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2.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886442

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant extensively escape neutralizing antibodies by vaccines or infection. We assessed serum neutralizing activity in sera from Delta infection following vaccination and Delta infection only against SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan-Hu-1 (WA1), Beta, Delta, and Omicron. Sera from Delta infection only could neutralize WA1 and Delta but nearly completely lost capacity to neutralize Beta and Omicron. However, Delta infection following vaccination resulted in a significant increase of serum neutralizing activity against WA1, Beta, and Omicron. This study demonstrates that breakthrough infection of Delta substantially induced high potency humoral immune response against the Omicron variant and other emerged variants.

4.
J Infect Dis ; 224(6): 1099-1100, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472270
5.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 342, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415923

ABSTRACT

While some individuals infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) present mild-to-severe disease, many SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals are asymptomatic. We sought to identify the distinction of immune response between asymptomatic and moderate patients. We performed single-cell transcriptome and T-cell/B-cell receptor (TCR/BCR) sequencing in 37 longitudinal collected peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from asymptomatic, moderate, and severe patients with healthy controls. Asymptomatic patients displayed increased CD56briCD16- natural killer (NK) cells and upregulation of interferon-gamma in effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and NK cells. They showed more robust TCR clonal expansion, especially in effector CD4+ T cells, but lack strong BCR clonal expansion compared to moderate patients. Moreover, asymptomatic patients have lower interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) expression in general but large interpatient variability, whereas moderate patients showed various magnitude and temporal dynamics of the ISGs expression across multiple cell populations but lower than a patient with severe disease. Our data provide evidence of different immune signatures to SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carrier State/immunology , Lymphocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
7.
J Infect Dis ; 224(4): 586-594, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367023

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The duration of humoral and T and B cell response after the infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains unclear. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study to assess the virus-specific antibody and memory T and B cell responses in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients up to 343 days after infection. Neutralizing antibodies and antibodies against the receptor-binding domain, spike, and nucleoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 were measured. Virus-specific memory T and B cell responses were analyzed. RESULTS: We enrolled 59 patients with COVID-19, including 38 moderate, 16 mild, and 5 asymptomatic patients; 31 (52.5%) were men and 28 (47.5%) were women. The median age was 41 years (interquartile range, 30-55). The median day from symptom onset to enrollment was 317 days (range 257 to 343 days). We found that approximately 90% of patients still have detectable immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies against spike and nucleocapsid proteins and neutralizing antibodies against pseudovirus, whereas ~60% of patients had detectable IgG antibodies against receptor-binding domain and surrogate virus-neutralizing antibodies. The SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG+ memory B cell and interferon-γ-secreting T cell responses were detectable in more than 70% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-specific immune memory response persists in most patients approximately 1 year after infection, which provides a promising sign for prevention from reinfection and vaccination strategy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Adult , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
8.
J Infect Dis ; 224(4): 586-594, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225628

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The duration of humoral and T and B cell response after the infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains unclear. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study to assess the virus-specific antibody and memory T and B cell responses in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients up to 343 days after infection. Neutralizing antibodies and antibodies against the receptor-binding domain, spike, and nucleoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 were measured. Virus-specific memory T and B cell responses were analyzed. RESULTS: We enrolled 59 patients with COVID-19, including 38 moderate, 16 mild, and 5 asymptomatic patients; 31 (52.5%) were men and 28 (47.5%) were women. The median age was 41 years (interquartile range, 30-55). The median day from symptom onset to enrollment was 317 days (range 257 to 343 days). We found that approximately 90% of patients still have detectable immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies against spike and nucleocapsid proteins and neutralizing antibodies against pseudovirus, whereas ~60% of patients had detectable IgG antibodies against receptor-binding domain and surrogate virus-neutralizing antibodies. The SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG+ memory B cell and interferon-γ-secreting T cell responses were detectable in more than 70% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-specific immune memory response persists in most patients approximately 1 year after infection, which provides a promising sign for prevention from reinfection and vaccination strategy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Adult , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
10.
Cytokine ; 142: 155500, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141708

ABSTRACT

We quantified the serum levels of 34 cytokines/chemokines in 30 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Elevated levels of IP-10 and IL-7 were detected in the acute and convalescent stages of the infection and were highly associated with disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Chemokine CXCL10/blood , Interleukin-7/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 897, 2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075219

ABSTRACT

The dynamics, duration, and nature of immunity produced during SARS-CoV-2 infection are still unclear. Here, we longitudinally measured virus-neutralising antibody, specific antibodies against the spike (S) protein, receptor-binding domain (RBD), and the nucleoprotein (N) of SARS-CoV-2, as well as T cell responses, in 25 SARS-CoV-2-infected patients up to 121 days post-symptom onset (PSO). All patients seroconvert for IgG against N, S, or RBD, as well as IgM against RBD, and produce neutralising antibodies (NAb) by 14 days PSO, with the peak levels attained by 15-30 days PSO. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and NAb remain detectable and relatively stable 3-4 months PSO, whereas IgM antibody rapidly decay. Approximately 65% of patients have detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ or CD8+ T cell responses 3-4 months PSO. Our results thus provide critical evidence that IgG, NAb, and T cell responses persist in the majority of patients for at least 3-4 months after infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Kinetics , Leukocyte Common Antigens/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Receptors, CCR7/metabolism
13.
J Infect Dis ; 221(12): 1948-1952, 2020 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599716

ABSTRACT

Data concerning the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in asymptomatic and paucisymptomatic patients are lacking. We report a 3-family cluster of infections involving asymptomatic and paucisymptomatic transmission. Eight of 15 (53%) members from 3 families were confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of 8 patients, 3 were asymptomatic and 1 was paucisymptomatic. An asymptomatic mother transmitted the virus to her son, and a paucisymptomatic father transmitted the virus to his 3-month-old daughter. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in the environment of 1 household. The complete genomes of SARS-CoV-2 from the patients were > 99.9% identical and were clustered with other SARS-CoV-2 sequences reported from China and other countries.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Family Health , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(9)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-306108

ABSTRACT

We investigated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) environmental contamination in 2 rooms of a quarantine hotel after 2 presymptomatic persons who stayed there were laboratory-confirmed as having coronavirus disease. We detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA on 8 (36%) of 22 surfaces, as well as on the pillow cover, sheet, and duvet cover.


Subject(s)
Bedding and Linens/virology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Fomites/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Adult , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
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