Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 9 de 9
Filter
1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 960938, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154694

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an extremely contagious illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Early disease recognition of COVID-19 is crucial not only for prompt diagnosis and treatment of the patients, but also for effective public health surveillance and response. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the most common method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 viral mRNA and is regarded as the gold standard test for COVID-19. However, this test and those for antibodies (IgM and IgG) and antigens have certain limitations (e.g., by yielding false-negative and false-positive results). We have developed an RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method for high-sensitivity detection of SARS-CoV-2 mRNAs in HEK 293T cell cultures as a model. After transfection of HEK 293T cells with plasmids, Spike (S)/envelope (E) proteins and their mRNAs were clearly detected inside the cells. In addition, hybridization time could be reduced to 2 hours for faster detection when probe concentration was increased. Our approach might thus significantly improve the sensitivity and specificity of SARS-CoV-2 detection and be widely applied for the high-sensitivity single-molecular detection of other RNA viruses (e.g., Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Hepatitis A virus, all influenza viruses, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)) in various types of samples including tissue, body fluid, blood, and water. RNA FISH can also be utilized for the detection of DNA viruses (e.g., Monkeypox virus, human papillomavirus (HPV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV)) by detection of their mRNAs inside cells or body fluid.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , RNA, Messenger/genetics , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , HEK293 Cells , Immunoglobulin M , Immunoglobulin G , Water
2.
Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology ; 12, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2073177

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an extremely contagious illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Early disease recognition of COVID-19 is crucial not only for prompt diagnosis and treatment of the patients, but also for effective public health surveillance and response. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the most common method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 viral mRNA and is regarded as the gold standard test for COVID-19. However, this test and those for antibodies (IgM and IgG) and antigens have certain limitations (e.g., by yielding false-negative and false-positive results). We have developed an RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method for high-sensitivity detection of SARS-CoV-2 mRNAs in HEK 293T cell cultures as a model. After transfection of HEK 293T cells with plasmids, Spike (S)/envelope (E) proteins and their mRNAs were clearly detected inside the cells. In addition, hybridization time could be reduced to 2 hours for faster detection when probe concentration was increased. Our approach might thus significantly improve the sensitivity and specificity of SARS-CoV-2 detection and be widely applied for the high-sensitivity single-molecular detection of other RNA viruses (e.g., Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Hepatitis A virus, all influenza viruses, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)) in various types of samples including tissue, body fluid, blood, and water. RNA FISH can also be utilized for the detection of DNA viruses (e.g., Monkeypox virus, human papillomavirus (HPV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV)) by detection of their mRNAs inside cells or body fluid.

3.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 32(10):1590-1595, 2022.
Article in English, Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2011224

ABSTRACT

The major causes of death of patients with COVID-19 include metabolic acidosis, septic shock, pulmonary edema, multiple organ failure and deep venous thrombosis. These systemic manifestations are associated with severe pathological damages of vital organs like lung and kidney that are caused by inflammatory storms. The occurrence, development and deterioration of disease is closely associated with the immune imbalance mechanisms such as disorder of lymphocyte subsets and emergence of cytokine storm. The cellular immunity plays a vital role. The expression levels of some blood inflammatory factors of the severe COVID-19 patients are remarkably elevated, IL-6 is a typical proinflammatory factor that causes the cytokine storm, which can be used for prediction of prognosis. IL-6 blockade may be an effective method to block the cytokine storm.

