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1.
Chung-Hua Yu Fang i Hsueh Tsa Chih [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine] ; 56(12):1789-1794, 2022.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201079

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate a SARS-CoV-2 epidemic reported in Rongcheng City, Weihai, Shandong Province.

2.
Chung-Hua Yu Fang i Hsueh Tsa Chih [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine] ; 56(12):1795-1802, 2022.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201072

ABSTRACT

Objective: To trace and characterize the whole genome of SARS-CoV-2 of confirmed cases in the outbreak of COVID-19 on July 31, 2021 in Henan Province. Method: Genome-wide sequencing and comparative analysis were performed on positive nucleic acid samples of SARS-CoV-2 from 167 local cases related to the epidemic on July 31, 2021, to analyze the consistency and evolution of the whole genome sequence of virus.

3.
Front Psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2199414

ABSTRACT

Depression symptoms significantly impact college students' mental health, particularly during the "closed management” period during the spread of COVID-19. Exploring the mechanism that affects college students' depression symptoms can help alleviate the impact of closed management policies on individual mental health and improve their mental health level. The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the normalization of epidemic prevention and control in China and the implementation of the dynamic zero-COVID policy. This study used the Five-Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire—Short Form, Psychological Resilience Scale, and Beck Depression Scale to investigate the mindfulness, psychological resilience, and depression symptoms of 1,062 students under closed management conditions at Northwest Normal University. The mindfulness, psychological resilience, and depression status of students in closed management were investigated using an online questionnaire survey. Eight hundred and ten college students (Mage = 20.43, SD = 1.67, range = 17-30) were selected to test the model using the structural equation model and bootstrap method. The results showed that the gender differences in mindfulness and psychological resilience were not significant. Gender differences in depression symptoms were significant, and depression symptoms in men were significantly higher than in women. Grade differences in resilience, mindfulness, and depression levels were not significant. Thus, psychological resilience is negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Psychological resilience plays a mediating role between mindfulness and depressive symptoms. This study provides reference and inspiration for improving college students' mental health under epidemic prevention and control circumstances.

4.
5th International Conference on Information Management and Management Science, IMMS 2022 ; : 39-45, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2194116

ABSTRACT

Global public emergencies represented by COVID-19 have posed new requirements and challenges to the current governance systems and capacities of governments. Mining decision-level intelligence from massive, multi-source and heterogeneous big data is the basic environment of current emergency decision making. This paper is based on the case analysis of COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control and constructs the intelligent decision-making process framework of emergency intelligence from the basic support layer, information and data layer, fusion output layer, emergency decision-making layer and main user layer. A risk governance system of "government-led, enterprise participation, media coordination, social crowdsourcing"has been established with big data co-construction and sharing and joint epidemic prevention and control. Through intelligence collection, processing, analysis and output transmission of epidemic-related data and information in the big data environment, it provides services for the emergency prevention and control of major epidemics in both normal and abnormal situations. In the front-end control phase, the emergency intelligence perception of the source quality is ensured to support the emergency decision, and the wisdom level of emergency decision-making is improved by optimizing the use of terminal intelligence and failure prevention methods. This paper proposes to optimize the intelligent decision-making process of emergencies from the effective prevention strategy of intelligence perception failure and the effective intervention strategy of decision failure prevention. This article explores the big data in the application of global public emergency management and innovation, change and revelation, to expand the emergency decision-making from the perspective of intelligence applications, provides with wisdom for the government emergency decision. © 2022 ACM.

5.
Statistical Theory and Related Fields ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2187945

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 on the Diamond Princess cruise ship has attracted much attention. Motivated by the PCR testing data on the Diamond Princess, we propose a novel cure mixture nonparametric model to investigate the detection pattern. It combines a logistic regression for the probability of susceptible subjects with a nonparametric distribution for the detection of infected individuals. Maximum likelihood estimators are proposed. The resulting estimators are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed approach is appropriate for practical use. Finally, we apply the proposed method to PCR testing data on the Diamond Princess to show its practical utility.

6.
Analytical Chemistry ; 06:06, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185426

ABSTRACT

Serological assays are indispensable tools in public health. Presently deployed serological assays, however, largely overlook research progress made in the last two decades that jeopardizes the conceptual foundation of these assays, i.e., antibody (Ab) specificity. Challenges to traditional understanding of Ab specificity include Ab polyspecificity and most recently nonreproducible Ab-probe interactions (NRIs). Here, using SARS-CoV-2 and four common livestock viruses as a test bed, we developed a new serological platform that integrates recent understanding about Ab specificity. We first demonstrate that the response rate (RR) from a large-sized serum pool (~100) is not affected by NRIs or by nonspecific Ab-probe interactions (NSIs), so RR can be incorporated into the diagnostic probe selection process. We subsequently used multiple probes (configured as a "protein peptide hybrid microarray", PPHM) to generate a digital microarray index (DMI) and finally demonstrated that DMI-based analysis yields an extremely robust probabilistic trend that enables accurate diagnosis of viral infection that overcomes multiple negative impacts exerted by NSI/NRI. Thus, our study with SARS-CoV-2 confirms that the PPHM-RR-DMI platform enables very rapid development of serological assays that outperform traditional assays (for both sensitivity and specificity) and supports that the platform is extendable to other viruses.

7.
Journal of medical virology ; 07, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2173236

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe COVID-19 often suffer from lymphopenia, which is linked to T cell sequestration, cytokine storm and mortality. However, it remains largely unknown how SARS-CoV-2 induces lymphopenia. Here, we studied the transcriptomic profile and epigenomic alterations involved in cytokine production by SARS-CoV-2-infected cells. We adopted a reverse time-order gene coexpression network (TO-GCN) approach to analyze time-series RNA-sequencing data, revealing epigenetic modifications at the late stage of viral egress. Furthermore, we identified SARS-CoV-2-activated NF-kappaB and IRF1 pathways contributing to viral infection and COVID-19 severity through epigenetic analysis of H3K4me3 ChIP-sequencing. Cross-referencing our transcriptomic and epigenomic datasets revealed that coupling NF-kappaB and IRF1 pathways mediate PD-L1 immunosuppressive programs. Interestingly, we observed higher PD-L1 expression in Omicron-infected cells than SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. Blocking PD-L1 at an early stage of virally-infected AAV-hACE2 mice significantly recovered lymphocyte counts and lowered inflammatory cytokine levels. Our findings indicate that targeting the SARS-CoV-2-mediated NF-kappaB and IRF1-PD-L1 axis may represent an alternative strategy to reduce COVID-19 severity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
Angewandte Chemie International Ed in English ; 22:22, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2172439

ABSTRACT

Despite significant effort, a majority of heavy-atom-free photosensitizers have short excitation wavelengths, thereby hampering their biomedical applications. Here, we present a facile approach for developing efficient near-infrared (NIR) heavy-atom-free photosensitizers. Based on a series of thiopyrylium-based NIR-II (1000-1700 nm) dyads, we found that the star dyad HD with a sterically bulky and electron-rich moiety exhibited configuration torsion and significantly enhanced intersystem crossing (ISC) compared to the parent dyad. The electron excitation characteristics of HD changed from local excitation (LE) to charge transfer (CT)-domain, contributing to a ~ 6-fold reduction in energy gap (DELTAEST), a ~ 10-fold accelerated ISC process, and a ~ 31.49-fold elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) quantum yield. The optimized SP@HD-PEG2K lung-targeting dots enabled real-time NIR-II lung imaging, which precisely guided rapid pulmonary coronavirus inactivation.

9.
Cell Discov ; 8(1):132, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2160196

ABSTRACT

Current SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants impose a heavy burden on global health systems by evading immunity from most developed neutralizing antibodies and vaccines. Here, we identified a nanobody (aSA3) that strongly cross-reacts with the receptor binding domain (RBD) of both SARS-CoV-1 and wild-type (WT) SARS-CoV-2. The dimeric construct of aSA3 (aSA3-Fc) tightly binds and potently neutralizes both SARS-CoV-1 and WT SARS-CoV-2. Based on X-ray crystallography, we engineered a bispecific nanobody dimer (2-3-Fc) by fusing aSA3-Fc to aRBD-2, a previously identified broad-spectrum nanobody targeting an RBD epitope distinct from aSA3. 2-3-Fc exhibits single-digit ng/mL neutralizing potency against all major variants of concerns including BA.5. In hamsters, a single systemic dose of 2-3-Fc at 10 mg/kg conferred substantial efficacy against Omicron infection. More importantly, even at three low doses of 0.5 mg/kg, 2-3-Fc prophylactically administered through the intranasal route drastically reduced viral RNA loads and completely eliminated infectious Omicron particles in the trachea and lungs. Finally, we discovered that 2(Y29G)-3-Fc containing a Y29G substitution in aRBD-2 showed better activity than 2-3-Fc in neutralizing BA.2.75, a recent Omicron subvariant that emerged in India. This study expands the arsenal against SARS-CoV-1, provides potential therapeutic and prophylactic candidates that fully cover major SARS-CoV-2 variants, and may offer a simple preventive approach against Omicron and its subvariants.

11.
International Journal of Engineering Education ; 38(5):1495-1504, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2101979

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) became a catalyst for the development of online teaching. However, online teaching has faced the problems of insufficient teaching flexibility and weakened teacher management, which has greatly affected teaching effectiveness in science and engineering. A task-based method has universality and applicability in teaching activities. This method, combined with the diversified auxiliary tools in online teaching of the task-based method, in undergraduate geophysical courses was adopted. Following online teaching in spring 2020, students have made great progress in terms of geophysics competition. In addition, the statistical results of the questionnaire showed that more than half of undergraduates endorsed task-based teaching. This study indicates that online task-based teaching in geophysical courses has already made initial progress in increasing the flexibility of teaching, improving students' self-learning awareness, and developing their exploration and design skills. Task-based online teaching can be widely promoted for earth science and other science and engineering majors.

12.
International Journal of Stroke ; 17(2 Supplement):8-9, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2079342

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted modern healthcare and delayed time to acute stroke treatment at some centres internationally. The effect of the pandemic on time metrics in patients with a large vessel occlusion (LVO) at Australian stroke centres is unknown. Aim(s): To evaluate time metrics for patients with an LVO transferred from a primary stroke centre (PSC) to a comprehensive stroke centre (CSC), during and before the coronavirus pandemic. Method(s): Retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with an LVO who were transferred from a single PSC to any of three CSCs were enrolled. The pandemic period was defined as the 24 months following the March 2020 state of emergency declaration in Melbourne, and prepandemic period the preceding 24 months. "Door-in" was the time triaged as a stroke, and "Door-out" was the time ambulance staff departed. Result(s): 159 patients were included, 82 in the pandemic group and 77 in the pre-pandemic group. There were no significant differences between groups in patient age, sex, modified Rankin scale score, or National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score. Door-in to Door-out (DIDO) times were reduced during the pandemic (median 52 vs 66 minutes, IQR 41-66 vs 52-95 minutes, p<0.001). There was no change in time from PSC Door-in to the first CSC DSA images (median 125 vs 125 minutes, p=0.79). Within the DIDO workflow, the only significantly different metric was time from CSC advising of patient acceptance to PSC door-out, which improved (median 8 vs 14 minutes, p=0.016). DIDO times out of hours when the stroke registrar was called in also improved (median 51 vs 87 minutes, p=0.003). Conclusion(s): The median DIDO times at our PSC improved during the pandemic. Further studies are required to determine if this is due to a continued quality improvement program at our centre, or due to other factors.

13.
Biomedical Signal Processing and Control ; 79, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068739

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, a novel coronavirus, COVID-19, was ravaging the world, wreaking havoc on public health and the global economy. Today, although Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is the gold standard for COVID-19 clinical diagnosis, it is a time-consuming and labor-intensive procedure. Simultaneously, an increasing number of individuals are seeking for better alternatives to RT-PCR. As a result, automated identification of COVID-19 lung infection in computed tomography (CT) images may help traditional diagnostic approaches in determining the severity of the disease. Unfortunately, a shortage of labeled training sets makes using AI deep learning algorithms to accurately segregate diseased regions in CT scan challenging. We design a simple and effective weakly supervised learning strategy for COVID-19 CT image segmentation to overcome the segmentation issue in the absence of adequate labeled data, namely LLC-Net. Unlike others weakly supervised work that uses a complex training procedure, our LLC-Net is relatively easy and repeatable. We propose a Local Self-Coherence Mechanism to accomplish label propagation based on lesion area labeling characteristics for weak labels that cannot offer comprehensive lesion areas, hence forecasting a more complete lesion area. Sec-ondly, when the COVID-19 training samples are insufficient, the Scale Transform for Self-Correlation is designed to optimize the robustness of the model to ensure that the CT images are consistent in the prediction results from different angles. Finally, in order to constrain the segmentation accuracy of the lesion area, the Lesion Infection Edge Attention Module is used to improve the information expression ability of edge modeling. Experiments on public datasets demonstrate that our method is more effective than other weakly supervised methods and ach-ieves a new state-of-the-art performance.

15.
Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University (Medical Sciences) ; 43(5):641-645, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010478

ABSTRACT

Objective: According to the need and practice of the National Medical Center Construction, this study structures the project communication management framework of the National Medical Center Construction based on Boyd/OODA loop and describes its background and practical path so as to explore its implementation efficiency. Methods: The theoretical framework was constructed and applied by means of lessons learned and case analysis. Results: The framework can meet various needs of project communication management of the National Medical Center Construction at different stages of epidemic prevention and control. Conclusion: The framework can improve the effectiveness, systematicness, coordination and efficiency of the National Medical Center Construction, and provide theoretical and empirical underpinning. Considerably more innovative and interdisciplinary research is needed in communication management.

16.
Social Responsibility Journal ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1992561

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aims to examine the corporate donations in response to the intensive outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in China in 2020 and proposes that the local spread of COVID-19 is negatively associated with corporate donations due to the non-trivial costs, but meanwhile, strong institutional pressures based on institutional theory are put on firms to donate, which thus creates a dilemma for firms. This study further argues that the dilemma is heterogeneous across different institutional fields. Design/methodology/approach: Using a sample of Chinese listed companies during the intensive outbreak of this pandemic, a two-stage Heckman selection model is conducted to address the potential sample selection bias. Findings: This study reveals a negative relationship between the local spread of COVID-19 and corporate donations, confirms the driving effect of various types of institutional pressure and finds that the intensity of the COVID-19 pandemic strengthens the effect of coercive pressure and mimetic pressure on philanthropic giving but weakens the effect of normative pressure. Originality/value: This study extends the knowledge on firms’ philanthropic response to natural crises, as the COVID-19 pandemic has not only led to a public health crisis but also to a global economic crisis, and how the effects of institutional pressures are affected by a situational crisis. This work enriches the literature on corporate philanthropy and crisis management and has some implications for both policymakers and business practitioners. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

17.
Drug Evaluation Research ; 45(7):1426-1434, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1964551

ABSTRACT

In order to comprehensively understand the research hotspots and development trends of Lonicera Japonica Flos in the past 20 years, and to provide intuitive data reference and objective opinions and suggestions for subsequent related research in this field, this study collected 8 871 Chinese literature and 311 English literature related to Lonicera Japonica Flos research in the core collection databases of Wanfang Data), CNKI and Web of Science (WOS) from 2002 to 2021, and conducted bibliometric and visual analysis using vosviewer. The results showed that the research on the active components of Lonicera Japonica Flos based on phenolic acid components, the research on the mechanism of novel coronavirus pneumonia based on data mining and molecular docking technology, and the pharmacological research on the anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties of Lonicera Japonica Flos are the three hot research directions in the may become the future research direction. In this paper, we analyze the research on Lonicera Japonica Flos from five aspects: active ingredients, research methods, formulation and preparation, pharmacological effects and clinical applications, aiming to reveal the research hotspots, frontiers and development trends in this field and provide predictions and references for future research. © Drug Evaluation Research 2022.

18.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology (China) ; 42(4):245-250, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928717

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the genome characteristics and variations in nucleotides and amino acids of SARS-CoV-2 causing an outbreak in Henan Province in November 2021 and perform the traceability analysis.Methods In this study, throat swab specimens from cases in the acute phase were collected and tested for the nucleic acids of SARS-CoV-2 by real-time fluorescent RT-PCR.SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid-positive samples were subjected to high-throughput genome sequencing and whole-genome alignment analysis.Results The median Ct values of ORF1ab gene and N gene in 70 positive specimens was 26.41 (15.58 to 39.27) and 24.43 (12.04 to 39.74), respectively.Compared with the sequence of Wuhan-Hu(NC_045512) reference strain, 47 to 49 nucleotide mutations sharing 47 nucleotide mutation and 41 amino acid mutations were found in 63 strains of successfully sequenced SARS-CoV-2.Nine nucleotide mutations and 12 amino acid mutations were found in the spike protein.The index case shared 47 mutations with the Russian imported cases in Henan Province on October 14 and the local cases in Jiangxi Province in October.Moreover, their genomes were highly homologous and they all belonged to the Delta variant (AY.122 evolutionary branch).Conclusions Continuous monitoring of imported COVID-19 cases and prolonging the period of quarantine were needed to reduce the risk of local outbreak and epidemic caused by imported COVID-19 cases.Analysis of the genomic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and the variations in nucleotides and amino acids was conducive to trace the origin of COVID-19 outbreak quickly and provide reference for precise control.

19.
2021 Ethics and Explainability for Responsible Data Science Conference, EE-RDS 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1741176

ABSTRACT

Since 2019, COVID-19 has been a major problem for the world's population. COVID-19 is known for its fast transmission and strong infection. Therefore, how to reduce the burden of medical system is becoming a hot topic in current research. Previous researchers have used deep learning techniques to effectively classify COVID-19. Although the results are remarkable, the input method (X-ray images) is simple. Therefore, a new multi-modality fusion network is proposed in this paper. In this network, the spatial and structural feature information in the image were highlighted by means of thermal map. Experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed network. © 2021 IEEE.

20.
Blood ; 138:2249, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582362

ABSTRACT

Background: De novo nucleotide synthesis is necessary to meet the enormous demand for nucleotides, other macromolecules associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) progression 1, 2, 34. Hence, we hypothesized that targeting de novo nucleotide synthesis would lead to the depletion of the nucleotide pool, pyrimidine starvation and increase oxidative stress preferentially in leukemic cells compared to their non-malignant counterparts, impacting proliferative and differentiation pathways. Emvododstat (PTC299) is an inhibitor of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), a rate-limiting enzyme for de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis that is currently in a clinical trial for the treatment of AML. Objectives: The goals of these studies were to understand the emvododstat-mediated effects on leukemia growth, differentiation and impact on Leukemia Stem Cells(LSCs). Comprehensive analyses of mitochondrial function, metabolic signaling in PI3K/AKT pathways, apoptotic signatures, and DNA damage responses were carried out. The rationale for clinical testing emvododstat was confirmed in an AML-PDX model. Results: Emvododstat treatment in cytarabine-resistant AML cells and primary AML blasts induced apoptosis, differentiation, and reduced proliferation, with corresponding decreased in cell number and increases in annexin V- and CD14-positive cells. Indeed, the inhibition of de novo nucleotide synthesis compromises the dynamic metabolic landscape and mitochondrial function, as indicated by alterations in the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and mitochondrial ROS/membrane potential and corresponding differentiation, apoptosis, and/or inhibition of proliferation of LSCs. These effects can be reversed by the addition of exogenous uridine and orotate. Further immunoblotting and mass cytometry (CyTOF) analyses demonstrated changes in apoptotic and cell signaling proteins (cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-3) and DNA damage responses (TP53, γH2AX) and PI3/AKT pathway downregulation in response to emvododstat. Importantly, emvododstat treatment reduced leukemic cell burden in a mouse model of AML PDX ( Complex karyotype, mutation in ASXL1, IDH2, NRAS), decreased levels of leukemia stem cells frequency (1 in 522,460 Vs 1 in 3,623,599 in vehicle vs emvododstat treated mice), and improved survival. The median survival 40 days vs. 30 days, P=0.0002 in primary transplantation and 36 days vs 53.5 days, P=0.005 in secondary transpantation in a PDX mouse model of human AML. This corresponded with a reduction in the bone marrow burden of leukemia and increased expression of differentiation markers in mice treated with emvododstat (Fig. 1). These data demonstrate effect of emvododstat on mitochondrial functions. Conclusion: Inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis triggers differentiation, apoptosis, and depletes LSCs in AML models. Emvododstat is a novel dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitor being tested in a clinical trial for the treatment of myeloid malignancies and COVID-19. Keywords: AML, emvododstat, DHODH, apoptosis, differentiation References: 1 Thomas, D. & Majeti, R. Biology and relevance of human acute myeloid leukemia stem cells. Blood 129, 1577-1585, doi:10.1182/blood-2016-10-696054 (2017). 2 Quek, L. et al. Genetically distinct leukemic stem cells in human CD34- acute myeloid leukemia are arrested at a hemopoietic precursor-like stage. The Journal of experimental medicine 213, 1513-1535, doi:10.1084/jem.20151775 (2016). 3 Villa, E., Ali, E. S., Sahu, U. & Ben-Sahra, I. Cancer Cells Tune the Signaling Pathways to Empower de Novo Synthesis of Nucleotides. Cancers (Basel) 11, doi:10.3390/cancers11050688 (2019). 4 DeBerardinis, R. J. & Chandel, N. S. Fundamentals of cancer metabolism. Sci Adv 2, e1600200, doi:10.1126/sciadv.1600200 (2016). [Formula presented] Disclosures: Weetall: PTC therapeutics: Current Employment. Sheedy: PTC therapeutics: Current Employment. Ray: PTC therapeutics: Current Employment. Andreeff: Karyopharm: Research Funding;AstraZeneca: Research Funding;Oxford Biomedica UK: Research Funding;Aptose: Consultancy;Daiich -Sankyo: Consultancy, Research Funding;Syndax: Consultancy;Breast Cancer Research Foundation: Research Funding;Reata, Aptose, Eutropics, SentiBio;Chimerix, Oncolyze: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company;Novartis, Cancer UK;Leukemia & Lymphoma Society (LLS), German Research Council;NCI-RDCRN (Rare Disease Clin Network), CLL Foundation;Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Senti-Bio: Consultancy;Medicxi: Consultancy;ONO Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding;Amgen: Research Funding;Glycomimetics: Consultancy. Borthakur: ArgenX: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Protagonist: Consultancy;Astex: Research Funding;University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center: Current Employment;Ryvu: Research Funding;Takeda: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Novartis: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;GSK: Consultancy.

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