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1.
Journal of Health Communication ; : 1-12, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028857

ABSTRACT

Psychological reactance theory (PRT) posits that when individuals' perceived freedoms are threatened or restricted, they become aversively aroused and are motivated to reestablish those freedoms, leading to a state of psychological reactance. Applying PRT, this study examined the effects of controlling language, fear, and disgust appeals on responses to COVID-19 vaccination promotion messages. Participants were randomly assigned to one of eight conditions across controlling language (high/low), fear appeals (high/low), and disgust appeals (high/low), wherein they viewed two messages, with responses measured after each message. Results showed persuasion was diminished when the levels of any of these three variables were elevated, as in conditions of either high controlling language, high fear appeals, or high disgust appeals. Relative to low levels of these variables, high levels resulted in greater freedom threat perceptions, reactance, source derogation, and less positive attitudes toward the message. A 2-way interaction between fear and disgust appeals on source derogation and message attitudes in the low controlling language condition was significant-participants reported the least source derogation and most positive attitudes toward the message in response to the low controlling language, low fear, and low disgust appeals.

2.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022991

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe unprecedented crisis during the fifth wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong placed a significant burden on the health care system. Therefore, the Hong Kong government advocated that individuals with no or mild COVID-19 symptoms should self-care at home. This study aimed to understand intrapersonal and interpersonal level factors that shaped self-care practices among home-quarantined individuals with COVID-19 during the peak of the pandemic. MethodsThis study used convenience and snowball sampling whereby a total of 30 semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted between March and April 2022. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze the data. ResultsFactors reported at the intrapersonal level included socioeconomic status and housing conditions, information and knowledge about COVID-19, long COVID, and psychological adjustments brought about by home quarantine. Factors identified at the interpersonal level included caregiving responsibilities, family relationships, and social support. ConclusionsFindings from this study identified a combination of intra and interpersonal level factors influenced an individual's self-care practices as a result of pandemic-induced quarantine. It was particularly concerning for those individuals in socially and economically deprived groups, where access to services was challenging. This study also raised awareness of the ineffectual and insufficient knowledge individuals held of self-medication and overall COVID-19 management. A key recommendation is developing family-based resilience programmes to support and empower vulnerable families to better cope with the realities of self-quarantine.

4.
Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University (Medical Sciences) ; 43(5):641-645, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010478

ABSTRACT

Objective: According to the need and practice of the National Medical Center Construction, this study structures the project communication management framework of the National Medical Center Construction based on Boyd/OODA loop and describes its background and practical path so as to explore its implementation efficiency. Methods: The theoretical framework was constructed and applied by means of lessons learned and case analysis. Results: The framework can meet various needs of project communication management of the National Medical Center Construction at different stages of epidemic prevention and control. Conclusion: The framework can improve the effectiveness, systematicness, coordination and efficiency of the National Medical Center Construction, and provide theoretical and empirical underpinning. Considerably more innovative and interdisciplinary research is needed in communication management.

5.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 38(8):3090-3098, 2022.
Article in Chinese | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2002693

ABSTRACT

After the outbreak of COVID-19, the widespread application of online teaching has brought challenges and opportunities for higher education. Developing an effective teaching system is the focus of curriculum teaching reform in the post pandemic era. According to the characteristics of Human and Animal Physiology, the course teachers has developed a new teaching system by updating the teaching concept, reconstructing the contents of the course, changing the teaching modes, strengthening the integration of moral and intellectual education, and improving the assessment approaches. This teaching system is aimed at meeting the need of personalized learning for students and adapting to a new teaching environment. This article introduces the exploration and practice of the curriculum reform.

6.
Social Responsibility Journal ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1992561

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aims to examine the corporate donations in response to the intensive outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in China in 2020 and proposes that the local spread of COVID-19 is negatively associated with corporate donations due to the non-trivial costs, but meanwhile, strong institutional pressures based on institutional theory are put on firms to donate, which thus creates a dilemma for firms. This study further argues that the dilemma is heterogeneous across different institutional fields. Design/methodology/approach: Using a sample of Chinese listed companies during the intensive outbreak of this pandemic, a two-stage Heckman selection model is conducted to address the potential sample selection bias. Findings: This study reveals a negative relationship between the local spread of COVID-19 and corporate donations, confirms the driving effect of various types of institutional pressure and finds that the intensity of the COVID-19 pandemic strengthens the effect of coercive pressure and mimetic pressure on philanthropic giving but weakens the effect of normative pressure. Originality/value: This study extends the knowledge on firms’ philanthropic response to natural crises, as the COVID-19 pandemic has not only led to a public health crisis but also to a global economic crisis, and how the effects of institutional pressures are affected by a situational crisis. This work enriches the literature on corporate philanthropy and crisis management and has some implications for both policymakers and business practitioners. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

7.
Drug Evaluation Research ; 45(7):1426-1434, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1964551

ABSTRACT

In order to comprehensively understand the research hotspots and development trends of Lonicera Japonica Flos in the past 20 years, and to provide intuitive data reference and objective opinions and suggestions for subsequent related research in this field, this study collected 8 871 Chinese literature and 311 English literature related to Lonicera Japonica Flos research in the core collection databases of Wanfang Data), CNKI and Web of Science (WOS) from 2002 to 2021, and conducted bibliometric and visual analysis using vosviewer. The results showed that the research on the active components of Lonicera Japonica Flos based on phenolic acid components, the research on the mechanism of novel coronavirus pneumonia based on data mining and molecular docking technology, and the pharmacological research on the anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties of Lonicera Japonica Flos are the three hot research directions in the may become the future research direction. In this paper, we analyze the research on Lonicera Japonica Flos from five aspects: active ingredients, research methods, formulation and preparation, pharmacological effects and clinical applications, aiming to reveal the research hotspots, frontiers and development trends in this field and provide predictions and references for future research. © Drug Evaluation Research 2022.

8.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology (China) ; 42(4):245-250, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928717

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the genome characteristics and variations in nucleotides and amino acids of SARS-CoV-2 causing an outbreak in Henan Province in November 2021 and perform the traceability analysis.Methods In this study, throat swab specimens from cases in the acute phase were collected and tested for the nucleic acids of SARS-CoV-2 by real-time fluorescent RT-PCR.SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid-positive samples were subjected to high-throughput genome sequencing and whole-genome alignment analysis.Results The median Ct values of ORF1ab gene and N gene in 70 positive specimens was 26.41 (15.58 to 39.27) and 24.43 (12.04 to 39.74), respectively.Compared with the sequence of Wuhan-Hu(NC_045512) reference strain, 47 to 49 nucleotide mutations sharing 47 nucleotide mutation and 41 amino acid mutations were found in 63 strains of successfully sequenced SARS-CoV-2.Nine nucleotide mutations and 12 amino acid mutations were found in the spike protein.The index case shared 47 mutations with the Russian imported cases in Henan Province on October 14 and the local cases in Jiangxi Province in October.Moreover, their genomes were highly homologous and they all belonged to the Delta variant (AY.122 evolutionary branch).Conclusions Continuous monitoring of imported COVID-19 cases and prolonging the period of quarantine were needed to reduce the risk of local outbreak and epidemic caused by imported COVID-19 cases.Analysis of the genomic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and the variations in nucleotides and amino acids was conducive to trace the origin of COVID-19 outbreak quickly and provide reference for precise control.

9.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccines play a vital role in combating the COVID-19 pandemic. Social media provides a rich data source to study public perception of COVID-19 vaccines. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to examine public perception and discussion of COVID-19 vaccines on Twitter in the US, as well as geographic and demographic characteristics of Twitter users who discussed about COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS: Through Twitter streaming Application Programming Interface (API), COVID-19-related tweets were collected from March 5 th , 2020 to January 25 th , 2021 using relevant keywords (such as "corona", "covid19", and "covid"). Based on geolocation information provided in tweets and vaccine-related keywords (such as "vaccine" and "vaccination"), we identified COVID-19 vaccine-related tweets from the US. Topic modeling and sentiment analysis were performed to examine public perception and discussion of COVID-19 vaccines. Demographic inference using computer vision algorithm (DeepFace) was performed to infer the demographic characteristics (age, gender and race/ethnicity) of Twitter users who tweeted about COVID-19 vaccines. RESULTS: Our longitudinal analysis showed that the discussion of COVID-19 vaccines on Twitter in the US reached a peak at the end of 2020. Average sentiment score for COVID-19 vaccine-related tweets remained relatively stable during our study period except for two big peaks, the positive peak corresponds to the optimism about the development of COVID-19 vaccines and the negative peak corresponds to worrying about the availability of COVID-19 vaccines. COVID-19 vaccine-related tweets from east coast states showed relatively high sentiment score. Twitter users from east, west and southern states of the US, as well as male users and users in age group 30-49 years, were more likely to discuss about COVID-19 vaccines on Twitter. CONCLUSIONS: Public discussion and perception of COVID-19 vaccines on Twitter were influenced by the vaccine development and the pandemic, which varied depending on the geographics and demographics of Twitter users.

10.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333613

ABSTRACT

We develop a generalizable AI-driven workflow that leverages heterogeneous HPC resources to explore the time-dependent dynamics of molecular systems. We use this workflow to investigate the mechanisms of infectivity of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, the main viral infection machinery. Our workflow enables more efficient investigation of spike dynamics in a variety of complex environments, including within a complete SARS-CoV-2 viral envelope simulation, which contains 305 million atoms and shows strong scaling on ORNL Summit using NAMD. We present several novel scientific discoveries, including the elucidation of the spike's full glycan shield, the role of spike glycans in modulating the infectivity of the virus, and the characterization of the flexible interactions between the spike and the human ACE2 receptor. We also demonstrate how AI can accelerate conformational sampling across different systems and pave the way for the future application of such methods to additional studies in SARS-CoV-2 and other molecular systems. ACM REFERENCE FORMAT: Lorenzo Casalino 1 , Abigail Dommer 1 , Zied Gaieb 1 , Emilia P. Barros 1 , Terra Sztain 1 , Surl-Hee Ahn 1 , Anda Trifan 2,3 , Alexander Brace 2 , Anthony Bogetti 4 , Heng Ma 2 , Hyungro Lee 5 , Matteo Turilli 5 , Syma Khalid 6 , Lillian Chong 4 , Carlos Simmerling 7 , David J. Hardy 3 , Julio D. C. Maia 3 , James C. Phillips 3 , Thorsten Kurth 8 , Abraham Stern 8 , Lei Huang 9 , John McCalpin 9 , Mahidhar Tatineni 10 , Tom Gibbs 8 , John E. Stone 3 , Shantenu Jha 5 , Arvind Ramanathan 2* , Rommie E. Amaro 1* . 2020. AI-Driven Multiscale Simulations Illuminate Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Dynamics. In Supercomputing '20: International Conference for High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage, and Analysis. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 14 pages. https://doi.org/finalDOI.

11.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333611

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global epidemic crisis with tens of thousands confirmed cases surfacing everyday. The infection rates in households, offices and public places are quite different from those in encompassed spaces such as airplanes, trains and cruise ships. Studying the behavior of COVID-19 in confined spaces like Diamond Princess cruise is of great importance to understand the disease progression and to manage the epidemic. We propose a novel mixture model to estimate the infection distribution and total infected number after 14 days of quarantine based on PCR test data performed on the Diamond Princess cruise. RESULTS: In contrast to the officially reported 634 individuals with PCR-positive results after the 14 day quarantine, which as of April 27, 2020 had increased to 712, we conclude that this number should be at least 1000. The discrepancy might be caused by the false-negative result of the PCR test or the occurrence of infection after the test.

12.
2021 Ethics and Explainability for Responsible Data Science Conference, EE-RDS 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1741176

ABSTRACT

Since 2019, COVID-19 has been a major problem for the world's population. COVID-19 is known for its fast transmission and strong infection. Therefore, how to reduce the burden of medical system is becoming a hot topic in current research. Previous researchers have used deep learning techniques to effectively classify COVID-19. Although the results are remarkable, the input method (X-ray images) is simple. Therefore, a new multi-modality fusion network is proposed in this paper. In this network, the spatial and structural feature information in the image were highlighted by means of thermal map. Experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed network. © 2021 IEEE.

13.
MEDLINE;
Preprint in English | MEDLINE | ID: ppcovidwho-326604

ABSTRACT

Prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding and recurrence of PCR-positive tests have been widely reported in patients after recovery, yet these patients most commonly are non-infectious. Here we investigated the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 RNAs can be reverse-transcribed and integrated into the human genome and that transcription of the integrated sequences might account for PCR-positive tests. In support of this hypothesis, we found chimeric transcripts consisting of viral fused to cellular sequences in published data sets of SARS-CoV-2 infected cultured cells and primary cells of patients, consistent with the transcription of viral sequences integrated into the genome. To experimentally corroborate the possibility of viral retro-integration, we describe evidence that SARS-CoV-2 RNAs can be reverse transcribed in human cells by reverse transcriptase (RT) from LINE-1 elements or by HIV-1 RT, and that these DNA sequences can be integrated into the cell genome and subsequently be transcribed. Human endogenous LINE-1 expression was induced upon SARS-CoV-2 infection or by cytokine exposure in cultured cells, suggesting a molecular mechanism for SARS-CoV-2 retro-integration in patients. This novel feature of SARS-CoV-2 infection may explain why patients can continue to produce viral RNA after recovery and suggests a new aspect of RNA virus replication.

14.
Blood ; 138:2249, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582362

ABSTRACT

Background: De novo nucleotide synthesis is necessary to meet the enormous demand for nucleotides, other macromolecules associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) progression 1, 2, 34. Hence, we hypothesized that targeting de novo nucleotide synthesis would lead to the depletion of the nucleotide pool, pyrimidine starvation and increase oxidative stress preferentially in leukemic cells compared to their non-malignant counterparts, impacting proliferative and differentiation pathways. Emvododstat (PTC299) is an inhibitor of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), a rate-limiting enzyme for de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis that is currently in a clinical trial for the treatment of AML. Objectives: The goals of these studies were to understand the emvododstat-mediated effects on leukemia growth, differentiation and impact on Leukemia Stem Cells(LSCs). Comprehensive analyses of mitochondrial function, metabolic signaling in PI3K/AKT pathways, apoptotic signatures, and DNA damage responses were carried out. The rationale for clinical testing emvododstat was confirmed in an AML-PDX model. Results: Emvododstat treatment in cytarabine-resistant AML cells and primary AML blasts induced apoptosis, differentiation, and reduced proliferation, with corresponding decreased in cell number and increases in annexin V- and CD14-positive cells. Indeed, the inhibition of de novo nucleotide synthesis compromises the dynamic metabolic landscape and mitochondrial function, as indicated by alterations in the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and mitochondrial ROS/membrane potential and corresponding differentiation, apoptosis, and/or inhibition of proliferation of LSCs. These effects can be reversed by the addition of exogenous uridine and orotate. Further immunoblotting and mass cytometry (CyTOF) analyses demonstrated changes in apoptotic and cell signaling proteins (cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-3) and DNA damage responses (TP53, γH2AX) and PI3/AKT pathway downregulation in response to emvododstat. Importantly, emvododstat treatment reduced leukemic cell burden in a mouse model of AML PDX ( Complex karyotype, mutation in ASXL1, IDH2, NRAS), decreased levels of leukemia stem cells frequency (1 in 522,460 Vs 1 in 3,623,599 in vehicle vs emvododstat treated mice), and improved survival. The median survival 40 days vs. 30 days, P=0.0002 in primary transplantation and 36 days vs 53.5 days, P=0.005 in secondary transpantation in a PDX mouse model of human AML. This corresponded with a reduction in the bone marrow burden of leukemia and increased expression of differentiation markers in mice treated with emvododstat (Fig. 1). These data demonstrate effect of emvododstat on mitochondrial functions. Conclusion: Inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis triggers differentiation, apoptosis, and depletes LSCs in AML models. Emvododstat is a novel dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitor being tested in a clinical trial for the treatment of myeloid malignancies and COVID-19. Keywords: AML, emvododstat, DHODH, apoptosis, differentiation References: 1 Thomas, D. & Majeti, R. Biology and relevance of human acute myeloid leukemia stem cells. Blood 129, 1577-1585, doi:10.1182/blood-2016-10-696054 (2017). 2 Quek, L. et al. Genetically distinct leukemic stem cells in human CD34- acute myeloid leukemia are arrested at a hemopoietic precursor-like stage. The Journal of experimental medicine 213, 1513-1535, doi:10.1084/jem.20151775 (2016). 3 Villa, E., Ali, E. S., Sahu, U. & Ben-Sahra, I. Cancer Cells Tune the Signaling Pathways to Empower de Novo Synthesis of Nucleotides. Cancers (Basel) 11, doi:10.3390/cancers11050688 (2019). 4 DeBerardinis, R. J. & Chandel, N. S. Fundamentals of cancer metabolism. Sci Adv 2, e1600200, doi:10.1126/sciadv.1600200 (2016). [Formula presented] Disclosures: Weetall: PTC therapeutics: Current Employment. Sheedy: PTC therapeutics: Current Employment. Ray: PTC therapeutics: Current Employment. Andreeff: Karyopharm: Research Funding;AstraZeneca: Research Funding;Oxford Biomedica UK: Research Funding;Aptose: Consultancy;Daiich -Sankyo: Consultancy, Research Funding;Syndax: Consultancy;Breast Cancer Research Foundation: Research Funding;Reata, Aptose, Eutropics, SentiBio;Chimerix, Oncolyze: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company;Novartis, Cancer UK;Leukemia & Lymphoma Society (LLS), German Research Council;NCI-RDCRN (Rare Disease Clin Network), CLL Foundation;Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Senti-Bio: Consultancy;Medicxi: Consultancy;ONO Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding;Amgen: Research Funding;Glycomimetics: Consultancy. Borthakur: ArgenX: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Protagonist: Consultancy;Astex: Research Funding;University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center: Current Employment;Ryvu: Research Funding;Takeda: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Novartis: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;GSK: Consultancy.

15.
Medical Journal of Peking Union Medical College Hospital ; 12(1):44-48, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1513192

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the application of ultrasound-guided arterial line placement in severe patients with COVID-19. Methods From February to April 2020, we retrospectively collected and analyzed the clinical data of critical patients with COVID-19 with an indwelling peripheral arterial catheter treated by the medical team of Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Patients with ultrasound-guided peripheral arterial catheterization were taken as the study group, while patients whose arterial catheter was placed by traditional palpation were taken as the control group. The puncture condition and complication rate were compared between the two groups. Results A total of 60 severe patients with COVID-19 who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. There were 30 cases in the study group and 30 cases in the control group. In the study group, the success rate of the first catheterization of the peripheral artery (63.3% vs. 26.7%) and the total puncture success rate [(79.43± 25.79)% vs. (53.07±30.21)%] were higher than those in the control group (all P < 0.05), the puncture times(1.43±0.56 vs. 2.50±1.28) were less than those of the control group (P < 0.05). The rates of 24-hour disuse (6.7% vs. 30.0%), local hematoma (10.0% vs. 36.7%), occlusion, and tortuous (3.3% vs. 40.0%) in the study group were lower than those in the control group (all P < 0.05). Conclusion Under the three-level protection, ultrasound-guided arterial catheter placement for severe patients with COVID-19 can improve the success rate of catheter placement, reduce puncture times, and reduce the incidence of complications. © 2021, Peking Union Medical College Hospital. All rights reserved.

16.
50th International Conference on Parallel Processing, ICPP 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1480302

ABSTRACT

The drug discovery process currently employed in the pharmaceutical industry typically requires about 10 years and $2-3 billion to deliver one new drug. This is both too expensive and too slow, especially in emergencies like the COVID-19 pandemic. In silico methodologies need to be improved both to select better lead compounds, so as to improve the efficiency of later stages in the drug discovery protocol, and to identify those lead compounds more quickly. No known methodological approach can deliver this combination of higher quality and speed. Here, we describe an Integrated Modeling PipEline for COVID Cure by Assessing Better LEads (IMPECCABLE) that employs multiple methodological innovations to overcome this fundamental limitation. We also describe the computational framework that we have developed to support these innovations at scale, and characterize the performance of this framework in terms of throughput, peak performance, and scientific results. We show that individual workflow components deliver 100 × to 1000 × improvement over traditional methods, and that the integration of methods, supported by scalable infrastructure, speeds up drug discovery by orders of magnitudes. IMPECCABLE has screened ∼1011 ligands and has been used to discover a promising drug candidate. These capabilities have been used by the US DOE National Virtual Biotechnology Laboratory and the EU Centre of Excellence in Computational Biomedicine. © 2021 ACM.

17.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(8): 1360-1364, 2021 Aug 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468523

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the contamination status of SARS-CoV-2 in imported frozen seafood from a Russia cargo ship in Qingdao and to analyze the risk factors for infection in local stevedores. Methods: The method of "two-stage, full coverage and mixed sampling" was used to collect the seafood packaging samples for the nucleic acid detection of SARS-CoV-2 by real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR. A unified questionnaire was designed to investigate 71 stevedores in two shifts through telephone interview. The stevedores were divided into two groups, with 23 in the shit with two infections was group A and 48 in the shift without infection was group B. Software Epi Info7.2 was used to identify the risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infections in the stevedores. Results: In the frozen seafood from a Russia cargo ship, the total positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in the frozen seafood was 11.53% (106/919). The positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in the frozen seafood unloaded by group A (14.29%,70/490) was significantly higher than that in the frozen seafood unloaded by group B (8.39%,36/429)(χ2=7.79,P=0.01) and the viral loads detected in the frozen seafood unloaded by group A were higher than those detected in the frozen seafood unloaded by group B. The scores of personal protection and behaviors in the stevedores in group A were significantly lower than those in group B (P<0.05), and toilet use, smoking and improper hand washing before meals were the risk factors for the infection. Conclusions: The imported frozen seafood was contaminated by SARS-CoV-2 and the contamination distribution was uneven. Supervision and management of personal occupational protection and behaviors of workers engaged in imported frozen food transportation should be strengthened. It is suggested that a closed-loop monitoring and management system for the whole process of "fishing-transport- loading/unloading" should be established by marine fishery authority.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Risk Factors , Seafood , Ships
18.
2021 Platform for Advanced Scientific Computing Conference, PASC 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1403116

ABSTRACT

Emerging hardware tailored for artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) methods provide novel means to couple them with traditional high performance computing (HPC) workflows involving molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We propose Stream-AI-MD, a novel instance of applying deep learning methods to drive adaptive MD simulation campaigns in a streaming manner. We leverage the ability to run ensemble MD simulations on GPU clusters, while the data from atomistic MD simulations are streamed continuously to AI/ML approaches to guide the conformational search in a biophysically meaningful manner on a wafer-scale AI accelerator. We demonstrate the efficacy of Stream-AI-MD simulations for two scientific use-cases: (1) folding a small prototypical protein, namely ββα-fold (BBA) FSD-EY and (2) understanding protein-protein interaction (PPI) within the SARS-CoV-2 proteome between two proteins, nsp16 and nsp10. We show that Stream-AI-MD simulations can improve time-to-solution by ~50X for BBA protein folding. Further, we also discuss performance trade-offs involved in implementing AI-coupled HPC workflows on heterogeneous computing architectures. © 2021 ACM.

19.
2021 Platform for Advanced Scientific Computing Conference, PASC 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1403114

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has claimed more than 2.7 × 106 lives and resulted in over 124 × 106 infections. There is an urgent need to identify drugs that can inhibit SARS-CoV-2. We discuss innovations in computational infrastructure and methods that are accelerating and advancing drug design. Specifically, we describe several methods that integrate artificial intelligence and simulation-based approaches, and the design of computational infrastructure to support these methods at scale. We discuss their implementation, characterize their performance, and highlight science advances that these capabilities have enabled. © 2021 ACM.

20.
Blood ; 136:26-27, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1348340

ABSTRACT

Background. Inflammatory tumor microenvironment leads to T cell exhaustion in multiple myeloma leading to treatment failure and relapse. Specifically, T cell based therapies including bispecific antibodies and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell are associated with the additional side effects of non-specific T cell activation and cytokine release syndrome. Adoptive therapy with allogeneic cord blood (CB) T regulatory (Treg) cell therapy has been shown to be safe with clinical efficacy in a wide range of diseases including graft vs. host disease (GvHD), inflammatory bone marrow failures and COVID-19 induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. Furthermore, combination of Tregs with donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) has led to resolution of leukemia relapse without GvHD flare up. We hypothesize that co-administration of Tregs with adoptive T cell based therapy will improve myeloma outcomes. Methods. 3x106 GFP-labeled MM.1S cells were injected into NSG mice followed by 5x106 CD3+ T conventional (Tcon) cells on day 14. In a subset of the Tcon treated mice, 1x107 CB Treg cells were injected on day 47, 54 and 61. Mice were followed every other day for weight and GvHD score. Non-invasive bioluminescent imaging (BLI) was performed serially. Weekly blood draw was performed for cell analysis and cytokine assays. At the time of euthanasia, blood, spleen and bone marrow were harvested for histopathology and flow analysis. In a subsequent experiment, intra-peritoneal injection of the bi-specific antibody against CD3 and BCMA (BCMA-BiTE) was administered in the xenogenic myeloma model in the presence or absence of CB Treg cells. Pan T cells were injected into all mice to facilitate the anti-tumor action of BiTE. Results. Both Tcon and Tcon+Treg recipients maintained their body weight compared to myeloma alone or myeloma + Treg arm (Figure A). All mice showed evidence of tumor growth by day 20 (Figure A). Widespread MM.1S cell growth in the myeloma only mice at day 27 was demonstrated by BLI whereas no measurable tumor growth was evident in Tcon recipients or Tcon+Treg recipients. By day 69, Tcon only mice were significantly increased tumor growth compared to Tcon+Treg recipients (Figure B). While circulating multiple myeloma cells were detected in myeloma alone and myeloma+Treg arm, no such evidence was detectable in the Tcon or Tcon+Treg recipients. However, upon euthanasia, extramedullary relapse of myeloma as retroperitoneal mass was detected in Tcon recipient (Figure C). Addition of Treg + BiTE led to a similar degree of tumor control compared to BiTE alone treated mice, however, a significant weight loss was observed in this arm (Figure D) with a corresponding high GvHD score (Figure E). Furthermore, addition of CB Treg cells led to decrease of T cell exhaustion phenotypic markers (data not shown). Conclusion. We are the first to show that CB Treg cells can be administered in combination with the T-cell based immunotherapies directed against myeloma. Such a strategy should be examined in the clinical setting. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Nishimoto: Bayer Yakuhin, Ltd:: Research Funding;Janssen Pharmaceutical K.K.:: Research Funding. Sadeghi: Cellenkos Inc.: Current Employment. Shah: GSK, Amgen, Indapta Therapeutics, Sanofi, BMS, CareDx, Kite, Karyopharm: Consultancy;BMS, Janssen, Bluebird Bio, Sutro Biopharma, Teneobio, Poseida, Nektar: Research Funding. Patel: Nektar: Consultancy, Research Funding;Celgene: Consultancy, Research Funding;Cellectis: Research Funding;Takeda: Consultancy, Research Funding;Janssen: Consultancy, Research Funding;Oncopeptides: Consultancy;Poseida: Research Funding;Precision Biosciences: Research Funding;Bristol Myers Squibb: Consultancy, Research Funding. Parmar: Cellenkos Inc.: Current equity holder in private company, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Patents & Royalties, Research Funding.

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