4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD013714, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis (HAEC) is a leading cause of serious morbidity and potential mortality in children with Hirschsprung's disease (HD). People with HAEC suffer from intestinal inflammation, and present with diarrhoea, explosive stools, and abdominal distension. Probiotics are live microorganisms with beneficial health effects, which can optimise gastrointestinal function and gut flora. However, the efficacy and safety of probiotic supplementation in the prevention of HAEC remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of probiotic supplements used either alone or in combination with pharmacological interventions on the prevention of Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, the China BioMedical Literature database (CBM), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry, ClinicalTrials.gov, the Chinese Clinical Trials Registry, Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, and Clinical Trials Registry-India, from database inception to 27 February 2022. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews for any additional trails. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics and placebo, or any other non-probiotic intervention, for the prevention of HAEC were eligible for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies; disagreements were resolved by discussion with a third review author. We assessed the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dichotomous outcomes. MAIN RESULTS: We included two RCTs, with a total of 122 participants. We judged the overall risk of bias as high. We downgraded the evidence due to risk of bias (random sequence generation, allocation concealment, and blinding) and small sample size. The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of probiotics on the occurrence of HAEC (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.10 to 3.43; I² = 74%; 2 studies, 120 participants; very low-certainty evidence). We found one included study that did not measure serious adverse events and one included study that reported no serious adverse events related to probiotics. Probiotics may result in little to no difference between probiotics and placebo in relation to the severity of children with HAEC at Grade I (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.14 to 3.16; I² = 25%; 2 studies, 120 participants; low-certainty evidence). The effects of probiotics on the severity of HAEC at Grade II are very uncertain (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.01 to 136.58; I² = 86%; 2 studies, 120 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Similarly, the evidence suggests that probiotics results in little to no difference in relation to the severity of HAEC at Grade III (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.05 to 3.45; I² = 0%; 2 studies, 120 participants; low-certainty evidence). No overall mortality or withdrawals due to adverse events were reported. Probiotics may result in little to no difference in the recurrence of episodes of HAEC compared to placebo (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.24 to 3.00; 1 study, 60 participants; low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is currently not enough evidence to assess the efficacy or safety of probiotics for the prevention of Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis when compared with placebo. The presence of low- to very-low certainty evidence suggests that further well-designed and sufficiently powered RCTs are needed to clarify the true efficacy of probiotics.


Subject(s)
Enterocolitis , Probiotics , Australia , Child , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Enterocolitis/etiology , Enterocolitis/prevention & control , Humans , Odds Ratio , Probiotics/therapeutic use
5.
Antiviral Res ; 203: 105329, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819427

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, has infected over 260 million people over the past 2 years. Remdesivir (RDV, VEKLURY®) is currently the only antiviral therapy fully approved by the FDA for the treatment of COVID-19. The parent nucleoside of RDV, GS-441524, exhibits antiviral activity against numerous respiratory viruses including SARS-CoV-2, although at reduced in vitro potency compared to RDV in most assays. Here we find in both human alveolar and bronchial primary cells, GS-441524 is metabolized to the pharmacologically active GS-441524 triphosphate (TP) less efficiently than RDV, which correlates with a lower in vitro SARS-CoV-2 antiviral activity. In vivo, African green monkeys (AGM) orally dosed with GS-441524 yielded low plasma levels due to limited oral bioavailability of <10%. When GS-441524 was delivered via intravenous (IV) administration, although plasma concentrations of GS-441524 were significantly higher, lung TP levels were lower than observed from IV RDV. To determine the required systemic exposure of GS-441524 associated with in vivo antiviral efficacy, SARS-CoV-2 infected AGMs were treated with a once-daily IV dose of either 7.5 or 20 mg/kg GS-441524 or IV RDV for 5 days and compared to vehicle control. Despite the reduced lung TP formation compared to IV dosing of RDV, daily treatment with IV GS-441524 resulted in dose-dependent efficacy, with the 20 mg/kg GS-441524 treatment resulting in significant reductions of SARS-CoV-2 replication in the lower respiratory tract of infected animals. These findings demonstrate the in vivo SARS-CoV-2 antiviral efficacy of GS-441524 and support evaluation of its orally bioavailable prodrugs as potential therapies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(633): eabl8282, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598975

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV) is a nucleotide analog prodrug with demonstrated clinical benefit in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In October 2020, the US FDA approved intravenous (IV) RDV as the first treatment for hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, RDV has been approved or authorized for emergency use in more than 50 countries. To make RDV more convenient for non-hospitalized patients earlier in disease, alternative routes of administration are being evaluated. Here, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of RDV administered by head dome inhalation in African green monkeys (AGM). Relative to an IV administration of RDV at 10 mg/kg, an approximately 20-fold lower dose administered by inhalation produced comparable concentrations of the pharmacologically active triphosphate in lower respiratory tract tissues. Distribution of the active triphosphate into the upper respiratory tract was also observed following inhaled RDV exposure. Inhalation RDV dosing resulted in lower systemic exposures to RDV and its metabolites as compared with IV RDV dosing. An efficacy study with repeated dosing of inhaled RDV in an AGM model of SARS-CoV-2 infection demonstrated reductions in viral replication in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and respiratory tract tissues compared with placebo. Efficacy was observed with inhaled RDV administered once daily at a pulmonary deposited dose of 0.35 mg/kg beginning approximately 8 hours post-infection. Moreover, the efficacy of inhaled RDV was similar to that of IV RDV administered once at 10 mg/kg followed by 5 mg/kg daily in the same study. Together, these findings support further clinical development of inhalation RDV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Primates , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
7.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(9): e0060221, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434879

