deaths (4.0%) and 71 admissions (3.7%) occurred 14 days or more after the second vaccine dose. The risk algorithms included age, sex, ethnic origin, deprivation, body mass index, a range of comorbidities, and SARS-CoV-2 infection rate. Incidence of covid-19 mortality increased with age and deprivation, male sex, and Indian and Pakistani ethnic origin. Cause specific hazard ratios were highest for patients with Down's syndrome (12.7-fold increase), kidney transplantation (8.1-fold), sickle cell disease (7.7-fold), care home residency (4.1-fold), chemotherapy (4.3-fold), HIV/AIDS (3.3-fold), liver cirrhosis (3.0-fold), neurological conditions (2.6-fold), recent bone marrow transplantation or a solid organ transplantation ever (2.5-fold), dementia (2.2-fold), and Parkinson's disease (2.2-fold). Other conditions with increased risk (ranging from 1.2-fold to 2.0-fold increases) included chronic kidney disease, blood cancer, epilepsy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, thromboembolism, peripheral vascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. A similar pattern of associations was seen for covid-19 related hospital admissions. No evidence indicated that associations differed after the second dose, although absolute risks were reduced. The risk algorithm explained 74.1% (95% confidence interval 71.1% to 77.0%) of the variation in time to covid-19 death in the validation cohort. Discrimination was high, with a D statistic of 3.46 (95% confidence interval 3.19 to 3.73) and C statistic of 92.5. Performance was similar after each vaccine dose. In the top 5% of patients with the highest predicted covid-19 mortality risk, sensitivity for identifying covid-19 deaths within 70 days was 78.7%. CONCLUSION: This population based risk algorithm performed well showing high levels of discrimination for identifying those patients at highest risk of covid-19 related death and hospital admission after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Comorbidity , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
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