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1.
Acta Medica Philippina ; 56(18):17-27, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2146740

ABSTRACT

Background. The premise of a “good death” is vital in delivering proper care of terminally-ill patients but the COVID-19 pandemic has brought about new challenges and necessary protocols. There is a need to explore this gap in knowledge and understand perspectives of various stakeholders in COVID-19-related deaths. Objectives. To describe the perception, barriers, and facilitators of a “good death” from COVID-19 survivors, relatives, and healthcare providers in the setting of a COVID-19 tertiary hospital. Methods. The study was done in a COVID-19 tertiary hospital in Metro Manila from September to December 2021. Three groups of target respondents were invited to participate in the study: 8 survivors of severe/critical COVID-19, 9 close relatives of COVID-19 patients who had died, and 9 healthcare providers who directly cared for COVID-19 patients who had died. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted by video calls which explored themes on good death. Thematic analysis was also done. Results. A total of 26 respondents were included in the study: 8 COVID-19 survivors, 9 relatives, and 9 healthcare providers. The definition of “Good Death” among the participants focused on "being at peace" and having "everything in order". The experience with COVID-19 were influenced by the fear of the infection and isolation restrictions during hospitalization. Recurring themes across all groups were the fear of COVID-19 and death, importance of family in the healthcare process, difficulty in communication, and cremation viewed as necessary but not preferred. Conclusion. A "good death" is perceived as a peaceful, prepared experience. The main barriers of a "good death' were the strict restrictions on physically comforting and communicating with patients. Video/voice calls and compassionate health care providers facilitated a better hospitalization experience. Careful study and focus on these factors can improve interventions for terminally ill patients to achieve a “good death” in the Filipino socio-cultural context. © 2022 University of the Philippines Manila. All rights reserved.

2.
2022 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Taiwan, ICCE-Taiwan 2022 ; : 541-542, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2051986

ABSTRACT

During the period of COVID-19, it is still inevitable for people to contact with each other based on the consideration of economic development. Therefore, the health management measures for staying in the hotel have become an important part of epidemic prevention. As we all know, ultraviolet (UV) light is an effective disinfection and sterilization method, which has been widely used in many applications. In this paper, a hotel anti-epidemic management system is proposed to disinfect the used rooms by using UV LEDs through WiFi communication with the front desk computer, and therefore it can protect quests from virus infection. © 2022 IEEE.

3.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 34(6):561-570, 2022.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974966

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic is still in a pandemic state. Aging population with underlying diseases is prone to become severe, and have a higher mortality. The treatment capacity of the critical care department directly determines the treatment success rate of critical illness. At present, there is still a certain gap between domestic and foreign countries in intensive care unit (ICU), which is not only in the allocation of medical staff, but also in the beds and settings. The current medical model cannot fully meet the needs of development. The experience and lessons of many major public health emergencies suggested that "dual track of peace and war" approach in discipline construction of critical care is the best medical model. Following the concept of "combination of peace and war", strengthening the discipline construction of critical care department in municipal and district designated hospitals, allocating reasonable standard ICU, step-down ICU and combat readiness ICU, establishing rapid response team, and strengthening regular training and scientific management may be the key measures to deal with the epidemic.

5.
Nature Machine Intelligence ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1805663

ABSTRACT

In the version of this article initially published, the first name of Chuansheng Zheng was misspelled as Chuangsheng. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article. © The Author(s) 2022.

7.
European Journal of Immunology ; 51:395-395, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1717218
8.
European Journal of Immunology ; 51:255-255, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1716902
9.
Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology ; 43(1):133-134, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634944
10.
Nature Machine Intelligence ; 3(12):1081-1089, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1585763

ABSTRACT

Artificial intelligence provides a promising solution for streamlining COVID-19 diagnoses;however, concerns surrounding security and trustworthiness impede the collection of large-scale representative medical data, posing a considerable challenge for training a well-generalized model in clinical practices. To address this, we launch the Unified CT-COVID AI Diagnostic Initiative (UCADI), where the artificial intelligence (AI) model can be distributedly trained and independently executed at each host institution under a federated learning framework without data sharing. Here we show that our federated learning framework model considerably outperformed all of the local models (with a test sensitivity/specificity of 0.973/0.951 in China and 0.730/0.942 in the United Kingdom), achieving comparable performance with a panel of professional radiologists. We further evaluated the model on the hold-out (collected from another two hospitals without the federated learning framework) and heterogeneous (acquired with contrast materials) data, provided visual explanations for decisions made by the model, and analysed the trade-offs between the model performance and the communication costs in the federated training process. Our study is based on 9,573 chest computed tomography scans from 3,336 patients collected from 23 hospitals located in China and the United Kingdom. Collectively, our work advanced the prospects of utilizing federated learning for privacy-preserving AI in digital health. The COVID-19 pandemic sparked the need for international collaboration in using clinical data for rapid development of diagnosis and treatment methods. But the sensitive nature of medical data requires special care and ideally potentially sensitive data would not leave the organization which collected it. Xiang Bai and colleagues present a privacy-preserving AI framework for CT-based COVID-19 diagnosis and demonstrate it on data from 23 hospitals in China and the United Kingdom.

11.
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology ; 76(SUPPL 110):209, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1570353

ABSTRACT

Background: In this meta-analysis we evaluated strategies on augmentation of host immunity against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Method: We searched clinical trials registered at the National Institutes of Health by 30 November 2020, and conducted analyses on inoculated population, involved immunological processes, source of injected components, and trial phases. We then searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for their corresponding reports. A bivariate random-effects meta-analysis was used to derive the pooled estimate of seroconversion and adverse events (AEs). Results: A total of 540,269 participants were enrolled in 225 identified trials. The working mechanisms included heterologous immunity, active immunity, passive immunity, and immunotherapy. A total of 2,565 healthy adults from 10 clinical trials were included for meta-analyses. The odd ratio (OR) was 90.82 for kinetics of serologic responses to anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody IgG titer (95% CI =36.1-228.49;p < 0.00001). The pooled ORs were 2.57 for solicited systemic AEs (95%CI =1.57-4.21;p = 0.0002), 5.72 for solicited local AEs (95% CI=2.59-12.67;p < 0.0001), and 2.08 for unsolicited systemic events (95% CI=1.42-3.05;p = 0.0002), compared to placebo or conservative treatment. Conclusion: Among all immune-augmentative interventions, a paradigm shift to vaccines providing active immunity was observed. The efficacy of these interventions was promising although systemic adverse events were noted.

14.
Chinese Journal of Radiological Medicine and Protection ; 41(7):514-518, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1367943

ABSTRACT

CT is an important imaging tool for the diagnosis of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19), therefore, it's necessary to strictly control the disinfection of CT workplace and equipment and biosafety to avoid the place from becoming a potential infection source and to reduce the risk of infection of patients and radiological staff. It is also necessary to reduce the CT scan dose to minimize the radiation hazards on patients under the premise of ensuring the CT image quality and diagnostic efficiency. Based on the survey that novel coronavirus residues after disinfection at some CT workplace in domestic and overseas and the application of low-dose CT scan in diagnosis of COVID-19, as well as the current situation of radiological protection management in emergency hospital, this paper summarizes and proposes suggestions on infection control and radiological protection for CT workplace to strengthen the defense line of COVID-19 prevention and control. Copyright © 2021 by the Chinese Medical Association.

15.
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology ; 128:44-45, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1260341
16.
Journal of Financial Crime ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1246925

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The emergence of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has threatened physical and mental health, and changed the behaviour and decision-making processes of individuals, organisations, and institutions worldwide. As many services move online due to the pandemic, COVID-19-themed cyber fraud is also growing. This article explores cyber fraud victimization and cyber security threats during COVID-19 using psychological and traditional criminological theories. It also provides a COVID-19-themed cyber fraud typology using empirical evidence from institutional and agency reports. Through organizing COVID-19-themed cyber fraud into four different categorizations, we aim to offer classification insights to researchers and industry professionals so that stakeholders can effectively manage emerging cyber fraud risks in our current pandemic. Design/methodology/approach: The approach the study take for this conceptual paper is typology. © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited.

17.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer ; 30(SUPPL 3):A122, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1177572

ABSTRACT

Introduction The risks to surgeons of carrying out aerosol generating procedures during the COVID pandemic are unknown. To define these risks in a systematic manner we investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus in the peritoneal fluid and lower genital tract of patients undergoing surgery at a time when COVID infection remained steady in the population. Methods We carried out a prospective cross sectional observational study of patients undergoing abdominal surgery or instrumentation of the lower genital tract at a single large institution in the UK. We took COVID swabs from the peritoneal cavity and from the vagina from all eligible patients. All patients underwent preoperative nasopharyngeal testing and results were stratified by pre operative COVID status. Results To date we have recruited 74 patients undergoing surgery. The commonest procedure undertaken was caesarean section but patients undergoing laparotomy and cancer surgery were also included. No patients had faecal or amniotic contamination of the abdomen or vagina at the time of sampling. All patients had negative nasopharyngeal COVID swabs within 48 hours of recruitment although 4/74 (5%) had the presence of antibodies suggesting previous infection. SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA was detected in 0/63 peritoneal samples and 0/68 lower genital tract samples. Conclusions The presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the abdominal fluid or lower genital tract of presumed COVID negative patients is nil or extremely low. These data will inform surgeons of the risks of restarting laparoscopic and gynaecologic surgery at a time when COVID19 is endemic in the population.

19.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(17): 9208-9215, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-790184

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In December 2019, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection broke out in Wuhan, China. However, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of this emerging virus. In this manuscript, we collected relevant articles and reviewed the characteristics about SARS-CoV-2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed an online search on PubMed and Web of Science with the keywords COVID-19, 2019-nCoV and SARS-CoV-2, and summarized the epidemiology, virology, clinical features and treatments of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: We retrieved 157 published papers about SARS-CoV-2 from January, 2020 to April, 2020. We found that SARS-CoV-2 was a kind of virus with low mortality rate and high infectivity. This virus can enter human cells through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in alveoli and activate immune response in human body. SARS-CoV-2 infection can be classified as asymptomatic, mild, common, severe, and critical. We summarized antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2, such as remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine and favipiravir. Because the vaccine of SARS-CoV-2 is developing, more clinical studies are needed to verify the safety and efficacy of these treatments. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that has caused a global pandemic. We should pay more attention to prevent SARS-CoV-2 and try to control it sooner.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunotherapy , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Hong Kong Med J ; 26(4): 289-293, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690748

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: As the designated tertiary referral centre for infectious diseases in Hong Kong, our hospital received the city's first group of patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Herein, we studied the earliest patients admitted to our centre in order to clarify the typical radiological findings, particularly computed tomography (CT) findings, associated with COVID-19. METHODS: From 22 January 2020 to 29 February 2020, 19 patients with confirmed COVID-19 underwent high-resolution or conventional CT scans of the thorax in our centre. The CT imaging findings of these patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Hong Kong were reviewed in this study. RESULTS: Ground-glass opacities (GGO) with peripheral subpleural distribution were found in all patients (100%). No specific zonal predominance was observed. All lobes were involved in 16 (84.2%) patients, focal subsegmental consolidations were observed in 14 (73.7%) patients, and interlobular septal thickening was present in 12 (63.2%) patients. No mediastinal lymph node enlargement, centrilobular nodule, or pleural effusion was detected in any of the patients. Other imaging features present in several patients include bronchial dilatation, bronchial wall thickening, and crazy-paving patterns. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral subpleural GGO without zonal predominance in the absence of centrilobular nodule, pleural effusion, and lymph node enlargement were consistent findings in patients with confirmed COVID-19. The observed radiological patterns on CT scans can help identify COVID-19 and assess affected patients in the context of the ongoing outbreak.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Disease Progression , Female , Hong Kong , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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