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV; GS-5734, Veklury), the first FDA-approved antiviral to treat COVID-19, is a single-diastereomer monophosphoramidate prodrug of an adenosine analogue. RDV is taken up in the target cells and metabolized in multiple steps to form the active nucleoside triphosphate (TP) (GS-443902), which, in turn, acts as a potent and selective inhibitor of multiple viral RNA polymerases. In this report, we profiled the key enzymes involved in the RDV metabolic pathway with multiple parallel approaches: (i) bioinformatic analysis of nucleoside/nucleotide metabolic enzyme mRNA expression using public human tissue and lung single-cell bulk mRNA sequence (RNA-seq) data sets, (ii) protein and mRNA quantification of enzymes in human lung tissue and primary lung cells, (iii) biochemical studies on the catalytic rate of key enzymes, (iv) effects of specific enzyme inhibitors on the GS-443902 formation, and (v) the effects of these inhibitors on RDV antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture. Our data collectively demonstrated that carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) and cathepsin A (CatA) are enzymes involved in hydrolyzing RDV to its alanine intermediate MetX, which is further hydrolyzed to the monophosphate form by histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1). The monophosphate is then consecutively phosphorylated to diphosphate and triphosphate by cellular phosphotransferases. Our data support the hypothesis that the unique properties of RDV prodrug not only allow lung-specific accumulation critical for the treatment of respiratory viral infection such as COVID-19 but also enable efficient intracellular metabolism of RDV and its MetX to monophosphate and successive phosphorylation to form the active TP in disease-relevant cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Lung , Nerve Tissue Proteins
8.
J Med Chem ; 64(8): 5001-5017, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174625

ABSTRACT

A discovery program targeting respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) identified C-nucleoside 4 (RSV A2 EC50 = 530 nM) as a phenotypic screening lead targeting the RSV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Prodrug exploration resulted in the discovery of remdesivir (1, GS-5734) that is >30-fold more potent than 4 against RSV in HEp-2 and NHBE cells. Metabolism studies in vitro confirmed the rapid formation of the active triphosphate metabolite, 1-NTP, and in vivo studies in cynomolgus and African Green monkeys demonstrated a >10-fold higher lung tissue concentration of 1-NTP following molar normalized IV dosing of 1 compared to that of 4. A once daily 10 mg/kg IV administration of 1 in an African Green monkey RSV model demonstrated a >2-log10 reduction in the peak lung viral load. These early data following the discovery of 1 supported its potential as a novel treatment for RSV prior to its development for Ebola and approval for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Prodrugs/pharmacology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Caco-2 Cells , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Dogs , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Macaca fascicularis , Male , Prodrugs/chemistry , Prodrugs/pharmacokinetics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Tissue Distribution , Tubercidin/analogs & derivatives , Tubercidin/chemistry , Viral Load
9.
Cell Rep ; 32(3): 107940, 2020 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635658

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the novel viral disease COVID-19. With no approved therapies, this pandemic illustrates the urgent need for broad-spectrum antiviral countermeasures against SARS-CoV-2 and future emerging CoVs. We report that remdesivir (RDV) potently inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in human lung cells and primary human airway epithelial cultures (EC50 = 0.01 µM). Weaker activity is observed in Vero E6 cells (EC50 = 1.65 µM) because of their low capacity to metabolize RDV. To rapidly evaluate in vivo efficacy, we engineered a chimeric SARS-CoV encoding the viral target of RDV, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of SARS-CoV-2. In mice infected with the chimeric virus, therapeutic RDV administration diminishes lung viral load and improves pulmonary function compared with vehicle-treated animals. These data demonstrate that RDV is potently active against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and in vivo, supporting its further clinical testing for treatment of COVID-19.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL